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GREAT BRITAIN, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Fourth Edition. 1897. 10 marks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 19 Plans. 

Eleventh Edition. 1898. 6 marks. 

THE UNITED STATES, with an Excursion into Mexico. 

With 19 Maps and 24 Plans. Second Edition. 1899. 12 marks. 

THE DOMINION OF CANADA, with Newfoundland and 

ALASKA. With 10 Maps and 7 Plans. 1894. 5 marks. 


Twelfth Ed 


Maps and 2 


Twelfth Ed 


Eighth Edi 




ramas. Eij 




a Panoram, 


Second Edit 


|aps and 22 Plans. 

6 marks. 

INSTANCE, with 44 
|6. 7 marks. 

ftps and 56 Plans. 

8 marks. 

ps and 15 Plans. 

5 marks. 

Eighth Edition. 

7 marks. 

Plans, and 7 Pano- 

10 marks. 

1 27 Plans. Second 

7 marks. 

laps, 14 Plans and 
5 marks. 

Maps and 13 Plans. 

5 marks. 
GREECE, With 8 Maps and 15 Plans. Second Edition. 1894. 8 marks. 

NORTHERN ITALY, including Leghorn, Florence, Ra- 
venna, with 26 Maps and 30 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1899. 8 marks. 
CENTRAL ITALY and ROME, with 11 Maps, 41 Plans, and 

a Panorama of Rome. Twelfth Edition. 1897. 7 marks 50 pf. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, etc., with 25 Maps and 16 Plans. 

Twelfth Edition. 1896. 6 marks. 

NORWAY, SWEDEN, and DENMARK, with 27 Maps. 

15 Plans, and 2 Panoramas. Sixth Edition. 1895. 10 marks. 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from London to 

PARIS. With 12 Maps and 33 Plans. Thirteenth. Edition. 1893. 6 marks. 

SPAIN and PORTUGAL, with 6 Maps and 46 Plans. 1898. 

16 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, with 49Maps, 12 Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 

Seventeenth Edition. 1897. 8 marks. 

EGYPT, and Nubia as far as the Second Cataract, with 

22 Maps, 25 Plans, and 66 Views and Vignettes. Fourth Edition. 
1S98. 15 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 20 Maps, 48 Plans, and a 

Panorama of Jerusalem. Third Edition. 1893. 12 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY, in four languages. 3 marks. 
MANUAL OF CONVERSATION, in four languages. 3 marks. 


(Couip. p. xi.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 
















Fl. 1 Kr. 



x l« 










2i| 2 






























































2i | a 
























































2i| 2 

































7i 2 






















2i| 2 






















93| 4 






— . 





7i| 2 






















2i| 2 



































Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French metre system has been in rise throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 /gths, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 

The Italian time is that of Central Europe. In official dealings the 
old-fashioned Italian way of reckoning the hours from 1 to 24 ha< again 
been introduced. Thus, alle tredici is 1 p.m., alle venti 8 p.m. * 











With 25 Maps and 35 Plans 



All rights reserved 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy pray ere: 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 




STANFORD'S Library and Travelling Map of 

Europe. Scale, 50 miles to an inch; size, 65 inches by 58. The 
Railways are accurately delineated, and the Southern shores of 
the Mediterranean are included, so that the overland route, as 
far as Suez, may be distinctly traced. Coloured, and mounted to 
fold in morocco case, ^3. 

STANFORD'S Portable Map of Europe. Show- 
ing Political Boundaries, Railways, and Submarine Telegraphs. 
Scale, 105 miles to an inch ; size, 33 inches by 30. Coloured 
and mounted to fold in case. 10s. 

STANFORD'S London Atlas Map of Europe. 

Scale, 140 miles to an inch ; size, 30 inches by 22. In case, 5s. 
The following maps from Stanford's London Atlas of Uni- 
versal Geography are sold separately, in case for pocket, price 
5s. each. 

Countries bordering on the Mediter- 

Spain and Portugal. 
North Italy. 
South Italy. 
Central Europe. 

STANFORD'S Map of the Greater Part of 

Europe. Extending from Moscow to the Atlantic, and from 
the Gulf of Bothnia to the Mediterranean. Scale, 50 miles to 
an inch ; size, 46 inches by 42. In case, 25s. 

CENTRAL EUROPE.— The maps issued by the 
Governments of the various European States are for the most 
part kept in stock : when not in stock information can be given, 
and the maps quickly obtained to order. 

Edward Stanford, 26 and 27 Cockspur Street, London, S.W. 

Denmark and Sleswig-Holstein. 
Sweden and Norway. 
German Empire. — Western. 
German Empire, — Eastern. 
Austria Hungary. 
Netherlands and Belgium. 
Balkan Peninsula. 

NORWAY.- Nissen's Travelling Map of Southern 

Norway. Scale, 12^ miles to an inch ; size, 29 inches by 44. 
In case, 10s. 6d. 

NORWAY.— The Government Amt Maps. Scale, 

3J miles to an inch. In sheets, price 2s. 6d. each. A larger 
map, on scale of 1J miles to an inch, is in course of publication, 
price 1/6 per sheet. 

NORWAY. — Willson's Handy Map of Norway, 

South of Trondjhem. Scale, 20 miles to an inch ; size, 14 inches 
by 22. Folded, 2s. 

THE TYROL. — Austrian Government Survey. 

Scale, about i£ miles to an inch. Size of each sheet, 21 inches 
by 17. Price of each sheet, is. gd. ; mounted to fold, 2s. gd. 

THE TYROL.— Map of the Eastern Alps. Issued 

by the German and Austrian Alpine Club. Scale, about 8 miles 
to an inch. Two sheets, mounted separately to fold, 10s. 6d. 

SWITZERLAND.— Stanford's New London At- 
las Map. On the scale of 8 miles to an inch, showing Passes, 
Peaks, and Glaciers. Railways and the principal Highways are 
marked, and the Hill features shown with great care and artistic 
effect. Size, 30 inches by 22. In case, 7s. 

SWITZERLAND.— The Alpine Club Map of 

Switzerland. Edited by R. C. Nichols, F.S.A. Scale 4 miles 
to an inch. Size, 60 inches by 43. In 4 sheets, mounted to fold 
in case, £2 12s. 6d. ; single sheets in case, 15s. An enlarged 
edition of the above, scale 3 miles to an inch, in 8 sheets, sold 
separately, is. 6d. per sheet. 

SWITZERLAND.— The Swiss Government Sur- 
vey Maps, on various scales are kept in stock, both in sheets, 
and mounted to fold for pocket. 

FRANCE.— Barrere's Map of France. Also com- 
prising the Basin of the Rhine and the Region of the Western 
Alps, showing Roads, Railways, Rivers, etc. In case, 30s. A 
small map, by the same engraver, 12s. 

FRANCE. — The Government Survey Maps upon 

various scales are kept in stock. Indexes and further infor- 
mation sent upon application. 

Edward Stanford, 26 and 27 Cockspur Street, London, S.W. 

FRANCE.— Cycling Maps of Normandy (Western 

and Eastern Parts), Brittany, and the Riviera. Mounted to 
fold for pocket. Price, 3/6 each. 

SPAIN.— Vogel's Map of Spain and Portugal 

(from Stieler's Hand-Atlas). Scale 24 miles to an inch. Size, 
33 inches by 27. In case, 10s. 

ITALY.— Official Map of Italy. Scale 8 miles to an 

inch. Size, 43 inches by 48. In case, 32s. 

ITALY- — The Government Survey Maps upon 

various scales are, for the most part, kept in stock, and can be 
supplied without delay. 

MEDITERRANEAN.— Petermann's Map of the 

Mediterranean Sea and surrounding Countries. Scale 55 
miles to an inch. In case, 16s. 

RUSSIA.— Kiepert's Map of Russia in Europe. 

Scale 48 miles to an inch. Size, 56 inches by 39. In case, 21s. 

The Ordnance Survey Maps. — On the scale of one 

inch to a mile are the best maps published for Walking, Driving, 
or Riding. The English maps are kept in stock mounted for the 
pocket. Price, 2s. each, or mounted and coloured, 2s. 6d. 

The Admiralty Charts and Sailing Directions are 

kept in stock and can be supplied without delay. The official 
catalogue sent post free for is. 4d. 

The Geological Survey Maps of Great Britain 

and Geological Maps of all Countries, where published in con- 
venient form, kept in stock. Catalogue and information upon 

Murray's, Baedeker's, and other hand-books. 

FOR CYCLISTS. Road Books and Maps specially 
prepared for Cycling of the Continent and British Isles, in con- 
venient forms, will always be found in stock. 

Transparent Waterproof Map Cases. 

Edward Stanford, 26 and 27 Cockspur Street, London, S.W. 


All travellers are advised to provide themselves with a Passport, 
and to have it duly vise, for the countries they propose to visit. 

British Subjects can have a Passport obtained, without further 
trouble to themselves, by sending the necessary " Recommendation " 
to Edward Stanford, Passport Agent, 26 and 27, Cockspur Street, 
Charing Cross, London, whose experience and long-established ar- 
rangements enable him to ensure Passports in proper form and duly 
vise, without personal attendance. The Passport, which is good for 
life, can be mounted on Muslin or Silk, in Roan, Morocco, or Russia 
Case. Residents in the country can have Passports obtained, com- 
pleted, and forwarded by post. 

Tourists' Writing Cases, Blotters, etc., in large 
variety of sizes and patterns. 

Polyglot "Washing Books, Luggage Labels, Tra- 
velling Inkstands, etc. 

Foreign Writing Paper & Envelopes ; also Blocks 

of Writing Paper, in octavo and quarto 

sizes, for writing on deck. 

" N.B." Stylographic, "Swift" Reservoir, "Peli- 
can " and other Fountain Pens 
kept in stock. 
And other requisites and conveniences for 


for Tourists sent Post Free on application. 

Edward Stanford, 26 and 27 Cockspur Street, London. S.W. 


The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour in one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. The Handbook 
will also , it is hoped , be the means of saving the traveller 
many a trial of temper; for there are few countries where 
the patience is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from correspondents , which he gratefully 
acknowledges , has in many cases proved most serviceable. 

The present volume, corresponding to the fifteenth Ger- 
man edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided 
into groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont , Liguria , Lombardy , Venetia , The Emilia , and 
Tuscany), each group being provided with a prefatory outline 
of the history of the district. Each section is also prefaced 
with a list of the routes it contains, and may be removed 
from the volume and used separately if desired. 

The introductory article on Art, which has special re- 
ference to Northern Italy and Florence, and the art-historical 
notices prefixed to the descriptions of the larger towns and 
principal picture-galleries are due to the late Professor Anton 


Springer, of Leipzig. In the descriptions of individual pic- 
tures the works of Morelli, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and Burck- 
hardt have been laid extensively under contribution, and also 
occasionally those of Buskin and others. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). The 
Populations are given from the most recent official sources. 

Hotels (comp. p. xix). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments the Handbook also mentions a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not unfrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reason- 
able. The value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, 
varies according to circumstances, those prefixed to town 
hotels and village inns signifying respectively that the 
establishments are good of their kind. At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasion- 
ally be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The average charges are stated in accord- 
ance with the Editor's own experience, or from the bills 
furnished to him by travellers. Although changes frequently 
take place , and prices generally have an upward tendency, 
the approximate statement of these items which is thus 
supplied will at least enable the traveller to form an estimate 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 
cluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for 
Baedeker's Handbooks. 




I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiv 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage xiv 

V. Public Safety. Beggars xv 

VI. Gratuities. Guides xv 

VII. Railways. Steam Tramways. Steamboats xvi 

VIII. Hotels xviii 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, Osterie xx 

X. Sights, Theatres, Shops, etc xxii 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxiii 

XII. Climate. "Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health xxiv 

XIII. History of Art, by Prof '. A. Springer xxix 

Route L Koutes to Italy. Page 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis 1 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola 3 

3. From Lucerne to Como (Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. . 4 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Spliigen 14 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 16 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 20 

II. Piedmont 23 

7. Turin 25 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin 39 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Tenda .... 41 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona) 44 

11. From Turin to Genoa 45 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur 49 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps 55 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella 59 

15. From Turin to Milan via Novara 60 

III. Liguria 63 

16. Genoa 64 

17. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. Riviera di Ponente .... 82 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 93 

IV. Lombardy 103 

19. Milan 105 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 136 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 142 

22. Lake of Como 143 

23. From Menaggio, on the Lake of Como, to Lugano and to 

Luino, on the Lago Maggiore 152 


Route Page 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio, on the Lake of Lugano, via 

Gallarate and Varese 155 

25. From Milan to Laveno via Saronno and Yarese .... 157 

26. From Milan to Arona -via Gallarate 158 

27. From Bellinzona to Genoa 159 

28. Lago Maggiore 161 

29. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. From Orta 

to Yarallo 170 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera 174 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 177 

32. From Milan to Bergamo 180 

33. From Milan to Verona 185 

34. Brescia 187 

35. The Brescian Alps 193 

36. The Lago di Garda 197 

V. Venetia 205 

37. Verona 207 

38. From Yerona to Mantua and Modena 220 

39. From Yerona to Yenice. Yicenza 226 

40. Padua 231 

41. From Yicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 240 

42. Yenice 242 

43. From Yenice to Trieste 303 

VI. The Emilia 313 

44. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 315 

45. From Milan to Bologna via Piacenza and Reggio . . . . 315 

46. Parma 321 

47. From Parma (Milan) to Sarzana (Spezia, Pisa) .... 327 

48. Modena 328 

49. From Padua to Bologna 333 

50. Ferrara 336 

51. Bologna 341 

52. From Bologna to Florence \ia Pistoja 361 

53. From Bologna to Ravenna 362 

54. From Ravenna (or Bologna) to Florence via Faenza. . . 373 

VII. Tuscany 375 

55. From (Genoa) Leghorn to Florence via Pisa and Empoli 378 

56. Pisa 382 

57. From Pisa to Florence via Lucca and Pistoja 394 

58. Florence 408 

59. Environs of Florence 495 

List of Artists 511 

Index 519 



1. General Map of Northern Italy (1 : 1,350,000), Western Half: 
before the title-page. 

2. General Map of Northern Italy, Eastern Half: after the Index. 

3. The Environs of Lugano (1 : 150,000): p. 10. 

4. The Eastern Environs of Turin (1 : 66,200) : p. 27. 

5. The Graian Alps (1 : 250,000): p. 56. 

6. The Environs of Genoa (1 : 100,000) : p. 82. 

7. 8. The Riviera di Ponente from Genoa to Ventimiglia (1 : 500,000) : 

pp. 84, 88. 

9. The Environs of Bordighera (1 : 50,000): p. 91. 

10. The Riviera di Levante from Genoa to Spezia (1 : 500,000) : p. 94. 

11. The Environs of Rapallo (Recco-Chiavari ; 1:100,000): p. 96. 

12. The Environs of Spezia (1 : 100,000) : p. 98. 

13. The Environs of Pavia (1 : 86,400) : p. 136. 

14. Railway Map of the Environs of Milan (1 : 500,000) : p. 137. 

15. The Environs of Como (1 : 28,000): p. 140. 

16. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (1 : 250,000) : p. 144. 

17. Lago Maggiore and Lago d'Orta (1 : 250,000): p. 162. 

18. The Environs of Pallanza (1 : 65,000) : p. 166. 

19. The Environs of Stresa (1 : 65,000): p. 167. 

20. Lago di Garda (1 : 500,000) : p. 197. 

21. The Environs of Bologna (1 : 86,400): p. 362. 

22. The Environs of Ravenna (1 : 86,400) : p. 363. 

23. The Environs of Florence (1 : 55,000) : p. 495. 

24. Environs of Vallombrosa and Camaldoli (1 : 280,000): p. 506. 

25. Key Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000) : at the end of the Handbook. 

Plans of Towns. 

1. Bergamo (1 : 25,000). — 2. Bologna (1 : 13,350). — 3. Bor- 
dighera (1 : 20,000). — 4. Brescia (1 : 18,300). — 5. Cremona 
(1 : 15,000). — 6. Ferrara (1 : 20,000). — 7. Florence(i : 10,000). 

— 8. Genoa (1 : 10,000). — 9. Leghorn (1 : 36,800). — 10. Lucca 
[1 : 27,000). — 11. Lugano (1 : 16,600). — 12. Mantua (1 : 18,000). 

— 13. Milan (1 : 17,500). — 14. Modena (1 : 12,000). — 15. 
Novara (1:12,500). — 16. Padua (1:16,700). — 17. Parma 
(1 : 13,000). — 18. Pavia (1 : 20,000). — 19. Piacenza (1 : 20,000). 

— 20. Pisa (1 : 8500). — 21. Pistoja (1 : 15,600). — 22. Ravenna 
(1:11,150). — 23. Reggio (1:14,000), with Environs. — 24. 
San Remo (1:17,100). — 25. Treviso (1:12,000). — 26. Turin 
(1 : 23,500). — 27. Udine (1 : 16,500). — 28. Venice (1 : 12,500), 
with Environs. — 29. Verona(l : 11,500). — 30: Vicenza (1 : 18,000). 

Ground Plans of Buildings. 

1,2. The Church of St. Mark and the Palace of the Doges at 
Venice. — 3. The Academy at Venice. — 4. The Academy at Bologna. 

— 5. The Uffizi Gallery at Florence. 


Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Albert enters 
Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at 
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('Re Bomba 1 ). — May 29. Radetzky's 
victory at Curtatone. — May 30. Radetzky defeated at Goito; capit- 
ulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

— Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. — Aug. 9. Armistice. — 
Nov. 25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — March 16. Charles Albert 
terminates the armistice (ten days 1 campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's 
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of 
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice ; Alessandria occupied 
by the Austrians. — Mar. 31. Haynau conquers Brescia. — April 5. 
Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi 
defeats the French under Oudinot. — May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

— July 4. Rome capitulates. — Aug. 6. Peace concluded between 
Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. — 
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — July 11. Meeting of the emperors 
at Villafranca. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia. — Mar. 22. Annexation of 
Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi 
lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of Palermo. — July 20. Battle 
of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. — Sept. 18. Battle 
of Castelndardo. — Sept. 29. Ancona capitulates. — Oct. 1. Battle of 
the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexa- 
tion of the principalities, TJmbria, and the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates. — March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes 
the title of king of Italy. — June 6. Death of Cavour. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20. 
Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome 

declared the capital of Italy. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. — 

Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 


M. = Engl. mile. 

hr. == hour. 

min. = minute. 

Alb. = Albergo (hotel). 

Omn. = omnibus. 

N. = north, northwards, northern. 

S. = south, etc. (also supper). 

E. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 

R. = room. 

B. = breakfast. 

D. = dinner. 

A. = attendance. 

L. = light. 

dej. = dejeuner 'a la fourchette\ 

pens. = pension (i.e. board and 

fr. = franc (Ital. lira). 

Distances. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway 
or highroad indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. The number of feet given after the name 
of a place shows its height above the sea-level. 

Asterisks. Objects of special interest and hotels which are believed 
worthy of special commendation are denoted by asterisks. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes 1 fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.'' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends, of course, on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much-frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, when in Italy, may be 
estimated at 20-30 francs per day, or at 10-15 francs when a pro- 
longed stay is made at one place ; but persons acquainted with the 
language and habits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo 
or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi, while a piece 
of 20 c. in nickel was introduced in 1894. In silver there are pieces 
of Y25 lj 2, and 5 fr., and in gold pieces of 10 and 20 fr. In con- 
sequence of the present financial stringency, however, the gold and 
silver coins have disappeared almost entirely from circulation. Their 
place is taken by Buoni di Cassa of 1 and 2 fr., Biglietti di Stato 
(treasury-notes) of 5, 10, and 25 fr., and the banknotes of the 
Banca Nazionale nel Regno d' Italia, the Banca Nazionale Toscana, 
and the Banca Toscana di Credito. These last are being gradually 
replaced by the notes of the Banca d'ltalia. The banknotes of 
Naples and Sicily are seldom met with in N. Italy. All other bank- 
notes should be refused. — The francs and copper coins of France 
and the other countries of the Latin Monetary League are usually 
refused. — A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo, or sou, and as the 
lower classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller will 
find it useful to accustom himself to this mode of reckoning {died 
soldi = 50 c, dodici soldi = 60 c, etc.). 

Best Monet for the Toub. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, ob- 
tainable at the principal English or American banks, form the proper 
medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the most favourable 
exchange. English and German banknotes also realise their nominal 

xii SEASON. 

value. Sovereigns (26-27 fr.) and the gold coins of the Latin Monetary 
League are received at their full value, but should be exchanged for notes 
at a money-changer's, as the premium (ca. 5 per cent) is lost in hotels 
and shops. This remark also applies to the Italian five-franc pieces (scudi). 
It may prove convenient to procure a small supply of Italian paper-money 
before starting. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in the 
larger towns , either at one of the English bankers or at a respectable 
money-changer's Ccambiavaluta'). As a rule, those money-changers are 
the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of 
exchange. The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of small notes, at it is often difficult to change those of large 
amount. Besides the small notes, I-IV2 fr- in copper should also be carried 
in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10?., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates: up to 21., %d. ; 
El., Is. ; 71., Is. Qd.; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The identity of 
the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by a Libretto di Ricognizione Postale (1 fr. ; with 10 coupons), obtained 
at any head post-office, but an exhibition of the passport often suffices. 
The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 
40c. per il. sterling. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

Season. As a general rule, the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in North Italy, especially April and May 
or September and October. "Winter in Lombardy and Piedmont is 
generally a much colder season than it is in England, but the Lig- 
urian Riviera (Genoa excepted), Pisa, and Venice afford pleasant 
and sheltered quarters. The height of summer can hardly be recom- 
mended for travelling. The scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, 
and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising 
traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to im- 
pair the physical and mental energies. 

Plan. The following short itinerary , beginning and ending at 
Milan, though very far from exhausting the beauties of North Italy, 
includes most of the places usually visited, with the time required 
for a glimpse at each. 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, p. 134) . . . 2 1 /? 
To the Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, and Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 

23, 28) and on to Turin 2 J /2 

Turin (R. 7) 1 

From Turin to Genoa (R. 11) 1/2 

Genoa (R. 16), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 84) . 2 

Via, Spezia to Pisa, see R. 18 •, Pisa (R. 56) l'/z 

Via, Lucca and Pistoja to Florence, see R. 57 1 

Florence (R. 58) 6 

From Florence to Faenza and Ravenna (R. 54) V2 

Ravenna (R. 53) 1 

From Ravenna to Bologna (R. 53) V2 

Bologna (R. 51) IV2 

From Bologna via, Ferrara to Padua (R. 49) 1 

[Or to Modena (R. 48) and Parma (R. 46), see R. 45 . . : . . . l l / 2 
From Modena via, Mantua to Verona (see R. 38) and via, Vicenza 
to Padua (see R. 39)] IV2] 



Padua (R. 40), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 42) 4 

From Venice (via Vieenza) to Verona (R. 37), see R. 39 .... 2 
[Excursion to Mantua (p. 221), when the way from Modena to Verona 

via Mantua is not adopted 1] 

Lago di Garda (R. 36) l 1 ^ 

From Desenzano via Brescia (R. 34) and Bergamo to Milan (RR. 33, 32) 1 
To those who wish to visit only a part of North Italy (whether 
the eastern or western), the following itineraries may be recom- 
mended: — 

a. Eastern Part, starting from the Brenner Railway. Days 

From Trent or Mori to Riva (p. 201), Lago di Garda (R. 36). . . IV2 

Verona (R. 37) 1 

Excursion to Mantua (p. 221) 1 

From Verona via Vieenza (p. 227) to Padua 1 

Padua (R. 40), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 42) 4 

From Venice via Ferrara (R. 50) to Bologna 1 

Bologna (R. 51) l'/z 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 53) 1 

From Bologna to Modena (R. 48) and Parma (R. 46), see R. 45 . . IV2 

From Parma via Piacenza (p. 316) to Milan V2 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, p. 134) . . . 2 1 / 2 
Lago Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, Lago di Como (RR. 22, 23, 28), and 

from Lecco via Bergamo and Brescia (R. 32) to Verona . . . 3'/2 

b. Western Part, starting from the St. Gotthard, Spliigen, or Simplon. 

Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 23, 28) . 2 

Milan (R. 19) 2 

■ From Milan to Turin (R. 15) 1 

Turin (R. 7), and thence to Genoa (R. 11) 1 

Genoa (R. 16), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 84) . 2 

Excursion to San Remo and Bordighera (R. 17) 3 

From Genoa via Voghera and Pavia (Certosa, p. 134) to Milan . . IV2 

The traveller entering Italy for the first time should do so, if 
the season be favourable, not by rail, but by one of the Alpine passes 
(Spliigen, Simplon, etc.), as only thus will he obtain an adequate 
idea of the full ethnographical significance of the Alps, which 
conceal so new and so strange a world from northern Europe. The 
luxurious character of the Italian climate, vegetation, and scenery, 
the soft richness of the language, and the courtly manners of the 
upper classes all present a striking contrast to the harsher and 
rougher characteristics of German Switzerland or Tyrol. On no 
account, however, should he traverse these passes at night, and he 
should always inform himself beforehand of the condition of the 
diligence, and raise an energetic protest against broken windows 
and similar inconveniences. In spring it is advisable to wear co- 
loured spectacles as a precaution against the dazzling reflection 
from the extensive snow-fields (p. xxviii). 


III. Language. 

It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian and 
French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such trav- 
ellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese* by hotel-keepers 
and others, t. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Home and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, and who dislike being im- 
posed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable- Those who know a little Italian , and who take 
the usual precaution of ascertaining charges beforehand (con- 
trattare , bargain) in the smaller hotels , in dealings with drivers, 
gondoliers, guides, etc., and in shops, will rarely meet with attempts 
at extortion in Northern Italy, t 

IY. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The count- 
enance and help of the English and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through C. Smith & Son, 
63 Charing Cross, Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand, E. Stanford, 26 Cock- 
spur Street, Charing Cross, or W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street (charge 2s. ; 
agent's fee 1*. 6d.). 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
frontier railway-stations is generally lenient, but complaints are 
sometimes made as to a deficiency of official courtesy at diligence 
and steamer stations. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass free), playing 
cards, and matches are the articles chiefly sought for. A duty of 
30 c. per kilogramme (2*^ lbs.) is levied on unexposed photograph 
plates. Cyclists must deposit 40 fr. (gold) as a guarantee that their 
wheel is not for sale, but this sum is refunded when they leave the 
country (members of the Touring Club de France are exempt). The 
custom-house receipts should be preserved, as travellers are some- 
times challenged by the excise officials in the interior. At the gates of 

+ A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un- 
acquainted with the language. G before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or », are hard. Sc before e 
or t is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
His silent. The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella'' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro 1 with 
the 3rd pers. pi). 'Voi 1 is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., Hu" 1 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi 1 is the usual mode 
of address among the Neapolitans, but elsewhere is generally regarded as 
inelegant or discourteous. 


most of the Italian towns a tax (dazio consumo) is levied oh comest- 
ibles, but travellers' luggage is passed at the barriers (limite daziario) 
on a simple declaration that it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible , luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person (comp. p. xvii). 

V. Public Safety. Beggars. 

Public Safety in Northern Italy is on as stable a footing as to the 
N. of the Alps. Travellers will naturally avoid lonely quarters 
after night-fall. The policeman in the town is called Ouardia; 
the gend'arme in the country, Carabiniere (black coat with red 
facings and cocked hats). No one may carry weapons without a 
licence. Concealed weapons (sword-sticks ; even knives with spring- 
blades, etc.) are absolutely prohibited. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances 
to which the traveller must accustom himself. It is most prevalent 
at church-doors, but has also begun to increase again on roads and 
streets. The beggars of Venice and other large cities are not unfre- 
quently in the hands of speculators, who maintain them throughout 
the year and pocket the rich harvest of the travelling season. Those 
who wish to help the poor of Italy may best do so by sending a 
subscription (most conveniently by a cartolina vaglia, p. xxiv) to 
the Congregazioni di Carita or the Societh contro VAccattonaggio. — 
Importunate beggars should be dismissed with 'niente' or by a 
gesture of negation. 

VI. Gratuities. Guides. 
Gratuities. — The traveller should always be abundantly 
supplied with copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are in constant demand. Drivers, guides, and other persons of the 
same class invariably expect, and often demand as their right, a 
gratuity (luona mano , mancia, da here, sigaro) in addition to the 
hire agreed on , varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous 
to a franc or more. The traveller need have no scruple in 
limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums. The following 
hints will be found useful by the average tourist. In private collec- 
tions 1-2 visitors should bestow a gratuity of ^-l **•> 3-4 pers. 
I-IY2 fr. For repeated visits 25 c. is enough for a single visitor. 
For opening a church-door, etc., 10-20 c. is enough, but if extra 
services are rendered (e.g. uncovering an altar-piece, lighting 
candles, etc.) from Y 4 to 1 fr. may be given. The Custodi of all 


public collections where an admission-fee is charged are forbidden 
to accept gratuities. 

In hotels and restaurants about 5-10 per cent of the reckoning 
should be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. When 
'service' and 'couvert' appear on the bill, especially if it is for a 
'single meal, no fees should be given. 

Valets de Place (Guide, sing, la Ouida) may be hired at 6-10 fr. 
per day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief 
hotels. In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 
'Guide patentate'. Their services may generally well be dispensed 
with by those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should never 
be made , nor contracts with vetturini or other persons drawn up, 
in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, as any such inter- 
vention tends considerably to increase the prices. 

VII. Railways. Steam Tramways. Steamboats. 

Railways. — For visitors to Northern Italy the most important 
railways are the Rete Mediterranean the Rete Adriatica, and the 
Ferrovie Nord Milano, the last affording quick and convenient access 
to the Lake of Como and the Lago Maggiore. The rate of travelling 
is very moderate, rarely reaching 30 M. per hour. The first-class 
carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second resemble the English 
and French, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower 
orders. Sleeping-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on all the main 
lines at a small extra charge. Railway-time is that of Central Europe. 

Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller will soon 
become familiar are — '•pronW (ready), i partenza' (departure), l si cambia 
trenf (change carriages), 'essere in coincidenza' (to make connection), and 
'•u&citcC (egress). The station-master is called i capostazione\ Smoking 
compartments are labelled ''pei fumatori\ those for non-smokers '£ vielato 
di fumare\ The mail trains are called Trent Direttissimi (1st and 2nd class 
only ; sometimes with dining and sleeping cars) and the ordinary expresses 
Trent Diretti. The Trent Accelerate are somewhat faster than the Trent 
Omnibus. The Treni Misti are composed partly of passenger carriages and 
partly of goods-waggons. The fares are about 4 /s d. per mile for third 
class, l l /\od. for second class, and l z /bd. for first class. The fares of the 
Rete Adriatica and Rete Mediterranea as given in this Handbook and in 
the railway time-tables, have recently been (temporarily) raised by a tax 
of from one to ten per cent according to distance and kind of train. — The 
freedom with which Italian passengers expectorate makes their absence 
often preferable to their company. 

At the larger towns it is better, when possible, to take the 
tickets at the town-agencies of the railway. When tickets are taken 
at the station, the traveller will find it convenient to have as nearly 
as possible the exact fare ready in his hand. 'Mistakes' are far from 
uncommon on the part of the ticket- clerks. Besides the fare, a tax 
of 5 c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are 10-20 
per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also important to be at the 
station early. The ticket-office at large stations is open 1 hr., at 
small stations V4~V2 nr - before the departure of the train. Ticket- 


holders alone have the right of admission to the waiting-rooms. 
At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscfta. 

Passengers by night-trains from the larger stations may hire pillows 
(cuscino, guanciale; 1 fr.). These must not be removed from the compartment. 

The traveller should, if possible, know the weight of his lug- 
gage approximately , in order to guard against imposition (1 kilo- 
gramme = about 2y 5 lbs.). No luggage is allowed free, except 
small articles taken by the passenger into his carriage ; the rate of 
charge is 4y 2 c. for 100 kilogrammes per kilometre. The luggage 
ticket is called lo scontrino. Porters (facchini) who convey luggage to 
and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where 
there is no fixed tariff; and their impudent attempts at extortion 
should be firmly resisted. Travellers who can confine their imped- 
imenta to articles which they can carry themselves and take into 
the carriages with them will be spared much expense and annoyance. 
Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, especially 
when the town or village lies at some distance from the railway, 
had better leave their heavier luggage at the station till their return 
{dare in deposito , or depositare ; 5 c. per day for each piece, min- 
imum 10 c). Luggage, however, may be sent on to the final des- 
tination, though the traveller himself break the journey. At small 
stations the traveller should at once look after his luggage in person. 

During the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of pass- 
engers 1 luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any 
trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem (comp. p. xv). 

The enormous weight of the large trunks used by some travellers not 
infrequently causes serious injury to the porters who have to handle them. 
Heavy articles should therefore always be placed in the smaller packages. 

The best collections of time-tables are the Indicators Ufficiale 
delle Strade Ferrate, etc. (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo 
at Turin ; price 1 fr.) and the Orario del Movimento Treni e Piro- 
scafi (published by Arnaboldi at Florence ; 1 fr.). Smaller editions, 
serving for ordinary purposes, are issued at 50 c. and 20 c. 

The Combination Through Tickets (biglietti di viaggio ad iti- 
nerario combinable) , issued by the Italian railways, are available 
for 15-45 days and offer a saving of 20-30 per cent. Regular Cir- 
cular Tickets (viaggi circolari) are now seldom used except for 
the Italian lakes. Tickets of both these kinds may be procured in 
London (at the principal stations of the southern railways ; from 
Messrs. Cook & Son , Ludgate Circus, Messrs. Gaze & Sons , 142 
Strand, etc.), in Paris, and at the chief towns of Germany and 
Switzerland. If the tickets are bought in Italy, with paper money, 
the traveller has the advantage of the premium on gold. Those with 
whom economy is an object may also save a good deal by taking 
return-tickets to the Swiss frontier, travelling third class in Switzer - 
land, and then taking circular-tour tickets in Italy. 

These tickets have to be signed by the traveller and require to be 
stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name of the next station 
at which the traveller intends to halt. This may be done either at the 

xviii STEAMERS. 

city-office or at the railway-station. If the traveller makes up his mind 
en route to alight before the station for which his ticket has been stamped, 
he must at once apply to the capostazione for recognition of the break 
in the journey ( i accerlare il carnbiamento di destinazione"). When the trav- 
eller quits the prescribed route, intending to rejoin it at a point farther 
on, he has also to procure an i annotazione'' at the station where he alights, 
enabling him to resume his circular tour after his digression Cvale per 
riprendere alia stazione . . ■ il viaggio interrotto a . . .'). If this ceremony 
be neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay full fare for the 
omitted portion of the route for which the ticket is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) may often be 
advantageously used for short excursions. They are generally avail- 
able for one day only, but those issued on Saturdays and the eves 
of festivals are available for three, those issued on Sundays and fes- 
tivals for two days. It should also be observed that if the traveller 
alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the part of 
the ticket between this point and the station to which the ticket is 
issued; he may, however, use his ticket for returning from the station 
at which he alighted. 

N. Italy is covered with an extensive network of Steam Tram- 
ways ( Tramvia a Vapore) and Electric Bailways, which are on 
the whole of little importance for the tourist, but facilitate a visit 
to several interesting little towns at some distance from the great 
railway-routes. The rate of speed attained on them is about half 
that of the ordinary railways, and the fares are considerably lower. 
Details are given in the Orario Generate di tutte le Ferrovie dell' 
Alta Italia, published at Milan (10 c. ; for Tuscany, see p. 411). 

Steamers. The time-tables of the steamer-routes are given in 
the larger railway-guides mentioned at p. xvii. 

On the Italian Lakes the tickets are distributed on board. Passengers 
embarking at intermediate stations receive checks which they show on 
purchasing their tickets. There is no extra charge for embarking at 
small-boat stations. Return-tickets, unless otherwise marked, are good 
for the day of issue only. 

In the proper season a steamer trip on the Mediterranean, especially 
between Genoa, Spezia, and Leghorn, or on the Adriatic, between Venice 
and Trieste, is a very charming experience. Tickets should be taken in 
person at the steamboat-agencies. Ladies should travel first-class , but 
gentlemen of modest requirements will find the second cabin very fair. 
The inadequate arrangements for embarking and disembarking give great 
annoyance and are a distinct reproach to the steamboat-companies. The 
passengers are generally left at the mercy of the boatmen, who make the 
most extortionate demands in spite of the tariff. The traveller should 
not enter the boat until a clear bargain has been made for the transport 
of himself and his impedimenta, and should not pay until everything has 
been deposited on deck or on shore. Small articles of luggage should be 
kept in one's own hands. — The steward expects a gratuity of about 1 fr. 
per day, or more if the traveller has given him extra trouble. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, most of them 
having fixed charges: room 272-5 fr. , bougie 75 c. to O/2 fr-> attend- 

HOTELS. xix 

ance (exclusive of the 'facchino' and portler) 1 fr., table-d'hote 
4-6 fr. The charge for dinner does not include wine, which is 
usually dear and often poor. For a prolonged stay an agreement may 
generally be made with the landlord for pension at a more moder- 
ate rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table-d'hote ; other- 
wise the charge for rooms is apt to be raised. The charges for meals 
furnished in private rooms or at unusual times are much higher. 
Other 'extras' are also dear. The cuisine is a mixture of French and 
Italian. During the season and at the more frequented resorts it 
is advisable to engage rooms in advance , especially if arriving in 
the evening. Luggage may be left at the station until rooms have 
been secured. The charge for the use of the hotel-omnibus from the 
station to the hotel is so high (l-li/ 2 fr.), that it is often cheaper to 
take a cab. It is also easier for those who use a cab to proceed to 
another hotel, should they not like the rooms offered them. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements, and are rarely very clean or comfortable. The charges 
are little more than one-half of the above: room 1-3, attendance 
V2, omnibus i/ 2 -l fr. They have no table-d'hote, but there is gen- 
erally a trattoria connected with the house, where refreshments d la 
carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso, may be procured at any hour. Fair 
native wines, usually on draught, are furnished in these houses at 
moderate prices. Morning coffee is usually taken at a cafe' and not 
at the inn. It is customary to make enquiries beforehand as to 
the charges for rooms, not forgetting the servizio e candela; and 
the price of the dinner (if not a la carte) should also be agreed upon 
(2-4 fr., with wine 2i/ 2 -472 fr.). These inns will often be found con- 
venient and economical by the voyageur en garcon, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies, when at home in 
Italian ; the new-comer should frequent hotels of the first class only. 
— As matches are rarely found in these hotels, the guest should 
provide himself with a supply of the wax-matches (cerini) sold in 
the streets (1-2 boxes 5 c). Soap is also a high-priced 'extra'. 

Money or objects of value should either be carried on the trav- 
eller's person or left with the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The Pensions of the larger towns and resorts also receive passing 
travellers. The charge is about the same as that of the second-class 
inns and usually includes table-wine. As, however, the price of 
dejeuner is usually (though not universally) included in the fixed 
daily charge, the traveller has either to sacrifice some of thebest hours 
for visiting the galleries or to pay for a meal he does not consume. 

Hotels Garnis are to be found in most of the larger towns, 
with charges for rooms similar to those in the second-class hotels. 

For a prolonged stay in one place families will find it much 
cheaper to hire Private Apartments and do their own housekeep- 
ing. A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand. 



When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on 
stamped paper should he drawn up with the aid of someone ac- 
quainted with the language and customs of the place {e.g. a hanker), 
in order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. For single 
travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, stoves 
and carpets in winter , a receptacle for coal , and other details will 
generally suffice. A rent lower than that first asked for is often 
taken. Comp. p. xxviii. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of 
their climate. The traveller in N. Italy will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming even in hotels of the second class; but those who quit the beaten 
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be 
selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect- 
powder (polvere insetticida or contro gli insetti) or camphor somewhat repels 
their advances. The zanzare, or mosquitoes, are a source of great annoyance, 
and often of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should al- 
ways be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light 
muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and 
gloves are employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious in- 
truders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also recom- 
mended, and pastilles (fidibus contro le zanzare) may be purchased at the 
principal chemists' for the same purpose (see p. 243). A weak solution 
of carbolic acid in water is efficacious in allaying the discomforts oc- 
casioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, 
il solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino ; drawers, le mutande; woollen under- 
shirt, una flanella or giubba di flanella ; petticoat, la sotlana ; stocking, 
la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletlo (di seta). To give 
out to wash, dare a bucato (dibucato, newly washed); washing list, la nota; 
washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants of the first class (Bistoranti) in the larger towns re- 
semble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high charges. 
— The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly frequented by 
Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, but those of the better 
class may be visited by ladies also. They are frequented chiefly 
between 5 and 8. Breakfast or a light luncheon before 1 o'clock may 
be more conveniently obtained at a cafe (p. xxii). Dinner (pranzo) 
may be obtained alia carta for 1V2-3 fr., and sometimes aprezzo fisso 
for 2-5 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi (comp. p. xvi). 
The diner who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable 
limits should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill 
of fare. The waiter is called cameriere (or bottega~), but the approved 
way of attracting his attention is by knocking on the table. If too 
importunate in his recommendations or suggestions he may be 
checked with the word l basta\ The diner calls for his bill (which 
should be carefully scrutinized) with the words l il conto\ 



List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Antipasti, Principii, relishes taken as 
whets (such as sardines, olives, or 
Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 
Brodo or Consume, broth or bouil- 
Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Onocchi, small dumplings. 
Minestra di riso conpiselli, rice-soup 

with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al sugo e 
al burro, with sauce and butter; 
al pomidoro, with tomatoes. 
Salami, sausage (usually with garlic, 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Potaggio di polio, chicken-fricassee. 
Anitra, duck. 
Oallinaccio, turkey. 
Stufatino, Cibreo, ragout. 
Crochetti, croquettes. 
Pasticcio, pat^, patty. 
Erie, vegetables. 

Contorno, Quamizione , garnishing, 
vegetables, usually not charged for. 
Asparagi, asparagus. 
Spinaci, spinach. 

Came lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 
umido, alia genovese, with sauce; 
ben cotto , well-done; al sangue, 
aW inglese , underdone ; ai ferri, 
cooked on the gridiron. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, una Frittura, fried meat. 
Fritto misto, a mixture of fried liver, 

brains, artichokes, etc. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Majale, pork. 
Montone, mutton. 
Agnello, lamb. 
Capretlo, kid. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Testa di vitello, calf s head. 
F&gato di vitello, calf s liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Rognoni, kidneys. 
Costoletta alia minuta. 

with calves 1 ears and truffles ; alia 
Milanese, baked in dough. 
Esgaloppe , veal-cutlet with bread- 
Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Pesce, fish. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, bam. 
Uova, eggs ; da bere, soft-boiled ; dure, 

hard-boiled; al pialto, poached. 
Polenta, boiled maize. 
Jnsalata, salad. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchie, lentils. 
Gavoli fiori, cauliflower. 
Qobbi, Cardi, artichoke stalks (with 

Zucchino, marrow, squash. 
Fare, beans. 

Fagiolini, Gornetti, French beans. 
Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Mostarda inglese or 
Senape, hot mustard. 
Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 

Ostnche, oysters (good in winter 

Dolce, sweet dish. 

Zuppa inglese, a favourite sweet dish. 
Budino (in Florence), pudding. 
Frutta, Giardinetto, fruit-desert. 

Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 

Pomi, Mete, apples. 

P&rsici, Pesche, peaches. 

Uva, bunch of grapes. 

Fichi, figs. 

Noci, nuts. 

Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or portogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with yeast 
(the Italian is made without). 

Formaggio, cacio, cheese (Oorgonzola, 

veal- cutlet 

The Wine Shops (Osterie) are almost exclusively frequented 
by the lower ranks, except in Tuscany. Bread , cheese , and eggs 
are usually the only viands provided. 

Wine (vino da pasto, table-wine; nero, red; bianco, white; dolce, 
pastoso, sweet; asciutto, dry; del paese, nostramo, wine of the country) is 
usually supplied in bottles one-half, one-fourth, or one-fifth of a litre (un 

xxii CAFES. 

mezzo litro; tin quarto; un quinto or bicchiere). The prices are often in- 
scribed on the outside of the shop C&\ '7', '8', meaning that half-a-litre 
costs 6, 7, or 8 soldi). Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary 
quarts and pints. 

In the Nokth of Italy the following are the best wines : the care- 
fully manufactured Piedmontese brands, Barolo, Nebiolo, Grignolino, Bar- 
bara, and the sparkling Asti spnmante; Valtellina, known also in E. Switzer- 
land; the Vincentine Marzemino and Breganze (a white sweet wine); the 
Paduan Bagnoli; the Veronese Vaipolicella; in the province of Treviso, 
Conegliano , Raboso di Piave , Prosecco, and Verdiso; in Udine , Refosco; 
the wine of Bologna, partly from French vineyards; Lambrusco, etc. 

In Tuscany the best wines (almost all red) are: Chianti (best Broglio), 
Rufina (best Pomino), Nipozzano, Allomena, and Cavmignano, and AleaHco 
(sweet). Orvieto and Montepulciano are produced farther to the south. — 
In Tuscany a 'fiasco 1 , or straw-covered flask holding three ordinary bottles, 
is generally brought, but only the quantity consumed is paid for. Smaller 
bottles may be obtained: mezzo fiasco (V2), quarto fiasco ( l Ji), ottavino 0/s). 

Beer Houses (Birrerie) are now found in all the larger towns 
and chief resorts of visitors. Munich, Pilsen, or Gratz beer may 
generally be procured at these. A small glass (tazza) costs 30-40 c, 
a large glass (generally holding un mezzo litro) 50-60 c. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon, and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices, coffee, beer, vermouth (usu- 
ally with Seltzer water), etc. The tobacco smoke is often very dense. 

Caffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (15-25 c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served (30-50 c); or 
caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred. Choco- 
late (cioccolata) costs 30-50 c. Roll (pane) 5, with butter (pane al burro) 
20 c. Cakes or biscuits (paste) 5-15 c. 

Ices (gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the cafes at 
30-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (mezzo) may be ordered. Sorbetto, 
or half-frozen ice, is much in vogue in the forenoon. Granita is water- 
ice (limonata, lemon; aranciata, orange; di caffe, coffee). Gassosa, aerated 
lemonade, is also frequently ordered. The waiters expect a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment. 

The principal Parisian and Viennese newspapers (giomali) are to be 
found at all the larger cafe's, English less often. Italian papers (5-10 c.) 
are everywhere offered by newsvendors. The Gorriera delta Sera (p. 108) 
gives most of the foreign despatches. 

Cigars (Sigari) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. 
The prices of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani, Virginias, Ca- 
vours, Napoletani, Minghetti, Trabucos, etc.) vary from 7^2 to 20 c. 
Good imported cigars may be bought at the better shops in the large 
towns for 25-60 c. each, and also foreign cigarettes. 

X. Sights, Theatres, Shops, etc. 
The larger Churches are open in the morning till 12, and generally 
again from 2, 3, or 4 to 7 p.m., while the most important are often 
open the whole day. Many of the smaller churches are open only 
till 8 or 9 a.m. Visitors may inspect the works of art even during 
divine service , provided they move about noiselessly , and keep 
aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the occasion 
of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the works of art 
are often entirely concealed by the temporary decorations. Those 


always covered are shown by the verger (sagrestano or nonzolo), who 
expects 30-50 c. from a single traveller, more from a party (p. xv). 

Museums, picture-galleries, etc., are usually open from 9 or 10 
to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong to government are 
open on week-days at a charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays gratis. 
Artists are admitted without charge. Gratuities are forbidden. 

The collections are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during the 
Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day (Ascensione), Whit- 
sunday, Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto (first Sun- 
day in June), Assumption of the Virgin (Assunzione ; 15th Aug.), Nativity 
of the Virgin (8th Sept.), Festival of the Annunciation (25th Mar.), All 
Saints 1 Day (1st Nov.), and on Christmas Day. A good many other days 
are also sometimes observed as holidays, such as the Thursday before the 
Carnival (Giovedi grasso), the day sacred to the local patron-saint, and 
the birthdays of the king (14th Mar.) and queen (20th Nov.). 

Theatres. Performances begin at 8, 8.30, or 9, and terminate at mid- 
night or later. In the large theatres operas and ballets are exclus- 
ively performed. The first act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea), to which the 
'biglietto d'ingreszo 1 gives access, is the usual resort of the men, 
while the boxes and sometimes the stalls (scanni chiusi, sedie chiuse, 
poltrone, or posti distinti) are frequented by ladies. A box (palco), 
which must always be secured in advance, is, however, the pleas- 
antest place for ladies or for a party of several persons. Evening 
dress is generally worn in the boxes. The theatre is the usual 
evening-resort of the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence 
during the performance of the orchestra. The instrumental music is 
seldom good. The intervals between the acts are usually very long. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. It is generally enough to offer 
two-thirds or three-fourths of the price demanded ('contrattare, to 
bargain). l Non volete ?' (then you will not) is a remark which usually 
has the effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Pur- 
chases should never be made in presence of a valet-de-place or 
through the agency of a hotel-employee. These individuals, by tacit 
agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the purchase-money, 
which of course comes out of the purchaser's pocket. On the other 
hand, the presence of an Italian friend is a distinct advantage. 

Some caution is necessary in buying articles to be sent home. The 
full amount should never be paid until the package has arrived and its 
contents have been examined. If the shop-keeper does not agree to a written 
agreement as to the juethod of packing, the means of transport, and com- 
pensation for breakages, it is advisable to cut the transaction short. The 
transmission of large objects should be entrusted to a goods-agent. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post Office is open daily from 8 a.m. to 
8 or 8.30 p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places 
it is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 


Letters (whether 'poste restante\ Italian 'ferma in posta , or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. The surname (cognome ; 
Christian name, nome) should be underlined. When asking for let- 
ters the traveller, should show his visiting-card instead of pronounc- 
ing his name. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post- 
offices and tobacco-shops. The mail-boxes (buca or cassetta) are lab- 
elled 'per le lettered for letters, and l per le stampe\ for printed matter. 

Letters of 15 grammes (V2 oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5 c, to the rest of Italy 20 c, abroad (per Festero) to any of 
the states included in the postal union (now comprising the whole of 
Europe as well as the United States, Canada, etc.) 25c. The penalty 
(segnatasta) for insufficiently prepaid letters is double the deficiency. — 
Post Cakds (cartolina postale) for both Italy and abroad (per Testero) 10 c, 
reply-cards (con risposta pagata), inland 15 c, abroad 20c. Post-cards with 
views on them pay letter-rates if sent abroad. — Letter Cards (biglietlo 
postale) for the city 5 c, for Italy 20 c, for foreign countries 25 c. — 
Book Packets (stampe sotto fascia), 2 c. per 50 grammes, for abroad 
5 c. — Registration Fee (raccomandazione) for letters for the same town 
and printed matter 10 c, otherwise 25 c. The packet or letter must be 
inscribed 'raccomandata'', and the stamps must be affixed in front at the 
different corners. — Post Office Orders, see p. xii. Sums not exceed- 
ing 25 fr. may be sent within Italy by the so-called cartolina vaglia (fee 
20 c. for 1-5 fr. and 5 c. for each 5 fr. more). Money may also be trans- 
mitted by telegraph. To secure registered letters or the payment of money 
orders, the stranger must show his passport or be identified by two wit- 
nesses known to the postal authorities. It is therefore often convenient 
to arrange to have the money sent to one^s landlord. 

A Parcel Post exists between Italy and Great Britain, the rates and 
conditions of which may be ascertained at any post-office. Articles, such 
as flowers, etc., not liable to duty are best sent as samples of no value 
(campione senza valore) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., abroad 10 c. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 26, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 
6-14, Belgium 19, HoUand 23, Denmark 23, Russia 42, Sweden 
26, Norway 34 c. To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. per word upwards, ac- 
cording to the state. Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 
1 fr. , each additional word 5 c. Telegrams with special haste (tele- 
grammi urgenti), which take precedence of all others, may be sent 
at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health. 
By Dr. Hermann Reimer. 

It is a common error on the part of those who visit Italy for the 
first time to believe that beyond the Alps the skies are always blue 
and the breezes always balmy. It is true that the traveller who 
has crossed the Spliigen, the Brenner, or the St. Gotthard in winter, 
and finds himself in the district of the N. Italian lakes, cannot fail 
to remark what an admirable barrier against the wind is afforded 
by the central chain of the Alps. The average winter-temperature 
(December, January, and February) here is 37-40°Fahr. as compared 


with 28-32° on the N. side of the mountains. Places nestling close 
to the S. hase of the Alps, such as Locarno (winter-temperature 
37° Fahr.), Pallanza (38.5°), Arco (38.75°) 7 and Oardone-Riviera 
(40°), thus form an excellent intermediate stage "between the Weak 
winter of N. Europe and the semi-tropical climate of the Riviera or S. 
Italy. A peculiarity of the climate here is afforded hy the torrents of 
rain which may be expected about the equinoctial period. The masses 
of warm and moisture-laden clouds driven northwards by theS. wind 
break against the Alpine chain, and discharge themselves in heavy 
showers, which fill the rivers and occasion the inundations from 
which Lombardy not unfrequently suffers. If , however, the trav- 
eller continues his journey towards the S. through the plain of Lom- 
bardy he again enters a colder and windy region. The whole plain 
of the Po, enclosed by snow-capped mountains, exhibits a climate 
of a thoroughly continental character; the summer is as hot as that 
of Sicily, while the winter is extremely cold, the mean temperature 
being below 35° Fahr. or about equal to that of the lower Rhine. 
In Milan the thermometer sometimes sinks below zero. Changes 
of weather, dependent upon the direction of the wind, are fre- 
quent; and the humidity of the atmosphere, occasioned in part by 
the numerous canals and rice-marshes, is also very considerable. 
A prolonged residence in Turin or Milan should therefore be avoided 
by invalids, while even robust travellers should be on their guard 
against the trying climate. As we approach the Adriatic Sea the 
climate of the Lombard plain loses its continental character and 
approximates more closely to that of the rest of the peninsula. The 
climatic peculiarities of Venice are described at p. 247. 

As soon as we cross the mountains which bound the S. margin 
of the Lombard plain and reach the Mediterranean coast, we find a 
remarkable change in the climatic conditions. Here an almost un- 
interrupted series of winter-resorts extends- along the Ligurian 
Riviera as far S. as Leghorn , and these are rapidly increasing 
both in number and popularity. The cause of the mild and pleas- 
ant climate at these places is not far to seek. The Maritime 
Alps and the Ligurian Apennines form such an admirable screen 
on the N., that the cold N. winds which pass these mountains do 
not touch the district immediately at their feet, but are first per- 
ceptible on the sea 6-10 M. from the coast. It is of no unfrequent 
occurrence in the Riviera that the harbours are perfectly smooth 
while the open sea is agitated by a brisk tempest. Most of the towns 
and villages on the coast lie in crescent -shaped bays, opening 
towards the S., while on the landward side they are protected by 
an amphitheatre of hills. These hills are exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, and the limestone of which they are composed 
absorbs an immense amount of heat. It is therefore not to be 
wondered at that these hothouses of the Riviera show a higher tem- 
perature in winter than many places much farther to the S. Thus, 

xx\ i CLIMATE. 

while the mean temperature of Rome in the three coldest months is 
46° Fahr., that of the Riviera is 48-50° (Nervi 48°, San Remo 50°; 
Pisa, on the other hand, only 42°). 

It would, however, be a mistake to suppose that this strip of 
coast is entirely free from wind. The rapid heating and cooling of 
the strand produces numerous light breezes, while the rarefaction 
of the masses of air by the strength of the sun gives rise to strong 
currents rushing in from the E. and W. to supply the vacuum. 
The most notorious of these coast-winds is the Mistral, which is 
at its worst at Avignon and other places in the Rh6ne Yalley (see 
Baedeker's South -Eastern France). The N.E. wind on the con- 
trary is much stronger in Alassio and San Remo than on the coast 
of Provence. The Sciroeco as known on the Ligurian coast is by no 
means the dry and parching wind experienced in Sicily and even 
at Rome ; passing as it does over immense tracts of sea, it is gener- 
ally charged with moisture and is often followed by rain. 

The prevalent belief that the Riviera has a moist climate, on 
account of its proximity to the sea, is natural but erroneous. The 
atmosphere, on the contrary, is rather dry, especially in the W. 
half of it, while the humidity rapidly increases as we approach 
the Riviera di Levante. The same holds good of the rainfall. 
While San Remo has 45 rainy days between November and April, 
Nervi has 54, and Pisa 63. The average number of rainy days 
during the three winter months in the Riviera is 16. Snow is 
rarely seen ; it falls perhaps once or twice in the course of the 
winter, but generally lies only for a few hours , while many years 
pass without the appearance of a single snow-flake. Fogs are very 
rare on the Ligurian coast ; but a heavy dew-fall in the evening is 
the rule. In comparison with the Cisalpine districts, the Riviera 
enjoys a very high proportion of bright, sunny weather. 

The above considerations will show that it is often necessary to 
discount the unpropitious opinions of those who happen to have 
visited the Riviera under peculiarly unfavourable climatic con- 
ditions. Not only do the ordinary four seasons differ from each other 
on the Riviera, but the different parts of winter are also sharply 
discriminated. A short rainy season may be counted on with almost 
complete certainty between the beginning of October and the middle 
of November, which restricts, but by no means abolishes, open-air 
exercise. Then follows from December to February usually an un- 
interrupted series of warm and sunshiny days, but invalids have 
sometimes to be on their guard against wind. March here, as else- 
where in the south, is the windiest month of all, but is much less 
boisterous in the Italian part of the Riviera than in Provence. 
April and May are delightful months for those who require out-door 
life in a warm climate. 

The mildness of the climate of the Riviera requires, perhaps, no 

CLIMATE. xxvii 

better proof than its rich southern vegetation. The Olive, which is 
already found in the neighbourhood of the N. Italian lakes, here 
attains its full growth, while the Eucalyptus globulus (which grows 
rapidly and to an astonishing height), the Orange, the Lemon, and 
several varieties of Palms also flourish. 

The geological character of the Riviera is also of sanitary signi- 
ficance. The prevailing formation is limestone, which absorbs the 
sun's rays with remarkable rapidity and radiates it with equal speed, 
thus forming an important factor in making the most of the winter 
sunshine. On account of its softness it is also extensively used 
for road-making, and causes the notorious dust of the Riviera, which 
forms the chief objection to a region frequented by so many per- 
sons with weak lungs. The authorities of the various health-resorts, 
however, take great pains to mitigate this evil as far as practicable. 
After heavy rain the roads are apt to be very muddy. 

The advantages that a winter-residence in the Riviera, in contra- 
distinction to the climate of northern Europe, offers to invalids and 
delicate persons, are a considerably warmer and generally dry at- 
mosphere, seldom disturbed by storms, yet fresh and pure, a more 
cheerful sky, and comparative immunity from rain. The 'invalid's 
day', or the time during which invalids may remain in the open 
air with impunity, lasts here from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The general 
effect of a prolonged course of open-air life in the Riviera may be 
described as a gentle stimulation of the entire physical organism. 
It is found particularly beneficial for convalescents, the debilitated, 
and the aged ; for children of scrofulous tendency ; and for the mar- 
tyrs of gout and rheumatism. The climatic Cure of the Riviera is 
also often prescribed to patients with weak chests, to assist in the 
removal of the after-effects of inflammation of the lungs or pleurisy, 
or to obviate the danger of the formation of a chronic pulmonary 
discharge. The dry and frequently-agitated air of the Riviera is, 
however, by no means suitable for every patient of this kind, and 
the immediate vicinity of the sea is particularly unfavourable to 
cases of a feverish or nervous character. The stimulating effects of 
the climate are then often too powerful, producing sleeplessness 
and unwholesome irritation. The dry air of the Riviera di Ponente 
is also prejudicial to many forms of inflammation of the wind-pipe 
and bronchial tubes, which derive benefit from the air of Nervi, 
Pisa, or Ajaccio. Cases of protracted nephritis or diabetes, on the 
contrary, often obtain considerable relief from a residence here. 

The season on the Ligurian coast lasts from about the begin- 
ning of October to the middle of May. In September it is still too 
hot, and in March it is so windy that many patients are obliged to 
retire farther inland. Many invalids make the mistake of leaving 
the Riviera too soon, and thus lose all the progress they have made 
during the winter, through reaching home in the unfavourable trans- 

xxviii HEALTH. 

ition period between winter and spring. It is better to spend April 
and May at some intermediate station, sucb as Pallanza, Cannero, 
Locarno, Lugano, or Gardone Rioiera. 

Good opportunities for sea-batbing are offered at many points 
on the Mediterranean coast of N. Italy , sucb as Alassio , Savona, 
Pegli, Spezia, Viareggio, Leghorn, and Venice. The Mediterranean is 
almost tideless; it contains about 41 per cent of common salt, a con- 
siderably higher proportion than the Atlantic ; its average tempera- 
ture during the bathing-season is 71° Fahr. The bathing-season 
on the Ligurian coast begins in April, or at latest in May, and lasts 
till November, being thus much longer than the season at any English 

Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode of living 
whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the Italian style. 
Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusually 
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well 
supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Woollen underclothing is 
especially to be recommended. A cloak or shawl should be carried to 
n eutralise the often considerable difference of temperature between the 
sunshine and the shade. In visiting picture-galleries or churches on 
warm days it is advisable to drive thither and walk back, as other- 
wise the visitor enters the cool building in a heated state and has 
afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable temperature 
through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided 
as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and for- 
eigners (Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to pro- 
tect the whole eye are best), may be used with advantage. Blue veils 
are recommended to ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is ad- 
visable, and a moderate siesta is often refreshing. 

Great care should also be taken in the selection of an apartment. 
Carpets and stoves are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect in 
winter is an absolute essential for delicate persons, and highly desir- 
able for the robust. The visitor should see that all the doors and 
windows close satisfactorily. Windows should be closed at night. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with 
in the larger cities, and in most of the wintering-stations of the Ri- 
viera. English and German chemists, where available, are recom- 
mended in preference to the Italian, whose drugs are at once de arer 
and of poorer quality. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoe a in 
Italy, which is generally occasioned by the unwonted heat. The 
homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be mentioned as a remedy, 
but regulated diet and thorough repose are the chief desiderata. A 
small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and stocked with 
tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, fy Co., Holborn Via- 
duct, London, will often be found useful. 

Italian Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Professor Anton Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic DU ^y^" Y 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their influence at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their power. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. "Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the Classicanu 
16th century, the culminating period of the so-called Renais- Renais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sance 
is usually, with much unfairness , almost entirely ignored ; EKI01)S - 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more numerous Greek originals , and have acquired a 


deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 

Greek and apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 
Roman fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 

Styles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 

tinguished. ex p resse( i jjy ma ssive proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure , with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested, in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple - archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encounter the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the 
reach of comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recom- 
mended as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the 
growth of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by 
the circumstance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 

suprehe in duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
Art - is proved by the existence of several Doric temples in Si- 
cily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Oirgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Paestum, 
as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the 
fully developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But, in 
the second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its universal 
supremacy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas, nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror , and the 
Romans had begun to combine with their political superiority the re- 
finements of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example) became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome ; Greek works of art and Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 


gradually became the universal custom of the Romans, and the 
foundation of public monuments came to he regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their Roman 
authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- Akchitec- 
nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to tore. 
their Architecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancientltalian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms , the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors, and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture, and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter ; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric Style f must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 

+ Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without bases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it by bases. The flutings of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, being separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs , separated by broad unfiuted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths ; the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings , subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular grooves in front, 
and a half groove at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column, approaching most nearly to the Doric, exhibits 
no decided distinctive marks ; the Corinthian , with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves , is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
are termed 'in antis' (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns, prostyle; those with an additional 
pediment at the back, supported by columns, amphiprostyle ; those entirely 
surrounded by columns, peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 


column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, hut formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character , the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first used 
in the arch of Titus) , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 
nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to the Roman 
temples, which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several - storied structures, in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined , in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls [e.g. as members of a facade), in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity, and the imitations have often fallen short of the originals. 
It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and though the smaller local collections of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany may not detain the traveller long, he will un- 
doubtedly find ample food for his admiration in the magnificent 
antique sculptures at Florence (the Niobe Group, the Apollino, the 
formerly over-rated Medicean Venus, etc.). — Upper Italy and Tus- 

that the image of the god erected in the cella should be exposed to the 
rays of the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypsethral. Temples are also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, etc., according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which respectively in- 
dicate superincumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. 
Research in these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate 
the strict harmony of ancient architecture. 

ITALIAN ART. xxxiii 

cany stand, on the other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic 
life of the middle ages and early Renaissance , and Venice may 
proudly boast of having brilliantly unfolded the glories of Italian 
painting at a time when that art had sunk at Rome to the lowest 
depths. In order, however, to place the reader at a proper point 
of view for appreciating the development of art in N. Italy, it is 
necessary to give a short sketch of the progress of Italian art in 
general from the early part of the middle ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a christian 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Period 
garded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient OF Art - 
Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
lessons of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These were by no means ori- 
ginally the secret, anxiously-concealed places of refuge of the prim- 
itive Christians, but constituted their legally-recognised, publicly 
accessible burial-places. Reared in the midst of the customs of 
heathen Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to 
deviate from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellish- 
ment of the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed 
down by their ancestors; and in design, choice of colour, grouping 
of figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by 
the customary rules. Even the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th 
and 5th centuries differ in purport only, and not in technical treat- 
ment, from the type exhibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. 
Five centuries elapsed before a new artistic style sprang up in the 
pictorial , and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile archi- 
tecture had developed itself commensurately with the requirements 
of Christian worship, and, in connection with the new modes of 
building, painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilica Style is often employed to designate early 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name church 
is of great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the Architect 
early Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere tcre. 
name in common with those of the Roman fora. The latter stiuc- 

Baedeker. Italy I. 11th Edit. C 

XXXiv 11AL.1AIN akt. 

tures, which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls , differ essentially in their origin and form from the 
churches of the Christians. The forensic hasilicas were neither fit- 
ted up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they, or the 
heathen temples, serve as models for the construction of Christian 
churches. The latter are rather to he regarded as extensions of the 
private dwelling-houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies 
of the community were held , and the component parts of which 
were reproduced in ecclesiastical edifices. The church, however, 
was by no means a servile imitation of the house, but a free devel- 
opment from it, of which the following became the established 
type. In front is a quadrangular fore- court (atrium) , of the same 
width as the basilica itself, surrounded with an open colonnade 
and provided with a fountain (cantharus) for the ablutions of the 
devout. This forms the approach to the interior of the church, 
which usually consisted of a nave and two aisles, the latter lower 
than the former, and separated from it by two rows of columns, the 
whole terminating in a semicircle (apsis). In front of the apse there 
was sometimes a transverse space (transept) ; the altar, surmounted 
by a columnar structure, occupied a detached position in the apse ; 
the space in front of it , bounded by cancelli or railings , was 
destined for the choir of officiating priests, and contained the two 
pulpits (ambones) where the gospel and epistles were read. Un- 
like the ancient temples , the early Christian basilicas exhibit a 
neglect of external architecture, the chief importance being at- 
tached to the interior, the decorations of which, however, especially 
in early mediaeval times, were often procured by plundering the 
ancient Roman edifices, and transferring the spoil to the churches 
with little regard to harmony of style and material. The most ap- 
propriate ornaments of the churches were the metallic objects, such 
as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry bestowed on them by papal 
piety ; while the chief decoration of the walls consisted of mosaics, 
especially those covering the background of the apse and the 
'triumphal' arch which separates the apse from the nave. The 
mosaics , as far at least as the material was concerned , were of a 
sterling monumental character , and contributed to give rise to a 
new style of pictorial art ; in them ancient tradition was for the 
first time abandoned, and the harsh and austere style erroneously 
termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 

Christian art originated at Rome , but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 

where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493-552), as well 
T Sttlk. NE as un der the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture 

was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low arches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 


interior appropriately moulded with reference to the superincumb- 
ent arches. There , too , the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens (in the Bap- 
tistery of the Orthodox and Tomb of Oalla Placidia) greater technical 
excellence and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman 
works. At Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination 
with the Eastern, and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) 
may be regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzantine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the "Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style, as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long - extended hall , over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles, which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave , degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space, bounded 
by four massive pillars" which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style, which culminates 
in the magnificent church of St. Sophia, and prevails throughout 
Oriental Christendom , but in the West , including Italy , only 
occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches of S. Vi- 
tale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of Lower 
Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian growth 
art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art op Akt in 
was carried on by Venice, Amalfl , and other Italian towns, Italy. 
with the Levant ; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons; silk wares, tapestry, and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal , and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 

n * 

xxxvi ITALIATf ART. 

On the contrary , notwithstanding various external influences, it 
underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before the fusion of the original inhabitants with 
the early mediaeval immigrants was complete, before the aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before the people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is , yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted , that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy , and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabit- 
ants are manifested, and that in the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients ; the might of ancient tradition, and the national 
idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promis- 
Roman- * n § artistic movement took place in Italy, and the seeds 
esque were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Style. i uxur i a nt a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothing 
completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient ; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements, the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme ; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent.), and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages , notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their filial rela- 
tion to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, in 
spite of its rude and barbarous aspect , reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
aesthetic perception developed itself. "When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 
parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object ; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica- type ; 
while the exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the courses of stone , presents a fine decorative effect. At the 
same time the construction and decoration of the walls already 
evince a taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later 
Italian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy ; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object ; 
the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 
ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the develop- 
ment of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of pleasing works. 
There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
may mention the famous church of St. Zeno with its sculp- r man- 
tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- esqde 
rara, Modena, Parma, and Piacenza, the church of S. Am- Churches 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and fagade, and 
that of S. Michele at Pavia, erroneously attributed to the Lombardi. 
Tuscany abounds with Romanesque edifices. Among these the palm 
is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a church of spacious dimensions in 
the interior, superbly embellished with its marble of two colours 
and the rows of columns on its facade. To the same period also 
belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and the Baptistery. The 

xxxviii ITALIAN ART. 

churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. Those of Florence, 
however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered baptistery and the 
church of S. Miniato al Monte, exhibit an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
Style° ig nore its influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault-architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress 
cannot be traced step by step; it was imported by foreign archi- 
tects (practised at Assisi by the German master Jacob) , and 
adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age ; it 
found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monKS 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
S. Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such as 
the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, the communal palaces of med- 
iaeval Italian towns, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 
interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cathe- 
drals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gables , of finials and canopies , prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing members was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and nat- 
ural features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character 
in Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised , especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
mental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. 


The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the history of art. The Italians themselves could only revival 
account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular of Ancient 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisano was induced by Aet Ideals - 
an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style 
for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace back a work of 
his to its antique prototype. We refer to a relief on the pulpit in 
the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are borrowed from 
a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo of that city 
(pp. 386, 388). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member of a local 
school or was trained under foreign influences we are as yet unable 
to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of 
Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. By his son, Giovanni Pisano, and his followers of the Pisan 
School, ancient characteristics were placed in the background, and 
importance was attached solely to life and expression [e.g. reliefs 
on the facade of the Cathedral at Orvieto). Artists now began to 
impart to their compositions the impress of their own peculiar 
views, and the public taste for poetry, which had already strongly 
manifested itself, was now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- rise of 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form, Modekn 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- Akt - 
pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Cimabue (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto, when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence.) But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics , as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 


ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who "before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel -pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master, and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes , clumsy features , and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 
Influence. ar t. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be understood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, lifelike scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors, enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the churches of 8. Croce (especially the choir 
chapels) and S. Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts of 
the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto are to be found at Assisi 


and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where in 1306 he exe- 
cuted a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin and 
the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords specimens of the 
handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
be struck by their finely-conceived, poetical character (e.g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of Job), 
or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rainerus, and of 
the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmo- Florence 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Cradle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did OF Akt - 
not itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other 
places. During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in 
artistic fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to 
the two painters d'Avanzo and Altichieri (paintings in the Chapel 
of 8. Giorgio in Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On 
the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions 
and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagina- 
tion, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or 
combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace 
of the revolution in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the 
home of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon 
after the beginning of the 15th century and superseded the style 
of Giotto. 

The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
revival of the antique ; but while ancient art now began to r E nais- 
influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be sauce 
more zealously prosecuted, the essential character of the c c lt ure. 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world, cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 


the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the vfork of 
the author than was ever before the case ; his creations are pre-emin- 
ently the reflection of his intellect ; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
•and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emin- 
ent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors , and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista 
Alberti, who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Yinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various phenom- 
ena. Anatomy, geometry, perspective, and the study 
f'the^Re- °f drapery and colour are zealously pursued and practically 
taissance applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
.rtists to rendering of real life in its minutest details are among the 
Nature. necessar y qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the re- 
presentation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life- 
like character and present enjoyment. The earlier artists of the 
Renaissance rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when 
such incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. "Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
national type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting 
Elizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 


striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, hy no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men , beautiful women , and pleasing children , occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground, prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispos- 
ition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 
the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid ; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail; a discriminating eye, refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era of illus- study 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, of the 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- Antique. 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 


course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
CHARACTEit-idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 

istics of amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 

sance snou ^ refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 

Aechi- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 

tectcee. n0 new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
will be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion is 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere descrip- 
tion. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories , and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the aesthetic effect 
of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of construc- 
tion adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces , in 
which the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest story , or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination. The Cancelleria is justly 


considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in church-facades, a single series of columns 
was substituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of 
proportion was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xlvi), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Vi- 
cenza(p.xlvii), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common. The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Early Re- 
entine Pitt i, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissance. 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail, coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive application of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect; the re-application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals , bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builders. The churches of Northern 
Italy in particular are worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was the facade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna della Croce near 
Crema and several others at Piaeenza and Sarma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region thatBKAMANTE prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 341). 


The visitor to Venice will have an opportunity of tracing within 
a very_ limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of S. Zaccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of S. Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di S. Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must be 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xlvii). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Giocondo of Verona, a 
monk, a philologist (the discoverer of the letters of the younger 
Pliny), a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly well trained archi- 
tect, who at a very advanced age, after the death of Bramante, was 
summoned to Rome to superintend the building of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunei/leschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of S. Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier by Brunel- 
leschi , the later by Michael Angelo , which it is interesting to 
compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near S. Croce is also 
noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also important as showing the 
combination of pilasters with 'rustica', the greatest advance achieved 
by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its numerous palaces, Pienza, 
the model of a Renaissance town, and TJrbino also afford excellent 
examples of the art of the Quattrocentists, but are beyond the limits 
of the present volume. While all these different edifices possess 
many features in common , they may be classed in a number of 
groups, differing in material and various other characteristics, and 
entirely relieving them from any reproach of monotony. 

The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construc- 
Zenith tion. With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
of the Re- were circumscribed , while greater significance and more 
naissance. mar ked expression were imparted to the true constituents 
of the structure , the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 


unity, and that the pillar-construction relieved "by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it he disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest, this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, hut to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baldassare Pertjzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sammicheli of Verona (p. 209), Jacopo Sanso- 
vino of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gener- 
ation of the 16th century did not adhere to the style introduced by 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts ; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii of this Hand- f AMO us Re- 
book), but there are other places also which possess impoatant naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for Buildings. 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Uguccioni, 
both of which are said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati ; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must also 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Giulio 
Romano (p. 222) , Verona with its numerous buildings by Sam- 
micheli (e.g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua) , and Padua, where Gio- 
vanni Maria Falconetto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 
properly Briosco (S. Giustina) flourished. At Venice the Renais- 
sance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works of 
the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti, 1477-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Alessi (1500-1572) of Perugia 
(e.g. S. Maria in Carignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
and Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period akchi- 
belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80; p. 227), tecture at 
the last of the great Renaissance architects, whose Venetian Venick « 
churches (S. Giorgio Maggiore and RedentoreJ andVicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 

xlviii ITALIAN ART. 

Biblioteea of Sansovino (in the Piazzetta ; p. 258) over the new 
Procurazie of Scamozzi (p. 254), although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards an 
accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost by the traveller who devoted his 
Minor attention exclusively to the master-works which have been 

Wokks of extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
Akt - umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urbino , Gubbio , and Castel- 
Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians, their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the^hole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

Sculpture manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

of the Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

naissance. ^Vith the sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar T 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of tbe 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious de- 
viations from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of aesthetic 
rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes by far the widest sphere 
of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. These, 


however, contrary to immemorial usage, are executed in a pictorial 
style. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), for example, in his cel- 
ebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Florence , is not satis- 
fied with grouping the figures as in a painting , and placing them 
in a rich landscape copied from nature. He treats the background 
in accordance with the rules of perspective ; the figures at a dis- 
tance are smaller and less raised than those in the foreground. 
He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and above all violates 
the laws of the relief-style, according to which the figures are 
always represented in an imaginary space , and the usual system 
of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. In like manner 
the painted reliefs in terracotta by Ltjca della Robbia (1400-1482) 
are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic form. But if 
it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renaissance did not 
derive their ideas from a previously defined system, or adhere to 
abstract rules , the fresh and lifelike vigour of their works (espe- 
cially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, and pre- 
judice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the reliefs 
themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as strictly 
as the other arts to the fundamental principle of representation; 
scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and attractive ren- 
dering of the individual objects ; the taste is gratified by express- 
ive heads, graceful female figures, and joyous children ; the sculp- 
tors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude , and 
the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In their 
anxiety for fidelity of representation, however, they do not shrink 
from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their predi- 
lection for bronze- casting, an art which was less in vogue in the 
16th cent., accords with their love of individualising their charact- 
ers. In this material, decision and pregnancy of form are expressed 
without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. Works in 
marble also occur, but these generally trench on the province of 
decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered aspirations 
which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as S. Croce 
at Florence, the Frari and SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, and the 
Santo at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance sculpture. 
At the same time many of the wealthier families (the Medici and 
others) embellished their mansions with statuary, and the art of 
the sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect a fitting 
tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as the 
equestrian statues at Venice and Padua). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
acquainted with Ghiberti and Delia Robbia, who have been Sculptors 
already mentioned , and with the famous Donatello (pro- of the Re- 
perly Donato di Niccolo di Betti Babdi, 1386-1466), who naissance. 

Baedeker. Italv I. 11th Edit. cL 


introduced a naturalistic style, which, though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group in the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are his statue of St. George 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the Museo Nazionale (p. 4-55), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in S. Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (p. 473) should also be inspected. Dona- 
tello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures in 
S. Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andrea Verrocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Mino da Fiesole, Desiderio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matteo Oivitali of Lucca 
(1435-1501; Altar of St. Regulus in the Cathedral, p. 396). 
Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 16th cent, 
were Giov. Franc. Rustici (1474-1554), who was perhaps inspir- 
ed by Leonardo, and particularly Andrea Sansovino (1460-1529), 
the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Baptist in the 
Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Rome (in the choir 
of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which adorn 
the Santa Casa at Loreto. Northern Italy also contributed largely 
to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia , for 
example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 
Amadeo (sculptor of the huge monuments in the Cappella Colleoni 
at Bergamo), and, at a later period, Cristoforo Solari, surnamed 

II Gobbo ; Venice gave birth to the famous sculptor Alessandro 
Leopardi (d. 1521); Riccio or Briosco wrought at Padua; Agos- 
tino Busti, il Bambaja (p. 110), and the above-mentioned Cristo- 
eoro Solari, were actively engaged at Milan; and Modena 
afforded employment to Mazzoni and Begarelli (p. 329), artists 
in terracotta , the latter of whom is sometimes compared with 

Among the various works executed by these masters, Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character , they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style, which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 
to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of 


imagination and richness of detail displayed within so narrow 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- p AINTING 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, of the Cin- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for quecento. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but nmral 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
del Carmine (Cappella Brancacci) at Florence are usually spoken of 
as the earliest specimens of the painting of the Renaissance. This 
is a chronological mistake , as some of these frescoes were not com- 
pleted before the second half of the 15th century; but on material 
grounds the classification is justifiable, as this cycle of pictures may 
be regarded as a programme of the earlier art of the Renaissance, 
the importance of which it served to maintain, even during the age 
of Raphael. Here the beauty of the nude was first revealed , and 
here a calm dignity was for the first time imparted to the individual 
figures, as well as to the general arrangement ; and the transform- 
ation of a group of indifferent spectators in the composition into a 
sympathising choir, forming as it were a frame to the principal act- 
ors in the scene , was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, 
natural that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for 
imitation, and that , when the attention of connoisseurs was again 
directed during the last century to the beauties of the pre-Raphael- 
ite period, the works of Masaccio (1401-28) and Filippino Lippi 
(1457-1504) should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion (comp. 
p. 420). 

A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to convey 
an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of painting. 
The most important and extensive works are those of Do- 
menico GhirijAndajo (1449-94) : viz. frescoes in S. Trinita, f lokence , 
and those in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in spright- 
liness of conception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the 
same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to compare 
the former of these works with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. 
Oroce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, and to draw 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo.) In the 
Dominican monastery of S. Marco reigns the pious and peaceful 
genius of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (1387-1455), who, 
though inferior to his contemporaries in dramatic power, vies with 
the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of beauty, 



as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in his old 
age displayed his well-matured art in the frescoes of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas in the Vatican. 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 
extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 
worthy of most careful examination ; for it was chiefly through 
these that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty 
and dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine 
galleries (Ufflzi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 466) 
is also well calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Floren- 
tine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 
scenes from the Old Testament on the northern wall of the Campo 
Painting in Santo of Pisa (p. 388), truly forming biblical genre-pictures, 
other Parts and his scenes from the life of St. Augustine in 8. Gimi- 
of Tuscany. gnano ^ Filippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 406) , Piero 
della Francesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, 
and lastly Luca Signorelli's representation of the Last Day in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of the 
character and development of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the 15th century ap- 
proaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford an im- 
mediate and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval 
towns of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel at Borne, where 
Sandro Botticelli (see p. 420), a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosimo 
Rosselli (p. 420), Dom. Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, andPerugino have 
executed a number of rich compositions from the life of Moses and 
that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 
suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 
Other progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 
Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 
Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506 ; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein and Diirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 222). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School (Vivarini, 
Crivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founded on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507) and his brother Gio- 
vanni (1426-1516), sons of Giacomo (comp. p. 251). — The Um- 


brian School also, which originated at Gubbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano, and culminating 
in its last masters Pietro Vannucci, surnamed Perugino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicchio (1454- 
1513), merits attention, not only because Raphael was one of its 
adherents during his first period , but because it supplements the 
broader Florentine style, and notwithstanding its peculiar and limit- 
ed bias is impressive in its character of lyric sentiment and relig- 
ious devotion (c. g. Madonnas). 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to union of 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, different 
The 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax of art was still unattained. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded as embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be thor- 
oughly understood after prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partly devoted to art; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely DA Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations ; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect; 
and his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist , especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 


liave been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period , when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo di Credi, is the Annunciation in the Uffizi (p. 432) , if it 
be a genuine work. Several oil-paintings, portraits (e. g. the two 
fine works in the Ambrosiana at Milan, p. 125), Madonnas, and 
imaginative works are attributed to his Milan period, although 
careful research inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. Un- 
adulterated pleasure may, however, be taken in his drawings in 
the Ambrosiana and the Venice Academy (p. 269). The unfinished 
Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi (p. 432) bears ample testimony 
to the fertility of his imagination, while the St. Jerome in the Vati- 
can, though also unfinished, affords an insight into his technique. 
The best idea of his reforms in the art of colouring is obtained by 
an attentive examination of the works of the Milan school (Luini, 
Salaino ; p. Ill), as these are far better preserved than the only 
undoubted work of Leonardo's Milan period in Italy: the Last 
Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie (p. 127). Although now a total 
wreck , it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine the delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life , together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 
amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1475- 
Michael 1564). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo extolled 
Angelo. a s the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art , and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significant, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall find that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies , and 
reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude , and 
treats the drapery in many respects differently from his professional 
brethren. But, like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life, 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position, 


at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in his peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
his own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which, however, he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. His figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in his statues and 
pictures ; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The deceptive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli 
is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are utterly dis- 
proportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated knee could 
not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly 
impressive ; and so also are the Monuments of the Medici in S. 
Lorenzo at Florence , in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary 
moulding of some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices 
accuracy of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had 
so great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
would have been the result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in 
their anxiety to follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sis- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unnat- 
urally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Rome alter- 
nately. We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (1496), 
as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pietd, and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and worked on the Battle Car- 
toon (Florentines surprised while bathing by the Pisans), which has 
since disappeared. In 1505 the Pope recalled him to Rome, but 
the work entrusted to him there , the Tomb of Julius II. , was at 
this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in the 
Sistine Chapel absorbed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius , his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, however, who 
wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own family, 


soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more to a 
standstill. From 1516 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Facade of 8. Lorenzo, which was never completed, and 
then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced very 
slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with the 
tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues which 
were finished, and migrated to Rome (1539). His first work here 
was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next the erection 
of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. His last years 
were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peter s). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest , whether conceived 
in the midst of his youthful studies, or in his maturer years, is un- 
questionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling , and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation, which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius, pervaded by his profound and sombre senti- 
ments, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. 
The decorative figures also which he designed to give life to his 
architectural framework are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. 
The Last Judgment, which was executed nearly thirty years later 
(in 1541 according to Vasari) , is not nearly so striking as the 
ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its damaged condi- 
tion. — Among Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebastian del 
Piombo (the Venetian) , Makceleo Venusti , and Daniele da 
Volte era. 

Whether the palm be due to Michael Angelo or to Raphael (1483- 

1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 

Raphael rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. 

The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means 

be precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 

that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 


each master in his peculiar province, than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account , not by him , but by Raphael , whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to reproduce them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael , therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable, and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting ; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after his father's death (1494). In 
1500 he entered the studio of Perugino (p. liii), and probably soon 
assisted in the execution of some of the works of his prolific master. 
Of Raphael's early , or Umbrian period there are examples in the 
Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the Brera at Milan 
(Sposalizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence (1504) 
Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 
Perugia , and which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master ; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the storm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angelo were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio ; and it was their 
example, and more particularly the stimulating influence of Leo- 


nardo , that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
Raphael 1 maintained by Fra Bartolommeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine del Sarto (1487-1531"). The only works of Bartolommeo 
Contempoe- which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
aries. ex hibit in a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Pieta), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(court and cloisters) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, 
p. 470) are among the finest creations of the'cinquecento. Such, 
too, was the stimulus given to the artists of this period by their 
great contemporaries at Florence that even those of subordinate 
merit have occasionally produced works of the highest excellence, 
as, for instance, the Salutation of Albertinelli and the Zenobius 
pictures of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo in the Uffizi. The last masters of 
the local Florentine school were Pontormo and Angelo Bronzino. 
Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolommeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti). the Madonna del Cardinello (Uffizi), the Entombment (Gal. 
Borghese in Rome) , the Predelle in the Vatican , the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of Himself 
(Uffizi). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of doubtful 
origin , and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gallery was 
only begun by Raphael. 

"When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 
Raphael's °f notable artists already congregated there. Some of these 
Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival, including 
Period. Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma, whose 
frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now accessible) vie 
with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A still more 
numerous circle of pupils , however , soon assembled around Ra- 
phael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Perino del Vaga, An- 
drea da Salerno, Polidoro da Oaravaggio , Timoteo della 
Vite, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. Attend- 
ed by this distinguished retinue , Raphael enjoyed all the honours 
of a prince, although, in the Roman art world, Bramante (p. xlvi) 
and Michael Angelo occupied an equally high rank. The latter did 
not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter so much as 


was formerly supposed, and the jealousy of each other which they 
are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined to their re- 
spective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the ceiling of 
the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to Michael Angelo 
for much instruction ; but it is very important to note that he neither 
followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native genius to be biassed 
in the slightest degree by the example of his great rival. A signal 
proof of this independence is afforded by the Sibyls which he painted 
in the church of S. Maria della Pace in 1514, and which, though 
conceived in a very different spirit from the imposing figures in the 
Sistine, are not the less admirable. In order duly to appreciate the 
works produced by Raphael during his Roman period, the traveller 
should chiefly direct his attention to the master's frescoes. The 
Stanze in the Vatican, the programme for which was obviously 
changed repeatedly during the progress of the work, the Tapestry, 
the Logge, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in S. Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Galatea and 
Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure be- 
queathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Farther 
particulars as to these works will be found in the second volume 
of this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best , of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia , the most mundane , but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti), the Madonna delV Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration (in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Uffizi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Uffizi; a replica in the Pitti) and 
Leo X. with two Cardinals (Pitti). Besides these works we must 
also mention his Cardinal Bibbiena (Pitti), the so-called Fornarina, 
Raphael's mistress (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), and the Por- 
trait of a Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which may represent the same 
original and also recalls the Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 
for a time. At first this misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 
Italy. Raphael's pupils migrated from Rome to various pro- 
vincial towns. Giulio Romano, for example, entered the decline 1 ' 
service of the Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with 
paintings, and designed the Palazzo del Te (p. 225), while Perino 
del Vaga settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 
school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northern Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 
their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 
Bologna the local style, modified by the influence of Raphael, 

lx iTxcmr art: 

was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi , surnamed 
S N H It1ly 0F Bagnacavallo (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of Dosso 

Dossi (1479-1542) and Benvenuto Tisi, surnamed Garo- 
falo (1481-1559). At Verona the reputation of the school was 
maintained by Gianfrancesco Caroto. 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 

of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1494?-1534), and of 

Corregg the Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 

and Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a realistic tendency in his 
works, and they will observe, not only that his treatment of space 
(as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined , but that 
his individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere natural 
charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and fatigue 
the eye. The fact is, that Correggio was not a painter of all-em- 
bracing genius and far-reaching culture , but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction. From the 

school of Giovanni Bellini (p. lii) emanated the greatest re- 
ScifooL 1 * P r esentatives of Venetian painting — Giorgione , properly 

Barbarelli (1477-1511), whose works have unfortunately 
not yet been sufficiently well identified , the elder Palma (1480- 
1528), and Tiziano Vecellio (1477-1576), who for nearly three 
quarters of a century maintained his native style at its culminating 
point. These masters are far from being mere colorists; nor do they 
owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration alone. The enjoy- 
ment of life and pleasure which they so happily pourtray is a theme 
dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a culture possessed in 
an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by his intimacy with the 
'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous characters often recall 
some of the ancient gods , showing the manner in which the artists 
of the Renaissance had profited by the revived study of the antique. 
Properly to appreciate Titian it is of importance to remember how 
much of his activity was displayed in the service of the different 
courts. His connection with the family of Este began at an early 
period ; he carried on an active intercourse with the Gonzagas at 
Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for them. Later he basked 
in the favour of Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain. The natural 
result of this was that the painting of portraits and of a somewhat 
limited cycle of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of 
his time and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no 
means alien to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagin- 
ation was as rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying 
realistic and sensually attractive forms of existence, is proved by 
his numerous ecclesiastical paintings , of which the finest are the 
Pesaro Madonna (p. 294), the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p. 283), 


the Presentation in the Temple (p. 272), and the Assumption 
(p. 268) at Venice. The St. Peter Martyr, another masterpiece, 
unfortunately fell a prey to the flames. 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based, there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo, the Bonifazios, Pordenone, 
Paris Bordone , and Jacopo Tintoretto frequently vie in beauty 
with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. Even 
Paolo Caliari, surnamed Veronese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions 
(comp. p. 251). 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite ^bcltsy* 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody, they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and Anally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zuccaro, d'Arpino, 
Tempesta, and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 
(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness .which is attributed to these artists. 

The condition of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved 
to some extent towards the close of the 16th century, when there 
was a kind of second efflorescence, known in the schools as 
the 'revival of good taste', which is said to have chiefly 8B JJJJ L f** 
manifested itself in two directions , the eclectic and the na- 
turalistic. But these are terms of little or no moment in the study 


of art, and the amateur had "better disregard them. This period of art 
also should he studied historically. The principal architectural mon- 
uments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionahly produce a most imposing effect ; hut the historical 
enquirer will not easily he dazzled "by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the ahsence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, hut monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The hright Renais- 
sance is extinct , simple pleasure in the natural and human is ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian puhlic and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now hecame more frequent, hut at the same time a sensual, natural- 
istic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in beauty 
of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of volup- 
tuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and nohle symmetry 
are never attained. Crist. Allori's Judith (p. 490) should be 
compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Annibale 
Carracci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in 
the Farnesina, in order that the difference hetween the 16th and 
17th centuries may he clearly understood; and the enquirer will be 
still farther aided hy consulting the coeval Italian poetry , and ob- 
serving the development of the lyric drama or opera. The poetry of 
the period thus furnishes a key to the mythological representations 
of the School of the Carracci. Gems of art, however, were not un- 
frequently produced during the 17th century, and many of the frescoes 
of this period are admirahle, such as those hy Gutdo Rbni and 
Domenichino at Rome. Beautiful oil-paintings hy various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the puhlic col- 
lections of Bologna , Naples , and the Vatican and Capitol , the 
private galleries of Rome are of great importance. The so-called 
gallery- pieces, figures and scenes designated hy imposing titles, and 
painted in the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily re- 
ceived, and indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the 
Roman nohles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that 
age. This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may he regarded as a symptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from puhlic life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked hy puhlic opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateurs , and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures ; even down to a late period in the 


18th century they excel in effects of colour, and "by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
hoast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

Contents of Article on Italian Art : 


Art of Antiquity : the Greeks and Romans xxix 

The Middle Ages : Early Christian Art xxxiii 

Byzantine style . xxxiv 

Romanesque style xxxvi 

Gothic style xxxviii 

Niccolo Pisano, Giotto xxxix 

The Renaissance xli 

Architecture xliv 

Early Renaissance xlv 

High Renaissance xlvi 

Sculpture xlviii 

Painting : 

{Tuscan Schools li 

Upper Italian Schools. The Venetians . Hi 

Umbrian School liii 

{Leonardo da Vinci .... . . liii 

Michael Angelo and his pupils ... liv 

Raphael, his contemporaries, and pupils lvi 

Correggio lx 

Venetian masters lx 

End of the XVI., and XVII. Cent. : Mannerists, Naturalists, 

Eclectics lxi 



Among the best works on Italian art are Morelli , s Italian Paint- 
ers; Crowe fy Cavalcaselle' 3 History of Painting in Italy and History 
of Painting in North Italy; Kugler's Handbook of Painting (new 
edit, by Sir H. Layard); Mrs. Jameson's Lives of the Italian Paint- 
ers; tbe various writings of Br. Jean Paul Bichter; and the works 
of Mr. C. C. Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trust- 
worthy manual for the traveller in Italy is Burckhardfs Cicerone 
(translated by Mrs. A. H. Clough). 

Glossary of Technical Terms. 

Ambo, Ambones, see p. xxxiv. 

Apse or Tribuna, semicircular or poly- 
gonal ending of a church, generally 
at its E. end. 

Basilica, a church with a high nave, 
ending in an apse and flanked by 
lower aisles. For the early Chris- 
tian basilica, comp. p. xxxiii. 

Campanile, detached bell- tower of 
the Italian churches. 

Central Structure, a building the 
ground-plan of which can be en- 
closed in a circle. 

Certosa, Carthusian convent. 

Cinquecento, 16th century. 

Collegio, college, common table at a 

Confession, an underground chamber 
below the high-altar of a church, 
with the tomb of its patron- saint, 
the original form of the crypt. 

Diptych, double folding tablet of 
wood, ivory, or metal. 

Loggia, arcade, balcony. 

Monte di Pieta, pawn-shop. 

Municipio, municipality, city-hall. 

Niello , engraved design on silver, 
with incised lines filled with a 
black alloy, impressions from such 

Palazzo Arcivescovile, archbishop's 

— Comunale or Pubblico, city-hall. 

— Vescovile, bishop's palace. 
Plaquette, small bronze tablet with 

reliefs, generally used for orna- 
menting domestic or ecclesiastical 

Predella, small picture attached to a 
large altar-piece. 

Putto (pi. putti), figure of a child. 

Quattrocento, 15th century. 

Rustica, masonry with rough surface 
and hewn edges. 

Triumphal Arch (in a church), the 
arch connecting the choir with the 
transept or nave. 

Vescovado, bishopric, episcopal pal- 

Villa, country-house and park. 

Visitation, Meeting of the Virgin Mary 
and Elizabeth (St. Luke, .chap. i). 

I. Routes to Italy/ 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 1 

From Geneva to Culoz 1 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola .... 3 

3. From Lucerne (Bale) to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como 
(Milan). St. Gotthard Railway 4 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Splxigen 14 

5. From Innsbruck to Yerona by the Brenner 16 

From Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana 18 

From Mori to Riva 19 

6. From Vienna to Venice via, Pontehba 20 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

499 M. Railway in 22-30y 2 hrs. (fares 98 fr. 80, 73 fr. 55, 53 fr. 30c J. 

From Paris to (348 M.) Culoz (774 ft.; Hotel Folliet; Rail. 
Restaurant), the junction of the Geneva line, see Baedeker's North- 
ern France and Baedeker's South-Eastern France. 

Fkom Geneva to Culoz, 42 M., railway in l^ji^ 1 /* hrs. (fares 8 fr. 10 c, 
6fr., 4fr. 45c). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slopes of the Jura Mts. Beyond (14V2 M.) Collonges the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Vouache, 
and commanded by the Fort de VEcluse , which rises far above on the 
right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Crido (273 M.), 
crosses the grand Valserine Viaduct (275 yds. long and 170 ft. high), and 
reaches (20 J /2 M.) Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the 
Rhone (French custom-house examination). — 42 M. Culoz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at (352'/2 M.) Chindrieux 
reaches the N. end of the Lac du Bourget (745 ft.), 10 M. in length, 
3 M. in breadth, the E. bank of which it follows. On the opposite 
bank is the Cistercian monastery of Hautecombe. 

362 M. Aix-les-Bains (850 ft. ; Splendide; Orand Hotel d'Aix ; 
Grand Hotel Lamartine; Hot. de la Poste, Hot. du Centre, less 
expensive ; and many others), the Aquae Gratianae of the Romans, 
is a celebrated watering-place with 8300 inhab., possessing sul- 
phur-springs (113° Fahr.). In the place in front of the Etablisse- 
ment Thermal rises the Arch of Campanus, a Roman tomb of the 
3rd or 4th cent., built in the shape of a triumphal arch. 

370 M. Chamber y (880ft.; Hot. de France; Hot. du Commerce; 
Hot. des Princes), beautifully situated on the Leisse, with 21,800 
inhab., is the capita] of the Department of Savoy, and an archi- 
episcopal see. 

3761/2M. Chignin-les- Marches. — 378y 2 ~M- Monimelian^llU.; 
buffet). The ancient castle was long the bulwark of Savoy against 
France until its destruction in 1705 by Louis XIV. The train con- 

t Approaches to Italy through France, see Baedeker's South - Eastern 

Baedekek. Italv I. 11th Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. MONT CENTS. 

tinues to ascend the valley of the Isere. 381 M. Cruet. — 386 M. 
St. Pierre d'Albigny (buffet), the junction of the branch-line to 
Albertville and (32 M.) Moutiers-en-Tarentaise (p. 54) ; the town 
lies opposite on the right bank, commanded by the ruins of a castle. 
— Near (388 ] /'2 M.) Chamousset the line turns to the right , and 
traverses the valley of the Arc (Vallee de Maurienne), which here 
joins the Isere. 394 M. Aiguebelle ; 414^2 M. St. Jean de Maurienne; 
422 M. St. Michel de Maurienne (2330 ft.). The train crosses the 
Arc several times. Numerous tunnels. — 428 M. La Praz (3135 ft.). 

431 M. Mo dan e (3465 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant, dej. with wine 
4 fr. ; Hotel International, R. S 1 /^, B. li/ 4 fr.) is the seat of the 
French and Italian custom-house authorities (carriages changed). 

The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the 
village, and, passing through two short tunnels, enters the great 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, by which the Col de Frejus (8470 ft.) is pene- 
trated in a S.E. direction, though the name is derived from the old 
Mont Cenis road, which crosses the Mont Cenis Pass, 17 M. to theE. 

The tunnel (7 3 / 4 M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4100 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4090 ft.) was completed in 1861-1870 under the 
superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni at a 
total cost of 75,000,000fr. The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high, and has 
two lines of rails. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 
metres, and the distances are given in kilometres. The transit occupies 
25-30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude their heads or arms 
from the carriage-windows during the transit, and are also recommended 
to keep the windows shut. 

At the S. end of the tunnel, 5 M. from the frontier, is (444 M.) 
Bardonnecchia (4125 ft.), the first Italian station. The best views 
are now to the left. Two tunnels. 447 M. Beaulard. Near (451 M.) 
Oulx (3500 ft.), the Roman Villa Martis, the line enters the pictur- 
esque valley of the Dora Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tun- 
nels is (455 M.) Salbertrand (3303 ft.). The river is again crossed. 
Before the next station nine tunnels are traversed. To the left, 
between the second and third, a glimpse is obtained of the small 
town of Ex illes, with the frontier-fortress of that name. — 46l!/ 2 M. 
Chiomonte, or Chaumont (2525 ft.). Then several tunnels and 
aqueducts. The valley contracts and forms a wild gorge (he Qorgie), 
of which beautiful views are obtained, with the Mont Cenis road 
winding up the hill on the farther side , and the Roche Melo 
(11,604 ft.), the Roche Michel, and other peaks towering above it. 
When the valley expands, Susa, with its Roman triumphal arch, 
comes in sight on the left (see p. 40). — 465 M. Meana (1950 ft.), 
1 M. from Susa, lies 325 ft. higher than the latter. Three tunnels. 
The train then descends through beautiful chestnut-woods, and 
crosses the Dora. — 471 M. Bussoleno (1425 ft.), the junction of 
the branch-line to Susa described at p. 40. 

At (475 M.) Borgone the Dora is crossed. 478 M. San Antonino. 
480 M. Condove. — 482 M. Sn.nV Amhmaio (1160 ft.), high above 

SIMPLON. 2. Route. 3 

which (1 hr.), on the rocky peak of the Monte Pirchiriano (3150 ft.), 
rises the Romanesque abbey of La Sagra di San Michele (3110 ft.), 
remarkable for its tombs which convert dead bodies into natural 
mummies (view). At (485 M.) Avigliana, a mediaeval town with 
a large dynamite factory, the valley expands into a broad plain. 
488 M. Rosta; 491 M. Alpignano; 4931/2 M. Collegno. — 499 M. 
Turin, see p. 25. 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola. 

40 M. Diligence from Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola twice 
daily in summer in 9 hrs. (in the reverse direction 10 hrs. ; fare 16 fr. 5, 
coupe 19 fr. 30 c). Luggage for the morning diligence must be delivered 
the night before. Extka Post with two horses (8-8V2 hrs.) 91 fr. 30 c.5 
horses are changed three times (carriages of the Brig hotels recommended). 

Brig, French Brigue (2245 ft. ; Hdtel des Couronnes et Poste; 
Angleterre , and others ; Railway Restaurant), a well-built little 
town, with a turreted chateau , is the terminus of the railway (see 
Baedeker's Switzerland), and the beginning of the Simplon Route, 
constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, which here quits 
the valley of the Rhone, and ascends in numerous windings. 

9 M. Berisal (5005 ft.), the Third Refuge (Hotel de la Poste). 
Above the Fourth Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is obtained in 
clear weather of the Bernese Alps to the N., from which the Aletsch 
Glacier descends. The part of the road between the Fifth Refuge 
(6345 ft.) and the culminating point is protected from avalanches 
by several galleries. From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) a splendid 
final view is enjoyed of the Rhone Valley. 

At the summit of the Simplon Pass (6590 ft.) stands a new 
Hotel; about */2 M. farther on (6 M. from Berisal) is the Hospice 
(6565 ft. ; accommodation), a spacious building at the foot of the 
Schonhorn (10,505 ft.). "We then descend gradually through a 
broad valley, bounded by snow-capped heights. 

20 M. Simplon, Ger. Simpeln, Ital. Sempione (4855 ft.; Poste, 
R., L., & A. 21/2-3, D. 372 fr-; Hotel Fletschhom) , is a village 
situated on the green meadows at the N.E. base of the Fletschhom 
(13,125 ft.). The road (to the left, short-cut for walkers") now 
describes a long curve and enters the Laquin Valley. At (2 M.) 
Algaby we cross the Krummbach. Beyond the C/4 M.) Algaby 
Gallery begins the wild and grand *Ravine of Gondo, through which 
flows the Doverfa. We cross this stream twice, and at the Ninth 
Refuge (3514 ft.) enter the Gondo Gallery. At the end of this 
tunnel the Fressinone (or AlpienbacK) forms a fine waterfall, which 
is crossed by a slender bridge ; on both sides the rocks tower to a 
dizzy height, presenting a most imposing picture. — 3 3 / 4 M. Gondo 
(2815 ft.) is the last Swiss village (custom-house); V2 M. beyond 
it is the Italian boundary-column, and */ 4 M. farther on is Paglino, 


4 Route 3. LtJURRNE'. From Lucerne 

the first Italian village. The valley now assumes the name of Val 
di Vedro. 

29 M. Iselle (2155 ft.; Posta) is the seat of the Italian custom 
house. The valley, although now less wild, continues to be ex- 
tremely picturesque. Beyond Crevola (1100 ft.) it unites with the 
broad and fertile valley of the Tosa (or Toce), here called the Val 
d'Ossola. The scenery now assumes a distinctly Italian character. 

40 M. Domodossola (905 ft. ; *H6tel de la Ville et Poste, R., L., 
& A. 3y 2 i dej. 3, D. 4y 2 fr. ; Hotel d'Espagne, well spoken of; 
Albergo Manini), the ancient Oscela, a small town with 2200 in- 
hab. , beautifully situated. The costumes seen here on market-day 
are very picturesque. The Palazzo Silva (16th cent.) contains a 
small museum. The Calvary Hill, 20 min. to the S., commands a 
superb view. 

About 41/2 M. to the W. lies Bognanco (2083 ft.), the chief place of the 
valley of that name, with mineral springs and a hydropathic establishment. 

Railway from Domodossola to Gravellona (for Pallanza and 

Stresa) and to Novara, see R. 29. 

3. From Lucerne (Bdle) to Lugano, Chiasso, and 
Como (Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. 

Railway to Chiasso, 140 M. ; mail train (first class only) in 4 3 /« hrs., 
express in 5 l /4-7 hrs., ordinary trains in 9V4 hrs. (fares 29 fr. 70, 20 fr. 75, 
14 fr. 90 »:.). To Milan (173 M.) the mail train takes 6, the express 6V2- 
8»/« hrs. (fares 35 fr. 70 c, 25 fr., 17 fr. 65 c). — At Arth-Goldau (p. 5) 
this line is joined by the new branch from Zug and Zurich (IV4-IV2 hr.). 
— A dining-car is attached to the mail train (dej 4, D. 5 fr.) and also (as 
far as Chiasso) to the afternoon express (dej. 372, D. 4 fr.). The night 
express has a sleeping- carriage. A table-d'hote dinner (3V2 fr- includ. 
wine; in the third-class waiting-room 1 fr. 80c.) for passengers by the 
day-express is provided at Goeschenen, where the traveller should he careful 
to avoid an involuntary change of carriages, or even of trains. — Finest 
views from Lucerne to Fliielen to the right, from Fluelen to Goeschenen 
to the left, from Airolo to Bellinzona to the right, and at Lugano and 
Como to the left. 

The *St. Gotthard Railway, constructed in 1872-82, at a total cost of 
238 million francs, is one of the most stupendous engineering enterprises 
of modern times. The highest point of the railway is in the middle of 
the great tunnel and is 3787 ft. above the level of the sea. The maximum 
gradient is 1 :4, the shortest curve-radius 330 yds. The inclines have partly 
been surmounted by large spiral tunnels, of which there are three on the 
N. side of the St. Gotthard and four on the S. In all the railway has 79 
tunnels (with an aggregate length of 29 M.), 88 large bridges, 32 minor 
bridges, and 14 viaducts. The great tunnel alone cost nearly 57 million 
francs. Louis Favre, the engineer, died of apoplexy in the tunnel on July 
19th, 1879. 

The "Steamboat Voyage on the Lake of Lucerne from Lucerne to Flii- 
elen (2V4-2 3 /4 hrs.) is much pleasanter than the railway-journey (I-IV2 hr.) 
and is recommended to those who are not pressed for time. Comp. 
Baedeker's Switzerland. 

Lucerne. — Schweizerhof und Luzekner Hof; Hotel National; 
Beaurivage; Europe; Angleterre; Cygne ; Hotel du Rigi, all on the 
lake; the first-named are on a large scale. Hotel du Lac and St. Gott- 
hard, both near the station. Balances, on the Reuss. — Rcessli, Engel, 
Bar- Adler all unpretending. 

to Como. WASEN. 3. Route. 5 

Lucerne (1437 ft.) , the capital of the canton of that name , is 
beautifully situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The best view is obtained from the Giitsch (1722 ft.), at 
the N.W. end of the town, ^2 M. from the station (wire-rope rail- 
way). The celebrated Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thorwaldsen, 
lies V4 M. to the N. of the Schweizerhof-Quai. 

The railway skirts Lucerne in two tunnels and then runs towards 
the Kussnach arm of the Lake of Lucerne. The view is very fine, 
with the Rigi rising in front of us. — 12 M. Immensee (1520 ft.), 
on the Lake of Zug; 17t/ 2 M. Arth-Goldau (p. 4). Beyond (25 M.) 
Brunnen the line reaches the *Urner See or E. arm of the Lake of 
Lucerne, along the banks of which it runs through a succession 
of tunnels, some of great length. Beyond (32 M.) Fliielen (1435 ft. ; 
Tell, St. Gotthard, Kreuz, etc.) the train ascends the broad valley 
of the Reuss, via (38 M.) Erstfeld. 

The most interesting part of the railway begins at (41!/ 2 M.) Am- 
steg (1760 ft.). Immediately beyond the station the train pierces a 
projecting rock by means of the Windgelle Tunnel, crosses the Ker- 
stelenbach by an imposing bridge , and is then carried through the 
slope of the Bristenstock by means of two tunnels, and across the 
Reuss by an iron bridge, 256 ft. high. We now follow the left bank 
of the picturesque Reuss valley, traversing the Inschi Tunnel and 
crossing the Inschialp-Bach, cross the Zgraggen-Thal by means of a 
viaduct, and skirt the mountain through three tunnels and a cut- 
ting and over a viaduct. 

Beyond (50 M.) Gurtnellen (2300 ft.) the train crosses the Gor- 
neren-Bach and the Haegrigen-Bach and enters the Pfaffensprung 
Loop Tunnel (1635 yds.). On emerging from the upper end of the 
tunnel, which is 115 ft. above the lower, the train threads three 
shorter tunnels and crosses the Lower Meienreuss Bridge. Beyond 
the Wattinger Loop Tunnel (1199 yds. long; 76 ft. of ascent) it 
again crosses the Reuss and penetrates another tunnel to — 

51 M. Wasen(3055 ft.), a considerable village with a loftily 
situated church, commanding an admirable survey of the bold struc- 
ture of the railway. The imposing Middle Meienreuss Bridge 
(260 ft. high) and the Leggistein Loop Tunnel (1204 yds. long, 
82 ft. of ascent) now carry us to the Upper Meienreuss Bridge (148 ft. 
high), where we cross the wild and deep ravine of the Meienreuss 
for the third time. Passing through another tunnel and skirting 
the face of the mountains, we obtain a view of Wasen, far below 
us, and of the windings just traversed. Opposite rises the Rienzer 
Stock (9785 ft.). We next cross two fine bridges, penetrate the Nax- 
berg Tunnel (lM. long; ascent of 118 ft.), and cross the deep gorge 
of the Goeschenen-Reuss (view of the Goeschenen-Thal to the right, 
with the beautiful Dammafirn in the background). 

56 M. Goeschenen (3640 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, comp. p. 4). 

Immediately beyond the station the train crosses the Gotthard 

6 Route 3. ST. GOTTHAWTUNNEL. From Lucerne 

Reuss and enters the great *St. Gotthard Tunnel, which runs nearly 
due S., 5-6000 ft. below the highest point of the mountain. The 
tunnel is 16,309 yds. or about 9^4 M. in length, 28 ft. wide, and 
21 ft. high. It is laid with a double line of rails, and is lined with 
masonry throughout. Express trains take 16 min. to pass through 
the tunnel, slow trains 25 min. ; lanterns are placed on each side 
of the tunnel at intervals of 1000 metres, numbered i to xv, the 
even numbers being on the right side and the uneven on the left. — 
At the S. end of the tunnel, to the right, are some new fortifications. 

66 M. Airolo (3755 ft.), in the upper Ticino Valley (Valle Le- 
ventina). The scenery here still retains quite an Alpine character. 

Beyond Airolo the train crosses the Ticino, passes through the 
Stalvedro Tunnel (about 3 /4 M. long), and enters the Stretto di Stal- 
vedro. On the left bank of the Ticino the highroad runs through 
four rock-cuttings. The valley expands near (70 M.) Ambri-Piotta. 
To the left lies Quinto. Beyond (73 M.) Rodi-Fiesso (3100 ft.) the 
Monte Piottino projects into the valley on the N. The Ticino has 
worn a course for itself through the mountain, and descends the 
gloomy gorge in a series of waterfalls. The railway crosses the gorge 
at Dazio Orande, passes through two short tunnels, and enters the 
Freggio Loop Tunnel (1 M. in length), from which we emerge, 118ft. 
lower, in the Piottino Gorge. We again cross the Ticino in the midst 
of the grandest scenery, and then thread two short tunnels, the 
Prato Loop Tunnel (1 M. long; 118 ft. of descent), and another 
short tunnel, beyond which we enjoy a view of the beautiful valley 
of Faido, with its fine chestnut-trees. Crossing the Ticino and 
going through another tunnel, we reach — 

78M. Faido (2485 ft.), the capital of the Leventina, thoroughly 
Italian in character. On the right the Piumogna descends in a 
fine waterfall. 

The train now follows the left bank of the Ticino , traversing 
a beautiful district, richly wooded with walnut and chestnut trees. 
To the right lies Chiggiogna, with an old church. Near (82 M.) 
Lavorgo the Cribiasca forms a fine waterfall on the right. Farther 
on the Ticino forces its way through the picturesque Biaschina Rav- 
ine to a lower region of the valley. The railway descends about 
300 ft. on the left bank by means of two loop-tunnels , one below 
the other in corkscrew fashion : viz. the Pianotondo Loop Tunnel 
( 9 /i M. long; 115 ft. of descent), beyond a short tunnel and a 
viaduct, and the Travi Loop Tunnel (nearly 1 M. long; 118ft. of 
descent), beyond another short tunnel and viaduct. The train has 
now reached the lower zone of the Valle Leventina, and crosses and 
recrosses the Ticino on either side of (87 M.) Giomico (1480 ft.). 
On the right is the pretty fall of the Cramosina. 91 M. Bodio 
(1090 ft.). Beyond Polleggio the Brenno descends from the Val 
Blenio on the left, and is crossed by a double bridge. The valley 
of the Ticino now expands and takes the name of Riviera. Luxuriant 

K- B ej^levue p S.Saiva tore CapojjS.lTai-tinfl, Me lide 

Geogrtrph. Anstalt voji 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 7 

\ines , chestnuts , walnuts , mulberries , and fig-trees remind the 
traveller of his proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. 

94 M. Biasca (970 ft. ; Bail. Restaurant), with an old Romanesque 
church on a hill. From the station a series of oratories ascends to the 
Petronilla Chapel, near which is the pretty Froda or St. Petronilla Fall. 
— The train passes through two tunnels. 98 M. Osogna (870 ft.). 
— 102 M. Claro (830 ft.), at the foot of the Pizzo di Claro (8920 ft.), 
with the monastery of Santa Maria on the hillside. Beyond (104 M.) 
Castione the train passes the mouth of the Vol Mesocco and crosses 
the Moesa. The train then passes through a tunnel beyond which 
we obtain a magnificent view of Bellinzona. 

106 M. Bellinzona (760 ft. ; Railway Restaurant ; Hot. -Pens. 
Suisse et de la Poste; Hot. St. Gotthard; Cervo~), the capital of the 
canton of Ticino, a thoroughly Italian town with 5000 inhab., is the 
junction for Locarno (p. 161) and Luino (p. 161). Above it rise 
three picturesque castles : the Castello Grande, on an isolated hill 
to the "W., the Castello di Mezzo, and the Castello Corbario, to the E. 

The railway to Lugano and Milan passes through a tunnel 
(300 yds.) below the Castello di Mezzo. At (108 M.) Giubiasco 
the railways to the Lago Maggiore (p. 161) diverge to the right. 
Our line approaches the foot of the mountains near Camorino, and 
ascends the slopes of Monte Cenere through walnut and chestnut 
trees. S. Antonio lies below on the right; then, Cadenazzo (p. 161). 
Two tunnels. *View of the Ticino Valley and the influx of the 
Ticino into the Lago Maggiore, improving as we ascend. The train 
then penetrates the Monte Cenere by means of a curved tunnel 
(1 M. long), 1435 ft. above the sea-level and about 370 ft. below the 
summit of the pass. At the S. end of the tunnel, in a sequestered 
valley, lies (115 M.) Rivera-Bironico (1420 ft.). The train then 
skirts the Leguana, which soon unites with the Vedeggio, a stream 
descending from Mte. Camoghe (p. 12), to form the Agno. Short 
tunnel. 120 M. Taverne (1130 ft.; inn). Beyond Lamone (1033 ft.) 
the train quits the Agno and threads the Massagno Tunnel (1135 ft. 
above the sea). 

124 M. Lugano. — The Railway Station (1110ft.; PI. C, 2; -Restau- 
rant) lies on the hill above the town, of which, as well as of »the lake, it 
commands a fine view. Besides the road and a shorter footpath there is 
a Cable Tkamway (Funicolare; comp. PI. C, 2, 3), at the S. end of the 
building (fares : up 40 or 20 c, down 20 or 10 c). — The Steamboats (to 
Porto Ceresio and Ponte Tresa and to Porlezza, see p. 153; to Capolago, 
on the Generoso Railway, see p. 12) have three piers: Lugano-Citta, in the 
inner town, in front of the Palazzo Civico (PI. C, 3), Lugano-Parco, near 
the Hotel du Pare (PI. C, 4), and Lugano-Paradiso (PI. B, 6), for Paradiso 
and the Mte. S. Salvatore. 

Hotels (the chief of which send omnibuses to meet the trains and 
steamers). On the lake: *H6tel du Pakc (PI. a; B, C, 4), in an old mon- 
astery, with shady garden (band twice a day) and the dependances of Bel- 
vedere, Villa Ceresio, and Beau-Sijour (PI. b, B 4; the last, with fine 
garden, alone open in winter), R., L., & A. 4-6, B. l J /2 , dej. 3, D. 5, 
omn. IV2, music V2, pens. 8-12 fr.; 'Grand Hotel Splendide (PI. c; B, 5), 

8 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

Via Ant. Caccia, frequented by English and Americans, R. 3-7, L. 1, A. 
1, B. li/ 2 , dej. 3V2, D. 5, omn. IV2, pens. 9-12 fr. ; "Hot. Bellevue au Lac 
(PI. h; A, 5), on the road to Paradiso, German. Second Class: Hot.- 
Pens. Victoria (PI. 1; B, 5), Via Ant. Caccia, finely situated on the lake, 
with a garden, R. 2'/2-3, pens. 6-8 fr. ; *H6t.-Pens. Lugano (PI. e; C, 3), 
on the quay, with a small garden, R., L., & A. 4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, omn. 
1, pens. 7-10 fr., Italian; Hotel Garni Walter (PI. p; C, 3), R. 2-3, 

B. I1/4, dej. 2, D. 2 J /2, pens. 7-8 fr., well spoken of; *Pens. Meistee. — 
In the town: Hotel-Restaurant Schweizerhof (PI. g; D, 3), near the 
Piazza Giardini, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 2 l / 2 , D. 3, pens. 6 fr. ; Pension 
Zweifel, 4-5 fr. ; Albergo Grutli, moderate. — Near the station: *H6t.- 
Pens. Beau-Regard (PI. i; B, 3), to the S. of the station, on the hill, R., L., 
<fe A. 3-4, B. li/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 71/2-H fr. ; *H6tel St. Gotthard 
(PI. k; C, 3), R., L., & A. 31/2, B. I1/2, dej. 2V*, D. 4 fr.; "Pens. Villa 
Belvedere, in Montarina (PI. B, 3); *Pens. Villa Berna (PL r; C, 3), 
R., L., & A. 2-31/2, B. IV4, D. 31/2, S. 2V2 fr.; *H6tel Washington (PL d; 

C. 1), in a lofty and open situation to the N., R., L., & A. 3-31/2, B. l'/i, 
dej. 2, D. 372, pens. 7-8 fr. Below the station: *H6t. Meteopole, with fine 
garden, pens. 8-10 fr. ; *H6t. de la Gare et Terminus (PL o ; C, 2), R. 2, 

D. incl. wine 4 fr., unpretending; Hotel -Pens. Erica (PL 1; C, 2); *H6tel 
de la Ville et Pens. Bon-Air (PL s; C, 2), R. 2, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 
5-7 fr. ; Hotel Milan et Trois Suisses, moderate; Pens. Induni, unpre- 
tending. — At Loreto (PL B, 4): 'Tens. Villa S^eranza. — At Paradiso 
(p. 10), 3 /4 M. to the S. : *H6t.-Pens. Reichmann (PL n ; B, 6), R., L., <fc A. 
21/2-4, B. I1/4, D. 4, S. 3, pens. 8-9 fr. ; Hot. Europe, R. 2 l / 2 -5, dej. 3, 
D. 4, S. 3, pens, from 8 fr.; Hot.-Pens. Beau-Rivage (PL m; A, B, 6), 
pens. 6-8 fr. ; Hot. du Lac et National (PL u; B, 6), pens. 5-6 fr.; 'Hot.- 
Pens. San Salvador (PL m; A, B, 6), pens, from 6 fr. ; all on the lake. — 
At Cassarate (p. 10), 1 M. to the E. of the pier of Lugano-Citta, in a sheltered 
position, with a S. aspect, *Pens. Villa Castagnola (PL G,3), with pretty 
garden, R., L., & A. 21/2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 6V2-8V2 fr.; 
Pens. Villa du Midi (PL G, 5), 1/3 M. farther on, pens. 41/2-5 fr. ; Pens. 
Villa Moritz, on the mountain-slope, 5-6 fr., the last two well spoken of. 

Restaurants at the H6t. Lugano, Walter, and Victoria (see above; 
Munich beer); Trattoria Biaggi (also rooms and board), to the W. of the 
Piazza della Riforina, on the way to the cable-railway; Ristorante Ameri- 
cana (also rooms), Pia/za della Riforma, these two Italian. 

Beer : Walter, see above (Munich beer) ; Aktienbrauerei Basel, Piazza della 
Riforma; Milnchener Brauhaus, in the post-oflice building; Straub (see 
below), on the quay. 

Cafes. Cafe" Centrale, G. Jacchini, both in the Piazza Giardini. — 
Confectioners : Meister (Vienna bakery), a little to the S.W. of the Pal. 
Civico ; Foster, Via Canova, at the post-office. 

Lake Baths (Bagno Pubblico; PL B, 5), on the Paradiso road (open 
June-Sept.; bath 2Uc, box 6U c, dress and towels 20 c). Warm Baths at 
Anaslasi's, near the Hot. du Pare. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL D, 3), Via Canova. — Physicians, Dr. Cornils, 
Dr. Zbinden i Dr. Reali. — Dentist, Winzeler. — Bookseller, Arnold (Libreria 
Dalp), Piazza della Riforma. — Bureau of Information, Via Ponte Tresa74. 

Theatre (PL D, 3), Quai Giac. Albertolli, built in 1896-97. — StrauVs 
Music Ball, on the quay, next door to the Hot. Lugano. 

Electric Tramway from the Piazza Giardini every 15-20 min. to (S.) 
Paradiso or the Balvutore Station, (E.) Cassarate, and(N.) Molino Nuovo(10c). 

Carriage from the Railway Station to the town and vice versa, incl. 
the Paradiso and the Salvatore railway, with one horse, 1 pers. 1, 2 pers. 
IV2, 3 pers. 2, with two horses, 1-2 pers. 2, 3-5 pers. 3 fr. ; same fares from 
the town to Cassarate. To Caslagnola li/ 2 , 2, 2V2. 3, or 4 fr. ; from the 
St. Gotthard or the Salvatore railway-staiion to Cassarate IV2, 2, 21/2, 3, 
4 fr., to Castagnola 2, 21/2, 3, 4, 5, 6 fr. ; to Luino one-horse carr. 12, two- 
horse 20 fr. ; to Capolago 8 or 14 fr. ; to Varese 16 or 30 fr. ; driver's fee 
10 per cent of the fare. Drive round the Mte. Salvatore via Pambio, Fi- 
gino, Morcote, and Melide (2'/2 hrs.), one-horse carr. 7, two-horse 12 fr. 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 9 

Boat with one rower l3/ 4 fr., two rowers 3 fr. for the first hour, each 
addit. V2 hr. •/* fr. and 1 fr. respectively, with fee. Sailing Boat 372 and 
li/ii fr. 

English Chapel, adjoining the Belvedere du Pare (PI. C, 4 5 see p. 7; 
English chaplain resident from May to the end of Oct.). 

Lugano (932 ft.) , the largest and busiest town in the Swiss 
canton of Ticino , with 7000 inhab., is charmingly situated on 
the lake of the same name, and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the 
agave blooming here in the open air). It is a very pleasant place 
for a lengthened stay. The winter temperature is somewhat higher 
than that of Montreux. or Meran, from which Lugano is also distin- 
guished by its comparatively low elevation above the sea. The 
climate is therefore less stimulating, and for susceptible constitu- 
tions forms a suitable transition-stage on the way farther south. 
The heat of summer is seldom excessive. The environs possess 
all the charms of Italian mountain-scenery; numerous villages, 
churches, chapels, and country-seats are scattered along the banks 
of the lake, and the lower hills are covered with vineyards and 
gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark foliage of the chest- 
nuts and walnuts in the background. To the S., immediately above 
the town, rises the Monte San Salvatore, wooded to its summit; to 
the E., across the lake, is the Monte Caprino, to the left are the 
Monte Bre and the beautiful Monte Boglia. On the N. opens the 
broad valley of the Cassarate, backed by a group of mountains among 
which the double peak of Monte Camoghe (j>. 12) is conspicuous. 

To the E. of the steamboat-pier of Lugano-Citta, lies the Piazza 
Giardini (PI. C, D, 3), an open space beautified by pleasure 
grounds and a fountain. On its W. side rises the imposing Palazzo 
Civico (PI. 0, 3), erected in 1844, with a beautiful colonnaded 
court and a small Collection of Paintings by local artists on the first 
floor (open 10-12 and 2-4; fee). Beyond lies the Piazza dtlla Ri- 
forma. — A broad Quay, planted with trees and much frequented 
as an evening-promenade, stretches, under various names, along the 
lake. At its E. end is the new Theatre (p. 8); at the S. end of 
the Quai Vincenzo Vela is a small Fountain Statue of Tell (PJ. O, 4), 
by Vela (1852). 

The old conventual church of Santa Maria degli Angioli 
(PLC, 4), adjoining the Hotel du Pare, contains some good frescoes 
by Bernardino Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen (1529), one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the "Passion of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures , arranged according to the antiquated style in 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses, at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ, on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Mocking of Christ, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, Thomas's Un- 
belief, and the Ascension, all immediately adjacent. Although the style of 
the composition strikes one as old-fashioned, especially after seeing Leo- 
nardo's works, the eye cannot fail to be gratified by the numerous beau- 

10 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

tiful details. The St. Sebastian and St. Rochus, below, between the 
arches , are particularly fine. To the left, on the wall of the church, is 
the Last Supper, a picture in three sections, and in the 1st Chapel on the 
right is a fine Madonna, two paintings on panel by Luini. The chapel 
also contains the tomb of Archbp. Lachat (d. 1886). The sacristan expects 
a small fee (25-30 c). 

The interior of the town , with its arcades , workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets , is also quite Italian in its 
character. — San Lorenzo (PI. 0, 2), the principal church, on a 
height below the station, probably erected by Tornmaso Rodari at 
the close of the 15th cent., has a tastefully enriched marble facade 
in the early-Renaissance style. — The terrace in front of the station 
commands an extensive *View of the town and the lake. 

There are various pleasant Walks, well provided with guide- 
posts and benches. To the S., on the highroad (electric tramway, 
see p. 8), past the Hotel du Pare and Hotel Splendide, through 
the suburb of Paradiso (PI. A, B, 6 ; steamboat, see p. 7), and by 
the foot of Mte. Salvatore, to the (l 1 ^ M.) headland of San Martino. 
To Melide, see p. 12. — From Paradiso a footpath leads to the right 
to (5 min.) the Belvedere, which commands another fine view. — 
To the W. by the Ponte Tresa road (PI. A, B, 4, 5; p. 154), which 
diverges to the S. at the Villa Beausejour (short-cuts for walkers), 
to the (IV2 M.) hill on which lies the frequented Restaurant du 
Jardin (also pension), with a shady garden. The village of Sorengo 
(1325 ft.) is situated on a hill to the right (fine view from the 
church ; to the W. is the Lake of Muzzano). A carriage road leads 
from the Restaurant du Jardin, to the left, via Gentilino, to (1^2 M.) 
the conspicuous church of Sanf Abbondio (1345 ft.), in the grave- 
yard of which are several monuments by Vela. The walk may be 
pleasantly extended from Gentilino to Montagnola and thence back 
via S. Abbondio (1 hr.). — To the E., from the Piazza Castello 
(PI. D, 3), we may follow the Via Carlo Cattaneo, which crosses the 
(i/ 4 M.) Cassarate, to ( 3 / 4 M.) Cassarate (PL G, 3 ; electric car, p. 8), 
and thence proceed by the sunny highroad skirting the foot of the 
Mte. Bre to (1 M.J Castagnola (1080 ft.), where we obtain a fine 
view of the Mte. S. Salvatore (good restaurant in the Villa Moritz, 
p. 8). At No. 78 in the Piazza Castello is the entrance to the shady 
grounds of the Villa Qabrini (formerly Ciani, PI. D, E, 3), with a 
beautiful figure of a mourning woman ('La Desolazione'), by Vine. 
Vela (gardener i /%-l fr.). — From Castagnola a picturesque but 
somewhat fatiguing footpath (best in the evening) leads to (3 M.) 
Oandria (p. 153), where some of the steamers touch. 

The most interesting excursion is the *Ascent of the Monte San Sal- 
vatore, by cable-railway (1800 yds. long), from Paradiso in 30 min. (fare 
3, down 2 fr.). The station (PI. A, 6; 1245ft.; Restaurant, dej . 3, D. 4fr.) 
lies at the terminus of the electric tramway (p. 8), V* M. from the steamboat- 
pier Lugano- Paradiso (steamboat from Lugano-Citta in 10 min., 25 c). — 
The railway, with an initial gradient of 17: 100, crosses the St. Gotthard 
Railway, traverses a viaduct (110 yds. long; gradient 38:100) supported 
by iron pillars , and reaches the halfway station of Pazzallo (1600 ft.) 

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to Como. LUGANO, 3. Route. 11 

where carriages are changed. Here is the machine-house for the electric 
motor and the steam-engine. The line now ascends over granite rock, at 
an increasing gradient (finally 60 : 100), to the terminus (2900 ft. ; Restaurant, 
dej. 3 fr.). Thence we a c cend on foot to the (7 min.) summit ( Vetta) of the 
Monte San Salvatore (2980 ft.), on which there is a pilgrimage-chapel. 
The *Vikw embraces all the arms of the Lake of Lugano, the mountains 
and their wooded slopes, especially those above Lugano , sprinkled with 
numerous villas. To the E. above Porlezza is Monte Legnone (p. 150) ; 
N. above Lugano the double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 12), to the left 
of this the distant Rheinwald mountains; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, 
with the Matterhorn and other Alps of the Valais. This view is seen 
to best advantage in the morning (panorama by Imfeld). — Walkers (from 
Lugano to the top 2 hrs.) pass under the Gotthard railway and follow 
the road from Paradiso (comp. PI. A, 6) to (IV2 M.) Pazzallo ; here they 
turn to the E., following the narrow street named 'Al Monte', and farther 
on cross (12 min.) the funicular railway. 

The ascent of *Monte Bre (3050 ft.), to the E. of Lugano, is another easy 
excursion (2V2-3 hrs.), scarcely less interesting than that to Mte. S. Sal- 
vatore (guide needless ; mule 10 fr.). We take the electric tramway to 
Gassarate (see p. 10), whence a road leads to the N. to ( 3 /i M.) Viganello 
(1007 ft.). Below the hill crowned by the church of Pazzolino a bridle 
path descends to the right to (l ] /2 M.) Albonago (1525 ft.). Thence the 
route again ascends, partly between walls, and among chestnuts, figs, and 
vines, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Aldesago (1950 ft.), on the mountain-slope, the highest 
village visible from Lugano. Aldesago may also be reached in 3/4-I hr. 
from Castagnola (p. 10), via Ruvigliana. Above Aldesago the path divides: 
both branches lead round to the (tyr'A hr.) village of Bre (2630 ft. ; 2 hrs. 
from Lugano ; restaurant), at the back of the hill. From the church 
of Bre we ascend (no path) to the summit of the mountain in J /2 hr., either 
traversing the highest crest of the hill to the right, or crossing the spur 
to the left , in the direction of Lugano. The view of the several arms of 
the Lake of Lugano, especially in the direction of Porlezza, and the sur- 
rounding mountains, is very fine. Lugano itself is not visible from the sum- 
mit, but from the above-mentioned spur a good view of it may be obtained. 

Monte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These cellars are closed at sunset. Good wine of icy cool- 
ness may be obtained here ('Asti' recommended). The garden- restaurant of 
Cavallino, to the S. of the Cantine, has also become a popular resort. 
Close by is a small waterfall. Small boat there (35 min.) and back in 
2V2 hrs., including stay (fares, see p. 8); steamboat on Sun. and holi- 
days. — A footpath leads from the Cantine to the top of Mte. Caprino 
and thence along the ridge to the S.W. to the (3 hrs.) Colmo di Creccio 
(4300 ft.), which commands a picturesque view of the Lago di Lugano. 

A pleasant walk may be taken on the highroad from Campione 
(steamboat- station), past the Madonna delV Annunziata, with 16th cent, 
frescoes, to O/4 hr.) Bissone (steamboat- station) and by the railway 
embankment to (20 min.) Melide (steamboat and railway station; see 
p. 12). Thence in V2 hr. to San Marlino (p. 10). 

Longer Excursions: — *Monte Boglia (4980 ft.-, 4-4V2 hrs.; guide 
desirable). Ascent by Soragno and the Alp Bolla, or from Bre (see above), 
l 3 /4hr. The view is less comprehensive but more picturesque than that from 
Mte. Generoso (p. 13). Descent on the E. side through the grassy Veil Solda 
to Castello and San Mamette (steamboat-station; p. 153) or Oria (p. 153). — 
To San Bernardo nda Bigorio (to station Taverne 3 l /2-4hrs). We at 
first follow field-paths, leading over the fertile undulating district to the 
N. of Lugano and passing the villages of Massagno. Savosa, Porza, and Co- 
mano, to (lV2hr.) the church of San Bernardo (2310 ft.), situated on a rocky 
plateau, commanding a picturesque view. (At the S.E. base of the plateau 
are the village of Canobbio and the chateau of Trevano, with a charming 
park.) Thence Cat first following the top of the hill to the N.; no path) to 

12 Route 3. CAPOLAGO. From Lucerne 

Sala and the (I1/4 hr.) monastery of Bigorio (2360 ft. ; refreshments), charm- 
ingly situated on a wooded hill (the church contains a Madonna attributed 
to Guercino). [A delightful walk may be taken hence, through chest- 
nut-woods and over pastures, to (H/inr.) the top of Mte. Bigorio (3615 ft.).] 
From the monastery back by (1 M.) Ponte Capriasca (1427 ft.), with a church 
containing a good old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper (best light 
11-1), to (174 M.) the railway-station of Taverne (p. 7). — Monte Tamaro 
(6430 ft.; 4 hrs.; guide) from Taverne (p. 7) or Bironico (p. 7), not dif- 
ficult. Splendid view of Lago Maggiore (in the distance), etc. — Monte 
Camoghe (7300 ft.; 7-8 hrs. from Lugano-, guide from Colla), a fam- 
ous point of view , fatiguing. Road via Ganobbio and Tesserete (^Trat- 
toria Sev. Antonini), and then to the right, through the Val Colla, or 
upper valley of the Cassarate, to (12 M.; carr. in 2 J /2 hrs.) Scareglia or 
Lower Colla (3205 ft. ; 'Osteria Grarzirola). Thence (with guide) by Colla 
and the Alp Pietrarossa, leaving the Mte. Garzirola (see below) to the 
left, to the (3 hrs.) Alp Sertena (5920 ft.) and the (l l / 2 hr.) top, where 
we enjoy a striking panorama of the Alps from Mte. Rosa to the Ort- 
ler. The descent may be made to the N., via the alps of Rivolte and 
Leveno and through the Val Morobbia, to Giubiasco and (5 hrs.) Bellinzona 
(p. 7). — The ascent of Monte Garzirola (6940 ft.), accomplished from Colla 
in 3 hrs., is also recommended. — Pedestrians will find it to their ac- 
count to return from the Val Colla to Porlezza over the Pass of Ban Lucio 
(5960ft ), or to th&ValSolda(j>. 153), either by the Cima delV Arabione (5928 ft.; 
views) or past the remarkable Dolomitic peaks of the Denti di Vecchia, 
A pleasant excursion may be made in a light mountain-carriage 
(16 fr.) via, Bioggio (1053 ft.) to (2 hrs.) Cademario (2407 ft.), whence the 
carriage is sent to Agno. From Cademario we ascend on foot to (20 min.) 
San Bernardo (2955 ft.; view of Lago Maggiore, etc.). We next proceed 
to the Aronno-Iseo road and follow it to the left to Iseo (1254 ft.), Cimo, 
Vernate, and (2 hrs.) Agno (p. 154), where we rejoin the carriage. The 
chapel of Santa Maria (2560 ft.) lies near the road, between Iseo and Cimo. 

From Lugano to Capolago, steamboat several times daily in 3 /< hr., 
in connection with the Generoso Railway, see below. Stations: Campione, 
Bissone, Maroggia, Melano, and Capolago. 

Excursion to the Grotto of Osteno, see p. 153. 

Steamboat on the Lake of Lugano, in connection with the rail- 
ways to the Lago Maggiore and the Lake of Como, see p. 153. 

From Lugano to Chiasso and Como (Milan) . The train crosses 
the Tassino Valley, by means of a viaduct, 120 ft. high (charming 
view to the left), and passes through the Paradiso Tunnel (833 yds.) 
under the N.E. spur of Monte S. Salvatore (p. 11). It then skirts 
the lake, with views (to the left) of the wooded slopes of the E. 
bank and the villages upon it. The village of (128 M.) Melide, 
IY2 M. beyond the headland of S. Martino (p. 10), contains two 
popular resorts, the Grotto Demicheli (restaurant) and the Grotto 
Civelli (cold viands). The train and the road then cross the lake 
to Bissone by a stone viaduct 1 /.y, M. long, which sadly mars the 
scenery. At each end there is an arch for the passage of boats. 
Pleasant views in both directions. Two tunnels. Then (130 M.) 
Maroggia (Ristorante Mara, with beds), at the W. base of the Mte. 
Generoso; continuous view of the lake on the right. 

13272 M. Capolago (*H6t.-Pens. du Lac, with garden and 
electric light, R. 2, pens. 6-9 fr. ; Buffet), at the head of the S.E. 
arm of the lake, near the mouth of the Laveggio, is the station for 

toComo. MONTE GENEROSO. 3. Route. 13 

the Oeneroso Railway (steamboat from Lugano 2-3 times a day in 
summer, in about 1 hr.). 

Fkom Capolago to the Top of Monte Generoso, rack-and-pinion rail- 
way (generally running from April 15th to Oct. 15th) in li/4hr., to Bellavista 
(Hot. Generoso) in 56 minutes. Return-fare to the top 10 fr. (Sun. 5 fr.), from 
Lugano 11 fr. 75 c. (Sun. 6 fr.); return-ticket, incl. R., D., & B. in the Hot. 
Kulm, 18 fr. — The trains start from the steamboat-pier at Capolago and 
halt at(2min.) the St. Gotthard Railway Station, where the toothed rail be- 
gins. The train crosses the road and the St. Gotthard railway and ascends the 
slope of the Generoso (gradient 20 : 10", afterwards 22 : 100), with a continuous 
open view, on the right, of the Val di Laveggio, girt with wooded hills, of 
the little town of Mendrisio, and, behind, of the Lake of Lugano with S. Vi- 
tale on the W. hank, and Mte. Salvatore to the N. Then it skirts abrupt 
cliffs and enters a curved tunnel (150 yds. long), immediately before which 
the summit of Monte Rosa is visible. — 1 3 /4 M. San Nicolao (2820 ft. ; restau- 
rant), a station in the finely wooded Val di Solarino. The line next describes 
a wide curve, enters the Val delta Giazza by a tunnel 50 yds. long, and 
proceeds high up on the mountain-slope, with fine views of the plain 
of Lomhardy as far as Milan and Varese, and of the valleys of the Ge- 
neroso (to the right appears Monte Bistiino, with its pilgrimage-church). 
— 3*/2 M. Bellavista (4010 ft. ; Albergo Bellavista, plain ; restaurant). A path 
leads from the station along the mountain-ridge (fine views; benches) to 
the (5 min.) *Pevron, a platform provided with railings, immediately 
above Capolago, with a beautiful view (best in the morning) of the Lake 
of Lugano and the surrounding heights, backed by the line of snow-peaks 
stretching from the Gran Paradiso to the St. Gotthard. About x h M. to 
the E. of the station (hotel-porter meets the trains) is the *H6tel Monte 
Generoso (3965 ft. ; R., L., & A. 4-5, B. I1/2, luncheon 3>/2-4, D- 5, pens. 12 fr.-, 
Engl. Church Service), situated on a mountain-terrace commanding a view 
over the plain of Lombardy as far as the Monte Viso. A bridle-path leads 
hence to the summit in H/4 hr. — Beyond Bellavista the railway ascends 
through another tunnel (90 yds. long), and closely skirts the barren ridge, 
affording occasional views to the left of the lake and town of Lugano, 
and to the right, below, of the villages of Muggio and Cabbio. Beyond 
two short tunnels we reach the station of (51/2 M.) Vetta (5355 ft. ; "Hdtel 
Kulm, R. 5, B l 1 ^, dej. 4, D. 5 fr., connected by view-terraces with the 
Restaurant Vetta; adjacent, Albergo-Ritforante delta Vetta, plain, D. with 
wine 3 fr.). A good pa'h provided with railings leads hence in 10 min. 
to the summit of Monte Generoso (5590 ft.). The "View, no less striking 
than picturesque, embraces the lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and Lago 
Maggiore, the entire Alpine chain from the Monte Viso to the Pizzo dei 
Tre Signori, and to the S. the plain of Lombardy, watered by the Po and 
backed by the Apennines, with the towns of Milan, Lodi, Crema, and 
Cremona. — From the station of Vetta we may descend on foot to the 
Hotel du Generoso or to Bellavista station in 3 /t hr. 

Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Mendrisio (see below) via, 
San Nicolao (the usual way) in 4-4^2 hrs. ; from Maroggia (p. 12) via, Rovio 
(1665 ft. ; Hot.-Pens. Mte. Generoso. pens. 5-6 fr.) in 41/2-6 hrs. ; or from 
Balerna (see below) via, Muggio in 4-4V2 hrs. (roads to Rovio and Muggio, 
beyond which the ascent is fatiguing; also shorter footpath to Rovio). — 
From Lanzo d'Intelvi (bridle-path, 51/2 hrs.), see p. 153; recommended for 
the return (to Osteno 6 hrs.). 

The train now ascends the fertile valley of the Laveggio. 

135 M. Mendrisio (1190 ft. ; pop. 2870; *Angelo, Italian, R. & 
A. 2V2 fr.)> a small town of 2900 inhab. , */2 M. from the station, 
lies at the beginning of the bridle-path to the Monte Generoso (to 
the Hot. du Generoso 3 hrs. , mule 6 fr.). At Ligometto, V/% M. 
to the W., the birthplace of Vincenzo Vela (1822-91), is the Museo 
Vela, with models and a few originals by that sculptor. — The short 

1 4 Route 4. SPLUGEN. From Thusis 

Coldrerio Tunnel carries us through the -watershed between the La- 
veggio and the Breggia. 139 M. Balerna. 

140 M. Chiasso (765 ft.; *Bail. Restaurant; *Alb. San Michele, 
Alb.-Ristorante Colonne, both near the station), the last Swiss vil- 
lage (custom-house; usually a long halt). The line pierces the 
Monte Olimpino by means of a tunnel 3190 yds. long, beyond which 
a view of the Lake of Como is disclosed to the left. We then pass 
Borgo Vico, a suburb of Como, on the left. 

143 M. Como (Stazione Mediterranean p. 138); thence to (30 M.) 
Milan, see R. 20. 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Splugen. 

58 M. Diligence from Thusis to Chiavenna (41 M.) twice daily in 
summer in 10 hrs. (fare 16 fr. £0, coupe 19 fr. 80 c). Extra Post from 
Thusis to Chiavenna with two horses 99 fr. 20 c, with three horses 135 fr. 
50 c. — Railway from Chiavenna to Colico, 17 M., in 3/ 4 -l hr. (fares 3 fr. 
10, 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 40 c), corresponding with the steamboats to Como. 

Thusis (2450 ft. ; H6t.-Pens. Via Mala, Post, Ehaetia, etc.), the 
terminus of the railway, lies at the confluence of the Rhine and the 
Nolla. — The Splugen road leads hence through the gorge of the 
*Via Mala, crossing the foaming Rhine several times. Finest *View 
at the second bridge. 

7y 2 M. Andeer (3210 ft,). — Then we follow the wooded Rofna 
Ravine and the picturesque Rheinwald- Thai ( Vol Rhein) to — 

16^2 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4757 ft. ; Hdtel Bodenhaus, 
R., L., & A. 3V2, D. 3 fr. ; Hotel Splugen), the capital of the Rhein- 
wald-Thal, at the junction of the Splugen and Bernardino routes. 
The latter here runs to the W. The Splugen route turns to the left, 
crosses the Rhine, and ascends in windings to the (6 3 /4 M.) Splugen 
Pass (Colmo delV Orso ; 6945 ft.), the boundary between Switzer- 
land and Italy. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the pass is the Dogana (6245 ft.), 
the Italian custom-house. 

The road now descends by numerous zigzags along the B. slope, 
being protected against avalanches by long galleries and avoiding 
the dangerous Liro Gorge. Beyond Pianazzo (inn), near the entrance 
to a short gallery, the Madesimo forms a magnificent waterfall, 650 ft. 
in height, which is best surveyed from a platform by the roadside. 

From Pianazzo a road ascends to (H/4 M.) Madesimo (4920 ft.), a pret- 
tily situated village with a chalybeate spring and a 'Hydropathic. 

34 M. Campodolcino (3455 ft. ; Posta, Croce d'Oro, both indif- 
ferent) consists of four large groups of houses. The second contains 
the church. The Liro Valley (Valle San Giacomo) is strewn with 
fragments of rock. , but the wildness of the scene is softened by 
the luxuriant foliage of the chestnuts lower down , from which 
rises the slender campanile of the church of Madonna di Galli- 
vaggio. Beyond San Giacomo the rich luxuriance of Italian vegeta- 
tion unfolds itself to the view. 

to Colico. CHIAVENNA. 4. Route. 15 

41 M. Chiavenna. — Hotels. *H6tei, Conradi, >/t M. from the 
railway-station, with railway and diligence ticket and luggage office, R., 
L., & A. from 2, B. 1V4, D. incl. wine 3 fr. ; Albergo Specola, at the 
station, R., L., & A. 2 l h, B. 1 fr. •, Chiave dOro, on the Promenade. 

The Station {Caf 6- Restaurant, dej. 2 i j-i fr. ; heer) lies outside of and 
below the town. Through-tickets are here issued to the steamboat-stations 
on the Lago di Como, with coupon for the omnibus-journey between the 
railway-station and the quay at Colico. 

Chiavenna (1090 ft.), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town 
with 4100 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Mera, at the mouth 
of the Val Bregaglia, through which the road to the Maloja Pass and 
the Engadine leads. Opposite the Hotel Conradi are the ruins of 
an unfinished castle of De Salis, the last governor appointed by the 
Grisons. Picturesque view from the castle-garden or 'Paradiso' (adm. 
50 c). — San Lorenzo, the principal church, has a slender clock- 
tower or campanile, rising from an arcaded enclosure which was 
formerly the burial-ground. The Battisterio (closed; fee 15-20 c.) 
contains a font of 1206, adorned with reliefs. 

The hills of the Val Capiola contain many 'Marmitte dei Giganti 1 or 
giant's kettles (Ger. Strudellocher, Riesenkessel) of all sizes (guides at 
the hotels). 

The Railway to Colico (fares, see p. 14) traverses three tun- 
nels soon after starting, beyond which we enjoy a fine retrospect of 
Chiavenna. The line runs through a rich vine-bearing country, the 
lower parts of which, however, are exposed to the inundations of 
the Liro and Mera. The valley (Piano di Chiavenna) is enclosed on 
both sides by lofty mountains. On the right bank of the Mera lies 
Oordona, at the mouth of the Val della Forcola, beyond which 
the Boggia forms a pretty waterfall in its precipitous descent 
from the narrow Val Bodengo. — 6 M. Samdlaco is the station for 
the large village of that name on the opposite (right) bank of the 
Mera, at the mouth of the Val Mengasia. Near (8y 2 M.) Novate 
the railway reaches the Lago di Mezzola. This lake was originally 
the N. bay of the Lake of Como, from which it has been almost 
separated by the deposits of the Adda; but the narrow channel 
which connects the lakes has again been rendered navigable. To 
the S. appears the pyramidal Mte. Legnone (p. 150). The railway, 
supported by masonry and traversing tunnels, crosses the Adda 
beyond (12^2 M.) Dubino. The Valtellina railway (p. 151) joins 
ours from the left ; we observe on a hill to the right the ruined 
castle of Fuentes, once the key of the Valtellina, erected by the 
Spaniards in 1603, and destroyed by the French in 1796. 

17 M. Colico (720 ft. ; *Ristorante alia Stazione, with beds), at 
the N.E. extremity of the Lake of Como, see p. 150. The station is 
nearly l/ 2 M. from the quay. The omnibus-coupons are collected at 
the exit from the station. There is abundant time to permit of pass- 
engers walking to the quay. — Railway from Colico to Lecco (Mi~ 
Ian), see pp. 142-136. 


5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

175 M. Austrian Southern Railway (Oesterreichische Sildbahn) in 61/4- 
12 hrs. (express fares 35 fr. 35, 26 fr. 25 c. ; ordinary 29 fr. 90, 22 fr. 20, 
14 fr. 65 c. ; through-tickets payahle in gold). The 'Nord-Siid-Express-Zug 1 , 
a train de luxe composed of first-class and dining cars, performs the journey 
in 6 ! /4 hrs.; the day-express (1st & 2nd cl.) lakes 8, the night-express 
(1st, 2nd, & 3rd cl.) 9 J /4, the ordinary trains 9V4-12 hrs. — Views on the 
right as far as the summit of the Brenner. 

The Brenner (4495ft.), the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, 
is traversed by one of the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early 
as the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, is carried through 30 tunnels, and over 60 large 
and a number of smaller bridges within a distance of 83 M. The greatest 
incline, 1 : 40, is between Innsbruck and the culminating point. 

Innsbruck (1880 ft. ; Tiroler Hof, R., L., & A. from 2 fl., B. 
70 kr., D. 2*/2 fl .; B6t. de V Europe, R., L., & A. from I1/2 A., B. 
60 kr., D. 2 fl. ; Ooldene Sonne, R., L., & A. 2-2 V2 fl., B. 60 kr., D. 
2 fl., these three first class, opposite the station; Victoria, also op- 
posite the station ; Hotel Kreid, Margarethen-Platz ; Hot. Munchen, 
Hot. Habsburg, in the town, these four second-class ; Rail. Restau- 
rant, D. with wine 1 fl. 20 kr.), the capital of Tyrol, with 23,300 
inhab., is described in Baedeker's Eastern Alps. — The railway as- 
cends the valley of the Sill. Four tunnels. 4y 2 M. Unterberg-Stefam- 
brilcke. Three tunnels. Beyond (6 M.) Patsch (2570 ft.) are three 
more tunnels. — 12*/2 M. Matrei (3254 ft.), with the chateau of 
Trautson, is charmingly situated. — l5 1 /2 M. Steinach (3447 ft.). — 
The train now ascends a steep incline, crosses the valleys ofSchmirn 
and Vals in a wide curve beyond (18^2 M.) St. Jodok (two tun- 
nels), and runs high above the Sill to (19 1/ 2 M.) Qries (4114 ft.). It 
then passes the small green Brenner-See, and reaches — 

25 M. Stat. Brenner (4495 ft. ; Buffet), on the summit of the 
pass, the watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. From 
the hillside to the right descends the Eisak , which the train now 
follows. — 271/2 M. Brennerbad (4290 ft.), a popular bath-establish- 
ment. The line then descends rapidly through two tunnels to (30^2 M.) 
Schelleberg (4075 ft.), where it turns into the Pflersch- Thai, return- 
ing , however , to the Eisak valley by a curved tunnel , 800 yds. 
long. 36 M. Oossensass (3494 ft.) is visited as a summer-resort. — 
The train now runs through wild rocky scenery. 40 M. Sterzing 
(3110 ft.). On the left rises the castle of Sprechenstein, and on the 
right the ruins of Thumburg and Reifenstein. — 43 M. Freienfeld. 
— We now cross the Eisak. On the left bank are the remains of 
the castle of Welfenstein. — 45 M. Mauls. — 47y 2 M. Grasstein 
(2745 ft.), at the entrance of the narrow defile of (50 M.) Mittewald, 
where the French were defeated in 1809. The lower end of the 
defile , called the Brixener Klause , near Vnterau, is closed by the 
Franzensfeste, a strong fortress constructed in 1833. The (52^2 M.) 
main station (2450 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, D. 1 fl. 20 kr.), the 
junction of the Pusterthal line (for Carinthia), lies some distance 

BOTZEN. 5. Route. 17 

from the (54 M.) station for the fortress. — 56y 2 M. Vahrn. Vine- 
yards and chestnuts now appear. 

59y 2 M - Brixen (1840 ft. ; Elephant, 3/ 4 M. from the station) 
was the capital of an ecclesiastical principality, dissolved in 1803. 

— We cross the Eisak. To the right, ahove us, lies Tachotsch. 
6iy 2 M. Albeins. The valley contracts. 64 M. Viltnoss; 65 M. 
Klausen (1715 ft.). — The line skirts precipitous porphyry cliffs. 

— 687-2 M. Waidbruck (1545 ft.). On the left, high above, rises 
the Trostburg. The train crosses the Groedenerbach, and then the 
Eisak, in a wild ravine hemmed in by porphyry rocks. 7172 M. 
Kastdruth ■ 73y 2 M. Atzwang (1220 ft.). Four tunnels. — 78 M. 
Blumau. Another tunnel is passed through. On the right bank are 
the vine-clad slopes of the Botzener Leitach. — 81 72 M. Kardaun, 
at the opening of the Eggen-Thal. The train now returns to the 
right bank of the Eisak aud enters the wide basin of Botzen, a 
district of luxuriant fertility. 

83 M. Botzen, Ital. Bolzano (880 ft. ; * Victoria , opposite the 
station, R. 1-1 y 2 , L. & A. 3 / 4 fi.,B.60 kr. ; * Kaiserkrone , Musterplatz, 
R. from 1 fl., L. & A. 50, B. 50-70 kr., D. 1 fl. 70 kr. ; *Greif, Jo- 
hann-Platz, R. 1- il/ 2 fl., L. 20 kr. ; Mondschein, etc.), with 11,700 
inhab., the most important commercial town in Tyrol, is beautifully 
situated at the confluence of the Eisak and the Talfer, which de- 
scends from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards the E. is 
formed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains of the Val 
di Fassa ; to the W. rises the long porphyry ridge of the Mendel. The 
Gothic Parish Church of the 14th and 15th cent, has a portal with 
two lions of red marble, in the Lombard style. Beautiful open tower, 
completed in 1519. — The Calvarienberg (950ft.; 25 min. walk; 
beyond the Eisak bridge cross the railway to the right) commands 
a fine view of the town and environs. — Beyond the Talfer, at the 
foot of the Guntschnaberg, lies Gries, frequented as a winter-resort. 

From Botzen a branch-line diverges to (20 M.) Meran (l 1 /a-2 hrs.). 
See Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisak, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adige) 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at (8972 M.) Branzoll. In the distance, to the right, rises the di- 
lapidated castle of Sigmundskron, and the wooded range of the Mittel- 
berg. Beyond (93 M.) Auer the train crosses the river. — 96 M. 
Neumarkt-Tramin , the former on the left bank of the Adige, the 
latter on the mountain-slope to the right. — 99 M. Salurn, com- 
manded by a ruined castle on an apparently inaccessible rock. — 
107 M. San Michele, with a handsome old Augustine monastery, is 
the station for the Val di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. 

— 110 M. Alle Nave; 111 M. Lavis, on the Avisio, which here de- 
scends from the Val Cembra. This impetuous torrent with its dif- 
ferent ramifications is crossed above its junction with the Adige by 
a bridge 1000 yds. in length. — 115 M. Gnrdolo. 

Baedekek. Italy T. 11th Edit. 2 

18 Route 5. tkkwf* From Innsbruck 

II7I/2 M. Trent. — *Hotel Trento, near the station, R., L., & A. 
11/4-2 fl. In the town: Eueopa, Via Lunga, R. & A. 1 fl. 40 kr. — Second 
class: Aquila Bianca, near the castle; Agnello d'Oro; Due Conti. 

Trent (640 ft.), or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 21,600 in- 
hab., formerly the wealthiest and most important town in Tyrol, 
possesses numerous towers, palaces, and broad streets, and presents 
an imposing appearance. The pretty grounds adjoining the station 
are adorned with a lofty Monument to Dante, designed by Zocchi. 

The *Cathedral, begun in its present form in 1212, and restored 
in 1882-89, is a Romanesque church surmounted by a dome. The 
N. portal, as at Botzen, is adorned with a pair of lions. In the 
Piazza Grande (at the cathedral), which is embellished with the 
tasteful Neptune Fountain (1769), stands the Palazzo Pretorio (now 
the military headquarters), with the old Torre Grande. 

Santa Maria Maggiore, dating from the early part of the 16th cent., 
contains a picture, on the N. wall of the choir, with portraits of the 
members of the Council of Trent which assembled here in 1545-63. 
The handsome organ-loft is in the Renaissance style. 

The Palazzo Municipale, in the ViaLarga, to the N. of the cathe- 
dral, contains the Public Library and the Museum, the latter con- 
sisting of collections of natural history specimens, S. Tyrolese anti- 
quities, coins, etc. 

On the E. side of the town rises the imposing Castello del Buon 
Consiglio, formerly the seat of the prince- bishops and now a bar- 
rack. A fine view is enjoyed from the huge Torre di Augusto. — A 
good view of the town is also obtained from the terrace of the Ca- 
puchin Convent above the Castello. ■ — The rocky, fortified hill of 
Verruca or Dos Trento (950 ft.), on the right bank of the Adige, is 
not accessible to visitors. 

From Trent to Bassano through the Venetian Mountains, 70 M. Rail- 
way to (47 M.) Tezze in 23/ 4 -33/ 4 hrs. (fares 3 fl. 23, 2 fl. 13, 1 fl. 8 kr.); Dil- 
igence thence (railway in contemplation) to (23 M.) Bassano in 4*/2 hrs. — 
The line leaves the Adige at (8 M.) Povo and ascends the narrow valley 
of the Fersina. 

15V2 M. Pergine (1575 ft. ; *H6tel Voltolini), a market-town with 4400 
inhab., commanded by the handsome castle of that name. — A little farther 
011 we pass the beautiful Lake of Caldonazzo. 22 M. Caldonazzo. — 24 ! /2 M. 
Levico ("Stabilimento ; "Alb. Germania, etc.), a frequented watering-place 
with arsenic springs, lies near the Lago di Levico, which is separated by a 
narrow ridge from the Lake of Caldonazzo. Here begins the fertile Val 
Sugana, watered by the Brenta. — 30 M. Roncegno-Marter (1364 ft.), the 
station for the baths of Roncegno, 11/2 M. to the N. 

33 M. Borgo di Valsugana (1295 ft.; Hdtel Valsugana; Croce Bianca), 
the capital of the valley. To the N. rises the ruined castle of Telvana, 
with the remains of a second castle (San Pietro) high above it. — Above 
(37 M.) Strigno (1144 ft.), to the N., is the beautiful chateau of Ivano, 
belonging to Count Wolkenstein-Trostburg. — The train skirts the foot 
of the Cima Lasta (5510 ft.), high up on which is the Ponte deWOrco, a 
curious natural bridge. — 47 M. Tezze (740 ft.), the terminus of the rail- 
way, lies IV2 M. to the S. of the village of that name (Austrian custom- 

Beyond Tezze the Road crosses the Italian frontier and reaches (3 M.) 
Primolano (710 ft. ; Posta, plain), a poor village surrounded by mountains. 

to Verona. ALA. 5. Route. 19 

Our road enters the imposing rocky gorge of the "'Canute di Brenla. In a 
rocky cavity to the left, 10U ft. above the road, is the mediaeval strong- 
hold of Covolo (inaccessible). About 3 M. farther on the Cismone descends 
from the Val Primiero. Opposite (1372 M.) Carpane (485 ft.; Cavallino), 
on the right bank of the Brenta, lies Valstagna, inhabited chiefly by the 
makers of broad-brimmed straw-hats. — Beyond (19 M.) Solagna (430 ft.) 
the ravine of the Brenta expands. About l'/2 M. farther on the road turns 
a corner, and a view is obtained of a broad plain with large olive-planta- 
tions, in which lies the picturesque town of — 
23 M. Bassano (see p. 241). 

The Railway follows the Adige. — 122 M. Matarello. On a 
hill near (127 M.) Calliano rises the castle of Beseno, the property 
of Count Trapp. The lower valley of the Adige, as far as the Italian 
frontier, is named the Val Lagarina. It is rich in vines, maize, 
and mulberries. — 129 M. Volano ; 130 M. Villa Lagarina. 

132 M. Kovereto (695 ft. ; *H6t. Olira; Agnello), a considerable 
town with 9000 inhab., has an old Castello. — Road to Torrebelvi- 
cino and Schio, see p. 231. 

The train crosses the Leno. On the right bank of the Adige lies 
Isera, celebrated for its wine, with numerous villas and a waterfall. 
On the left bank, to the E. of the railway, near Lizzana, is the 
Castello Dante (1003 ft.), which about the year 1302 was visited by 
Dante when banished from Florence. 

135 M. Mori (570ft.; Buffet; Railway Hotel, a tolerable Italian 

house, R., L., & A. l 1 /^-)- 

From Mori to Riva on the Lago di Garda via. Arco, 15>/2 M., steam 
tramway in I1/2 hr. (fares 1st cl. 1 fl. 23, 3rd cl. 51 kr.). [The distance to 
Riva by the direct road is about 11 M.; carr. 3V2, wilh two horses 7 fl.] 
The line crosses the Adige to (2 M.) Mori Borgata, the station for the large 
village of Mori (672 ft.). It then traverses the broad green valley to 
(4^2 M.) Loppio (735 ft.), with the chateau of Count Castelbarco, passes the 
little Lago di Loppio, with its rocky islands, and winds up among rocky 
debris to the (IV4 M.) culminating point of the route , at the chapel of 
San Giovanni (915 ft.). We now descend to (8 M.) Nago, a village situated 
on the brink of a ravine, with the ruins of the castle of Peneda (922 ft.), 
on a barren rock to the left. The road leads hence to the left to Torbole 
(p. 200) and (3 M.) Riva. — The line descends along the right slope of the 
mountains. We enjoy an exquisite '"View of the blue Lago di Garda, with 
the Sarca at our feet, and the long Monte Brione opposite. Presently 
Arco and the wide valley of the Sarca, with its mountain-sides, come into 
view. 11 M. Oltresarca is the station for several villages. We then cross 
the Sarca to (12'/2 M.) Arco (p. 203). Thence we traverse the fertile valley 
(to the left Mte. Brione; to the right, among the mountains, Tenno, see 
p. 203). 13'/z M. San Tommaso. 15 x /2 M. Riva (p. 201 ; steamers on the 
Lago di Garda, see p. 197). 

Near (136i/ 2 M.) San Marco the line intersects the so-called 
Slavini di San Marco, probably the remains of an ancient glacier, 
according to others the traces of a vast landslip, which is said to 
have buried a town here in 883, and is described by Dante (7n- 
ferno xii. 4-9). At (137 M.) Serravalle the valley contracts. 

142 M. Ala (415 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Hotel Ala; Cervo'), with 
4600 inhab., is the seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house 
authorities. Those who have forwarded luggage by this route to or 
from Italy should enquire for it at the custom-house here. — 144 M. 


20 Route 6. SEMMERING. From Vienna 

Avio, the last Austrian station, with the dilapidated chateau of 
Count Castelbarco. 

148 M. Peri (413 ft.), tiie flrst Italian station, is the starting- 
point for the ascent of the Monte Baldo (Mte. Maggiore ; comp. 
p. 202), which separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di 
Garda. — On an eminence to the right, near (lu6 M.) Ceraino, lies 
Rivoli, which was stormed by the French in 1796 and 1797 under 
Masse'iia, and afterwards gave him his ducal title. — We now enter 
the Chiusa di Verona, a rocky defile celebrated in mediaeval warfare. 
At the entrance are the works of Incanale, commanding the pass. 

The train passes (160 M.) Domegliara, also a station on the 
Verona and Caprino line (comp. p. 220), then (164 M.) Pescan- 
tina, and (167 M.) Parona all Adige (p. 220), crosses the Adige, 
and soon reaches the Verona and Milan line. 

At Verona (see p. 207) it flrst stops at (173 M.) the Stazione 
Porta Nuova and then at the (175 M.) Stazione Porta Vescovo, the 
principal station. 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba. 

401 M Austrian South Railway to Bruck; Austrian State Railway 
thence to Pmtajel; North Italian Railway thence to Venice. Irani de 
luxe' (Vienna-Cannes; 1st class carriages only, at special ra'e) daily in 
winter, via Amstetten, in 168/ 4 hrs. ; express train via Bruck in l^/i hrs., via 
Amstetten in l?i/ 4 hrs. (fares 76iT.bU, 52 Jr. 55 c.) ; ordinary train iniS'/ilm. 

Vienna, see Baedekers Austria. The express trains take 13/ 4 hr. 
from Vienna to (47 M.) dloggnitz via Baden and Wiener-Neustadt.— 
At Gloggnitz (1450 ft.) begins the *Stmmering Railway, the oldest 
of the great continental mountain-railways, constructed in 1848- 
53 (best views on the left). In the valley flows the green Schwarzau. 
On the left is the three-peaked Sonnwendstein ; to the W., in the 
background, the Raxalp. At (51 M). Payerbach (1615 ft.) the train 
crosses the Valley of Reichenau by a viaduct 80 ft. high and ascends 
rapidly on the S. slope of the valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond four 
tunnels it reaches (60 M.) Klamm (2290 ft.), with a half-ruined 
castle of Prince Liechtenstein, on a rocky pinnacle. Far below runs 
the old Semmering road. The train now skirts the Weinzettelwand 
by a long gallery and reaches (64y 2 M.) Breitenstein (2530 ft.). Two 
more tunnels are traversed, and the ravines of the Kalte Rinne and 
the Vntere Adlitzgraben crossed by lofty viaducts. 

After three more tunnels the train reaches (69^2 M.) Semmering 
(2930 ft.), and passes from Austria into Styria by means of the 
Semmering Tunnel, nearly 1 M. long. It then descends rapidly on 
the N. slope of the Froeschnitz to (75y 2 M.) Spital and (80 M.) Murz- 
zuschlag (2200 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant). — The line now follows the 
picturesque valley of the Murz, containing numerous forges. 85 M. 
Langenwang; 87»/ 2 M - Krieglach; 90 V2 M - Mitterdorf. On the right 
rises the chateau of^Pichl, and, beyqjftd^the ruins of Lichtenegg- 

to Venice. ST. MICHAEL. 6. Route. 21 

The train makes a wide sweep round the Wartberg-Kogel, crossing 
the Miirz twice, and reaches (95 M.l Kindberg , with a castle of 
Count Attems. — 100 M. Marein; 103 J /2 M - Kapfenberg. 

10672 M. Bruck (1595 ft. ; Wintersteiner), a small town at the 
confluence of the Miirz and Mur, with an old castle, is the junction 
of the line to Oratz and Trieste (see Baedeker s Austria). On a rocky 
height to the N. of the station is the ruined castle of Landskron. 

The Staatsbahn, which we now follow, diverges to the right 
from the South Railway, crosses the Mur, and ascends the narrow 
valley of that river. Beyond (114 M.) Niklasdorf we again cross the 
Mur and reach (llG 1 ^ M.") Leoben (1745 ft.), the most important 
town of Upper Styria (7000 inhah.). The train describes a wide 
circuit round the town, and stops at the (117V2 M.) Staatsbahnhof, 
to the S. of the suburb of Waasen. It then follows the Mur, pass- 
ing the chateau of Goss on the left. 

125 M. Sankt Michael (1955 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant), at the mouth 
of the Liesing- Thai , is the junction for the line to Selzthal and 
Amstetten, followed by the 'train de luxe' mentioned at p. 20. — 
139 M. Knittelfeld (2110 ft.). — 148V 2 M. Judenburg (2380 ft.; 
Rail. Restaurant^), at the base of the Seethal Alps, with extensive 
foun 'ries. — 15iy 2 M. Thalheim ; 157 M. St. Georgen; 160 M. Unz- 
markt. On the right rises the ruin of Frauenburg , once the seat of the 
minnesinger Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Beyond (164^2 M.) Scheif- 
ling, with the chateau of Schrattenberg (r.), the train quits the Mur 
and ascends to (16972 M.) St. Lambrecht (2900 ft.), on the water- 
shed between the Mur and the Drave. It then descends the valley 
of the Olsa, passing (173 M.) Neumarkt and (178 M.) Einoed. 

182V2 M« Friesach (2090 ft.) , an ancient town, commanded by 
four ruined castles, near the confluence of the Olsa with the Met- 
nitz. — The train now enters the Krappfeld, the fertile plain of the 
Ourk ; to the E. is the Sau-Alpe, to the S. rise the Karawanken. 
I851/2M. Hirt; 189 M. Treibach; 197 M. Launsdorf (*Rail. Restau- 
rant). The most interesting of the numerous castles of the Car- 
inthian nobles in this district is *Hoch-Osterwitz, the property of 
the Khevenhiiller family, 2 M. to the S.W., on a rock 500 ft. high. 

From (20172 M.) Glandorf (*Rail. Restaurant) a branch-line 
diverges to Klagenfurt. — 203 M. St. Veit (1560 ft.), an ancient 
town with 3000 inhab., was the capital of Carinthia down to 1519. 

— The line continues to ascend the valley of the Glan, part of 
which is marshy. 20872 M. Feistritz-Pulst. To the right is the ruin 
of Liebenfels; to the left those of Karlsberg and (farther on") Hardegg. 

— 211 M. Glanegg, with an old castle. Beyond (21772 M.) Feldkir- 
chen we skirt a wide moor and at (22372 M.) Steindorf approach the 
Ossiacher See (1600 ft.). 2257 2 M. Ossiach; 229 M. Sattendorf. 
At the S.W. end of the lake is the ruin of Landskron. 

1 234 M. Villach (1665ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant; Mosser; Post, etc.), 
an old town on the Drave, with 7700 inhab., the junction of the 

22 Route 6. FOTrrEBKt. 

lines to Marburg and Franzensfeste, is very picturesquely situated 
at the base of the Dobratsch (7110 ft.). 

The train skirts the town towards the S. and crosses the Drave. 
— 23672 M. Bad Villach, with warm sulphur springs. We now cross 
the Gail. 239 i/ 2 M. Firnitz; 243i/ 2 M. Amoldstein; 2Aiy 2 M. Thoerl- 
Maglern. The line then runs along the left side of the Schlitza 
Valley and passes through two tunnels. 

251 M. Tarvis (2410 ft. ; *Rail. Hotel $ Restaurant), where the 
railway from Laibach joins ours on the left, the chief place in the 
Kanal Valley, consists of Vnter- Tarvis, in the floor of the valley, 
Y2 M. from the the station, and Ober-Tarvis, 3 / 4 M. farther on, 
with a station of its own, at which the slow trains stop. 

Beyond Ober-Tarvis the line gradually ascends. To the left 
rises the Luschariberg (5880 ft.) , with a much - frequented pil- 
grimage-church. — 256 M. Saifnitz (2615 ft.), on the watershed 
between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The train then descends 
along the Fella. — 260 M. ZJggowitz. Near the picturesque Fort 
Malborgeth the Fella is crossed. Beyond (262^2 M.) Malborgeth the 
train traverses a rocky ravine, at the end of which lies (266 M.) Luss- 
nitz, passes Leopoldskirchen on the left, and crosses the Vogelbach. 

272 M. Fontafel (1870 ft. ; Railway Restaurant), the Austrian 
frontier-station, where the luggage of passengers arriving from Italy 
is examined. Pontafelis separated by the rushing Pontebbana from — 

273^2 M. Pontebba (Railway Restaurant), the first village in 
Italy, with the Italian custom-house (luggage examined). The next 
part of the railway, traversing the wild ravine of the Fella (*Valle 
del Ferro), is remarkable both for the grandeur of the scenery and 
for the boldness displayed in the construction of the line. The train 
at first descends rapidly along the right bank of the Fella, and 
then crosses the river by an iron bridge, 130 ft. high, at Ponte di 
Muro. — 278M. Dogna, at the mouth of the valley of that name, at 
the head of which rises the grand pyramid of the Montasio or Bram- 
kofel (9030 ft.). — 281 M. Chiusaforte, at the entrance of the 
picturesque Raccolana Valley. At (286 M.) Resiutta the train crosses 
the Resia. Below (288 M.) Moggio the valley of the Fella expands. 
The bottom of the valley is covered with rubble. A little below 
(291 M.) Stazione per la Carnia the Fella flows into the Tagliamento, 
which here waters an extensive plain. 

294 M. Venzone. The train traverses the marshy valley of the 
Tagliamento by an imposing viaduct, J /2 M. in length, and then 
quits the basin of that river, which flows towards the S.W. into 
the Adriatic Sea. — 298 M. Gemona-Ospedaletto, the junction of the 
new line to Venice via Casarsa and Portogruaro (comp. pp. 306. 309); 
301 V2 M. Magnano-Artegna ,- 304 M. Tarcento ; 306V 2 M. Trice- 
simo; 310 M. Reana del Rojale. — 316 M. TJdine, see p. 306. 

From Udine to (401 M.) Venice, see pp. 306-303. 

II. Piedmont. 

7. Turin 25 

From the Piazza Castello, with the Royal Palace, to the 
Academy (gallery of paintings) and the Piazze S. Carlo 
and Carlo Emanuele, 27. — From the Piazza Castello to 
the Cathedral and the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto, 33. — 
From the Piazza Castello to the Piazza dello Statuto; 
Giardino della Cittadella; Central Station ; Corso Viltorio 
Emanuele Segundo, 34. — From the Piazza Castello by 
the Via di Po to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and 
thence to the Nuovo Giardino Puhblico, 35. — Right 
bank of the Po ; Capuchin monastery, 37. 

Excursions: The Superga, 38. — Moncalieri. Stupinigi. 

Carignano, 38. 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin 39 

a. Ceresole Reale, 39. — b. Lanzo, 39. — c Susa, 40. — 
d. Torre Pellice, 40. — e. Crissolo (Monte Viso), 41. 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Tenda . . 41 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona) 44 

Environs of Mondovi, 45. 

11. From Turin to Genoa 45 

a. Via Alessandria and Novi 45 

b. Via Bra and Savona 47 

From Bra to Alessandria, 48. — From Ceva to Ormea, 48. 

c. Via Acqui and Ovada 4S 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur 49 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps 55 

1. From Aosta to Cogne, 55. — 2. From Cogne to Valsava- 
ranche, 57. — 3. From Valsavar^nche to Phemes Xotre- 
Dame, 57. — 4. From Rhemes Notre-Dame to Valgri- 
sanche, Liverogne, and Aosta, 58. 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella 59 

15. From Turin to Milan via, Novara 60 

From Vercelli to Alessandria, 60. — From Novara to 
Varallo, to Arona, and to Seregno, 61. 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains', enclosed on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vara, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,233,000 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and 
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the peopie still retains traces of 
their ancient affinity with the French; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere , om for uomo, cheur for cuore, sita for citta, rason for ragione, 
piassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken, even by the upper 
classes, but is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont, however, 
French is very generally understood 

The History of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 


dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Sabauda) , a family of German 
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 
Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. 
1056) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his 
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by 
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately, 
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta, 
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. Amadeus VI. (1343-83), known as the 'Conte Verde' 
('green count 1 ) from his usual dress, strengthened and extended the power 
of his house in numerous feuds. Amadeus VIII., raised to the ducal dig- 
nity by Emp. Sigismund in 1416, added Geneva, Vercelli, and Piedmont 
to his possessions, and gave the principality its fir=t legislative code. He 
was created pope as Felix V. (1439-49) by the Council of Basle and died 
in 1451. — Situated between the two great mediaeval powers of France on 
one side, and Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy fre- 
quently changed sides, and although sometimes overtaken by terrible dis- 
asters, they contrived to maintain, and even to extend, their territory. 
At one period the greater part of the Duchy was annexed, to France, but 
Emmanuel Philiberl ('Testa di Ferro 1 , 1553-80) restored it to its original 
extent, being, as regards internal organisation also, its second founder. 
Under his son Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) the Duchy again became 
dependent on France. From the sons of this prince are descended the 
elder branch of the family, which became extinct in 1831, and the younger 
Carignano line, which succeeded to the throne in the person of Carlo 
Alberto. The following dukes were Vittorio Amedeo I. (1630-37), Fran- 
cesco Oiacinto (1637-38) , Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75) , and Vittorio Ame- 
deo II. (1675-1730). The last of these , having boldly allied himself with 
Austria during the Spanish War of Succession, managed to throw off the 
French suzerainty (1703) ; he obtained Sicily as his reward, which island, 
however, he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), and 
in 1713 assumed the title of King, which was subsequently coupled with 
the name of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. 
(1730-73), and Vittorio Amedeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin 
(1706), in which Prince Eugene commanded the Imperialists, the Piedmont- 
ese princes directed their attention to Prussia, which served as a model 
for the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the military 
and feudal element preponderated , and both were obliged to succumb 
to the new powers evolved by the French revolution. Carlo Emanuele IV. 
(1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions by the French 
in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which was protected 
by the English fleet. Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at length rein- 
stated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the Congress of 
Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal institutions 
of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead many of the benefits of 
modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore intelligible 
that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, gave rise 
to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and which had 
to be quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice (1821-31) ad- 
hered faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the whole in ac- 
cordance with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato' ('worried'). 
The older line of the House of Savoy became extinct with this prince, and 
was succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 39 ; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences , and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Re Tentenna' (the vacillating), 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being 'between the 
daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the Jesuits'. On 6th 
Jan., 1848, Count Cavour made the first public demand for the establish- 

TURIN. 7. Route. 25 

ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence , and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 
later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Vittorio Emanuele II. (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan., 1878) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 

7. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Centrale, or di Porta Nuova (P1.E,4, 5), 
a handsome edifice with waiting-rooms adorned with frescoes, and the 
terminus of all the lines (Rail. Restaurant). — 2. Stazione di Porta Susa 
(PI. C, 3, 4), the first stopping-place of all the trains of the Novara-Milan 
line (omnibuses and cabs meet every train). City office at Ihe Agenzia di 
Citta delle Ferrovie del Mediterraneo, Via Finanze 9. — Stations of the Si earn 
Tramways: for tbe Superga (p. 3") in the Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2l; for 
Cirie-Lanzo (p. 3S) near the Ponte Mosca (PI. E. 1): for Stupinigi (p. 38) in 
the Via Sacchi, on the W. side of the Central Station; for Carignano, see 
p. 38. 

Hotels. *Grand Hotel de Turin (PI. b; E, 4,5), Via Sacchi 10, oppo- 
site the central station, with lift and electric light, R., L., & A. 4-7, B. l'/2, 
de"j.3V2, D. 5, omn. IV2, pens from 10 fr. ; Bonne-Femme-Metropole-Feder 
(PI. h; E, 2), Via Pietro Micca 3, with lift and electric light; Hotel de 
l'Europe (PI. a-, E, 2), Piazza Castello 19, with lift, electric light, and steam 
heat; Hotel d'Angleterre et Trombetta (PI. c; E, 3, 4), Via Roma 31 and 
Via Cavour 2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10 fr. All these are of the first class. — 
Albergo Centrale (PI. g; E, 3), Via delle Finanze 2, with good restaurant, 
R. 2-2 J /2, L. V2, A. 3 /4, B. IV4, dej. incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 
9 fr. — The following are second-class and more in the Italian style : Hotel 
Suisse et Terminus (PI. i; E, 4), Via Sacchi 2, near the central station, 
R., L., & A. 3-5, B. IV4, dej. 2'/2, D. 41/4, pens. 8-10, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Hotel 
de France et de la Concorde (PI. 1 ; F. 2, 3), Via di Po 20; Tre Corone 
(PI. m ; E, 2) , Via Venti Settembre 41 ; Venezia e Bue Rosso, Via Venti 
Settembre 70 (PI. E, 2); Dogana Vecchia (PI. n; E, 2), Via Corte d'Ap- 
pello 4, adjoining the Palazzo di Citta, R., L., ii A. 2 a /2, B. 1 fr., omn. 60 c, 
well spoken of. — The Grissini, a kind of bread in long, thin, and crisp 
sticks, are a speciality of the place. The Piedmontese wines have a high 
repute (comp. p. xxii). 

Restaurants (comp. p. xx). ''Cambio, Piazza Carignano 2, much fre- 
quented in the morning, best Italian wines, separate room for smokers; 
"Parigi, Via di Po 21; Commercio, Via Venti Settembre 74, near the Piazza 
Castello; Milano, corner of the Piazza Castello and Via Barbaroux, well 
spoken of ; Tavella (Dilei), Via di Po ; Poata, Piazza Carlo Alberto ; Meri- 
diana, Via S. Teresa 6 (Vienna beer) ; Chalet Russe, in the Giardino Pubb- 
lico (p. 37). — Vermouth di Torino (famous), good at Carpono's, Piazza 
Castello 18. 

Cafes. Parigi (see above); Londra, Via di Po 14; Nazionale, Via di 
Po 20; San Carlo, Piazza S. Carlo (concert in the evening); Romano (p. 26), 
Galleria Subalpina; Borsa, Via Roma 25 (newspapers); Ligure, Corso Vitt. 
Em. II., near the station (concerts); Tavella (see above). — Confectioners. 
Romana, Baratli & Milano, Piazza Castello, S. side; Slralta, Piazza S. 
Carlo 7. Chocolate: Moriondo d- Qnriglio. Vii Ar'i a| i 36. — Beer Houses 
{Birrerie; comp. p. xxii). Dreher, Piazza Carignano 6 ; Voigt, corner of the 
Via Botero and Via Pietro Micca; Birreria della Bor<a Via delP Accademia 
delle Scienze 2; Birreria ltalkma, Piazza Castello 20. 

Cabs (Velture, Ciltadine): per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a.m.) 
1 fr. 50 c. ; first V2 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
V2 hr. 75 c, at night IV2, 2, and 1 fr.; hand-luggage, carried inside, free; 
each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse carriage 50 c. more in each case. 

26 Route 7. TUEIF. Tramways. 

Tramways (horse and electric, fare 10 c, transfer 15 c.) traverse the 
streets in many different directions (see Plan). The chief centres are 
Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2), Piazza Emanuele Filiberto ('Porta Palazzo' -, 
PI. D, E, 1), Piazza dello Statuto (PI. C, 2), Piazza S. Martino (PI. C, 3), 
and Piazza Carlo Felice (PI. E, 4). 

Steam Tramways ply to various points in the more or less immediate 
neighbourhood; comp. the Italian time-tables. 

Post Office (PI. 48, F 3; for poste restanle letters, etc.), Via Principe 
Amedeo 10; branch-office at the Stazione Centrale. — Telegraph Offices, 
Piazza Carlo Alberto (PI. F, 3) and at the Stazione Centrale. 

Booksellers. Carlo Clausen, Via di Po 19; Rosenberg & Sellier, Via Bo- 
gino 3; F. Casanova, Piazza Carignano; L. Roux & Co., in the Galleria 
Subalpina (p. 27). — Photographs. Clausen, see above; Almann, Via dell 1 
Accademia Albertina. — Newspapers: Stampa, Gazzetta del Popolo, Gaz- 
zetta di Torino, Italia Reale. 

Goods Agents. Qiov. Biancotti, Via Bogino 21; Fratelli Oirard, Via 
Cernaia 14. — Stenographer and Type Writer, Cesare Verona, 20 Via Carlo 

Bankers. Pellegrini & Moris, Piazza Solferino 6; Be Femex & Co., 
Via Alfieri 15; Kuster & Co., Via Venti Settembre 54. — Money Changers. 
Bauer & Borelli, Via Cavour 10. 

Physicians. Dr. F. Conti, Corso Oporto 30 (speaks English and French); 
Dr. Bergesio, Via Melchior Gioia 8 (speaks French). — Dentists. J. Bowman 
(Amer.), Via Finanze 11; Martini, Via Pietro Micca (speaks English); Oa- 
relli, Via Roma 15. — Chemists. A. Torre, Via di Po 14; Farmacia Cen- 
trale, Via Roma 2. 

Baths. La Provvidenza, Via Venti Settembre 7; Bagni Cavour, Via 
Lagrange 22. Bath V/v-V-fa fr i witn fee of 20 c - 

Military Music in the Piazza Castello every afternoon (5 p.m.) ; in 
summer daily in the old Piazza d'Armi about 6 p.m. , during the Corso, 
and Sun. 2-4 in the Giardino Reale (comp. p. 28). 

Theatres. Teatro Regio (PI. 52; F, 2), Piazza Castello, for operas and 
ballets, with seats for 2500 persons, generally open during Lent and the Car- 
nival only (admission 3 fr., reserved seats 5, poltrone 10 fr.); Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI. 59; F, 2), Via Rossini 13, for operas, ballets, and equestrian per- 
formances, the largest in the city ; Alfieri (PI. 56; D, 3), Piazza Solferino, for 
comedy and operettas ; . Carignano (PI. 53 ; E, 3), in the Piazza of that name ; 
Politeama Goldoni, Via Maria Vittoria 44; Teatro Rossini (PI. 57; F, 3), Via 
di Po 24, for plays in the Piedmontese dialect. — Caffe Romano, Galleria 
Subalpina (p. 27), a theatre of varieties, with a separate stage for summer. 

British Consul, Oiacinto Casnnis, Via Bogino 25. — United States Con- 
sul, Percy McElrath, Via Madama Cristina 27. 

English Church, Via Pio Quinto 15, behind the Tempio Valdese; ser- 
vice at 10.30 a.m. — Protestant Service in the Tempio Valdese (PI. 18; 
F, 4) on Sundays, in French at 11, in Italian at 3 o'clock. — Free Italian 
Church, Via Maria Vittoria 27, first floor. 

Principal Attractions (I-IV2 day): Armoury (p. 28), Picture Gallery 
(p. 30) and Museum of Antiquities (p. 29) , Museo Civico (p. 36), monuments 
in the Cathedral (p. 33), view from the Capuchin monastery (p. 37). 

Turin (785 ft.) , Ital. Torino, the ancient Taurasia, capital of 
the Taurini , a Ligurian-Celtic tribe, destroyed hy Hannibal B.C. 
218, afterwards the Roman Augusta Taurinorum , was the capital 
of the County of Piedmont in the middle ages, and in 1418 became 
subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 
1720 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and from 1860 
to 1865 of Italy. The seat of a university, of an archbishop, and 
of a military academy, and headquarters of the 1st Italian Corps 
d'Armee, this great city lies in an extensive plain on the Po, which 
receives the waters of the Dora Riparia below the city. The plain 


1 . Aecademza dcll& Belle Artl F . 3 . 

2. " " JMitare F.2. 

3. " " delle Saenz e E.3. 

4 . Armeria Reale E.2. 

5 .Arsenale-QEiseo2 r ax^d'Jrtuflf) E.4. 

6 .Bors<v l F.3. 

7 .Barica2razioriale< E.3. 

Cluese . 

8 .JSasiticay Magistrate. E.2. 

Q.S.Carlo &. S.Cristintc . E.3. 

10 . Cattedrale ( ' S.&icnrcmrti) E.2. 

1L. Z# CtJTvsolxctcL . D. 2 . 

12 .Carpus Dcmzzni E.2. 

13 . S.Francesco di Sales E .2 . 
14? . Gra/i Madr& dtJ>io H.3 . 
15 . S. Jfojvrz/rctf F.&.4. 
lfi.£2B&p0 r.3. 
17 . SJrtaicesco dcuFaola, F. 2 . 
18 .rempio Taldese . T.4. 
19. " IsraeUtico F.4. 

20. &aHeria, dell 'Industria/ 

SubaJpincb Tf.2. 

'l\.GaEeruvjVa,zwnaZ& . E.4. 

'Zl . Mole Jbttonellzanas . G-.2. 


•1"\ . aV Azeglio E.4. 

lb .AW fiserrita Sardo . E.2. 
25 .Amedeo ( Cimie Terde) E.2. 

26.&ptt^ r.3. 

Zl .Carlo Alberto T.3. 

28 .DmajtueteTitiberto E .3 . 

Ift.Duca di- Genoyxc/ D.E.3. 

30 .AUssJjcoruanwra D.3. 

2®PictroMcca D-3. 

■.W.Guribulrti G.4. 

31* Crimea H.4. 


3 ft Alfonso Zamarmora 

32 . Giooerti . 

33 . Lagrange 

34 .jPaleocapa' 

35 . Siccardl . 

36 . <2e£ Traforo delJrepcs 

37 -Tittaru) Ihiuvvuele^ JT° . 
OspedaZes d& S. GiavJ}attista> 



39 .Carigrumo F.3. 

40 .dtCittay(Murucif>al&J . E.2. 
41 . deZDucw di Genoras(Chzablese)Y>.2. 

42 .Madamxv . E.2. 

43 .CortecL'AppeUotguvSenxttoJ . D.2. 

4;! . Cavaicr- . F.4. 

45ite«&> . . ... E.2. 
4* . deZlaCisterna/flhuxvdtAastasfY.Z. 

¥1 . delleTorri (FortnTalatiruv) E.2. 

^.PostweTelegraft(T7mcioceitt^J E.3. 

4$.TrefetturosT.Z. W.Questuray . . E.2. 

51-Vktversita/ eJtiblioteca, . • F.2. 


5Z.. Jteffio ■ . F.2. 

53 . CarigTWTw . E.3. 

54 . faruuio . .... 0.3. 

55 . JVdzionaZe F . 4. 
56-^Z^a^ . B.3. 
57 .Rossini/ F.3. 
58 . .ftTT^ F.2. 

59 . Tzttorio Errvanuele F .2. 

60 ..Sa#>0 . F.4. 
61 . d'Angennes (Marionette) F.3. • 

62 .AHusev Civico F.2. 

63. » Industrials . F.3. 

Kk.Istitzcto Tecnico E.4. 

Gcotfrapli. Anslall von 

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Tianezza Veuaria R'f 

Palazzo Madama. TURIN. 7- Route. 27 

of the Po is bounded on the "W. by the Oraian and Cottian Alps, and 
on the E. by a range of hills rising on the right bank, opposite the 
city (hill of the Capuchins, p. 37; Superga, p. 38). Turin was the 
chief centre of those national struggles which led to the unification 
of Italy. The removal of the seat of government to Florence seriously 
impaired the prosperity of the citizens for a time, but they have 
long since recovered their losses. The rapidly increasing population 
now numbers upwards of 340,000, including the suburbs. 

Turin is conspicuous among the cities of Italy for the regularity of 
its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses (Isole), long, 
broad, straight streets (Vie), spacious squares, and numerous gardens. 
Its history explains this. The plan of the old town, with slight varia- 
tions , is ascertained to be the same as that of the colony founded by the 
Emperor Augustus. It formed a rectangle of 2210 ft. in length, and 
1370 ft. in breadth, and is now intersected by the Via Garibaldi, which 
runs between the Piazza Castello and the Via della Consolata. It had 
four principal gates, of which the Porta Palatina, to the N. (in the Pa- 
lazzo delle Torri, p. 33), still exists. The whole town was comprised 
within this circumference until in the 17th cent, a systematic extension 
of the city was begun in accordance with the original plan. The forti- 
fications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the siege of 1706 
cleared away most of the old buildings, and gave the town its present 
appearance. The fortifications were demolished by the French in 1801, 
and the citadel had to give place to the railway in 1857. 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2) forms the centre 
of the town. From this point the busiest streets diverge : Via Roma, 
Via Pietro Micca, Via Garibaldi, Via delV Accademia delle Scienze, 
and the broad and handsome Via di Po, leading to the bridge over 
the Po, and flanked by arcades (Portici), containing shops. The 
University in the Via di Po, see p. 35. — In the S.E. angle of the 
Piazza Castello is the Oalleria dell' Industria Subalpina (PI. 20 5 
F, 2), built in 1874, containing the Caffe Romano (p. 25). The 
other end of this arcade is in the Piazza Carlo Alberto (p. 29). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 42 ; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty 
and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediaeval structure of which Turin boasts ; it was erected by Wil- 
liam of Montferrat, when master of the town towards the end of the 
13th cent., and was restored at the beginning of the 15th cent, by 
Lodovico d'Acaja. It owes its present name to Maria, mother of King 
Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager Duchess ('Madama Reale" 1 ) 
occupied the building , and embellished it in 1718 by the addition 
of a handsome double flight of steps and the facade with marble 
columns on the W. side, from a design by Juvara. The two original 
towers on the E. side are still standing; two others on the "W. side, 
one of which contains an observatory, are concealed by the facade. 
From 1848 to 1860 the palace was the meeting-place of the Sar- 
dinian Senate, and it now contains several institutions. — In front 
of it stands a Monument to the Sardinian Army (PI. 24), by Vine. 
Vela, erected by the Milanese in 1859. 

At the N.W. corner of this piazza is the church of San Lorenzo, 
with a peculiar dome, and destitute of facade, by Quarini (1687). 

28 Route 7. PPttlN*. Palazzo Reale. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Castello rises the Palazzo Eeale, 
or Royal Palace (PI. 45 ; E, 2), a plain "brick edifice hegun in 1646. 
The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza "by a gate, the pillars 
of which are adorned with two groups in "bronze of Castor andPollux, 
designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To the left in the hall 
of the palace (admission free), in a niche near the staircase, is an 
equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1637); the statue 
is of bronze, the horse in marble; below the latter are two slaves. 
The handsome staircase is embellished with statues of Emmanuel 
Philibert by Varni, and Carlo Alberto by Vela. The royal apartments 
are shown daily, 9-3. 

The S.E. wing of the palace contains the *Royal Armotjet 
{Armeria Reale; PI. 4, E 2), entered from the arcade of the Pre- 
fettura (PI. 49, E F 2; last door to the left); admission (11-3) by 
tickets obtained (gratis) on the landing of the first staircase. The 
collection, which is on the second story, is very choice. Catalogue5fr. 

In the centre of Room I (Rotonda) are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., 
the sword he wore at the battle of Marengo, a quadrant he used when a 
young officer, two French regimental eagles , and two kettle-drums cap- 
tured at the battle of Turin in 1706. Numerous models of modern 
weapons; in a cabinet near the window, Prussian helmets •, then, Japanese 
and Indian weapons and armour. A cabinet on the right contains gifts 
presented to Victor Emmanuel by Italian towns, a sword presented by Rome 
in 1859, a gilded wreath of laurel by Turin in 1860, and a sword in 1865, 
on the occasion of the Dante Festival ; in the centre, the favourite horse 
of Charles Albert; Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848-49 over the 
cabinets. In a cabinet to the left of the entrance is a tiny MS. of the Koran, 
in tolerable preservation. — The long Hall (Oalleria Beaumont) contains, 
on the right, a gigantic suit of armour worn at the Battle of Pavia by an 
equerry of Francis I. of France; beyond it, in front of the chimney-piece, 
a choice and very valuable collection of 32 battle-axes, a sword executed 
by Benvenuto Cellini (?), and some finely ornamented helmets of the 15th 
and 16th centuries. Under glass, a 'Shield by Benvenuto Cellini (?), embossed, 
and inlaid with gilding, representing scenes from the war of Marius 
against Jugurtha. The finest suits of armour are those of the Brescian 
family Martinengo, three on the left and one on the right. Adjacent is 
an ancient rostrum in Ihe form of a boar's head, found in the harbour at 
Genoa. At the end of the hall are the armour of Prince Eugene, the saddle 
of Emp. Charles V. in red velvet, and the beautiful armour of Duke Em- 
manuel Philibert. On the right, under glass, the sword of St. Maurice, 
the scimitar of Tippoo Sahib, etc. In the cabinet A are Roman weapons, 
helmets, and the eagle of a legion. In the cabinet F, at the top , the 
sword of the Imperial General Johann von Werth (d. 1652), bearing a 
German inscription in verse. 

On the floor below is the Royal Library of 60,000 vols, and 2000 MSS. 
(shown only on application to the librarian), containing valuable geo- 
graphical, historical, and genealogical works, miniatures of the 15th and 
16th cent. , drawings by Leonardo da Vinci (^Portrait of himself; see 
p. 125), Fra Bartolommeo, Correggio, Qaudenzio Ferrari, etc. — A staircase 
ascends hence to the valuable Collection of Coins, trinkets, enamels, carved 
ivory, etc., in a small room adjoining the Armoury. 

The Palace Garden [Oiardino Reale ; PI. E, F, 2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madama, is open on Sun. and festi- 
vals, between 1st July and 1st Oct., 1-5 o'clock (military music; 
p. 26). Fine view of the Superga. — The Cathedral adjoins the 
palace on the W. (see p. 33). 

•Academy. TURIN. 7. Route. 29 

In the Piazza Carignano, a little to the S. of the Piazza 
Castello, rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 39 ; F, 3), with a curious 
brick facade, erected by Uuarini in 1680. An inscription informs 
us that King Victor Emmanuel II. was born here in 1820. The Sar- 
dinian Chamber of Deputies met here from 1848 to 1859, and the 
Italian Parliament from 1860 to 1864. The handsome facade at 
the back, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, was added in 1864-71 by 
Bollati and Ferri. 

The palace now contains the Natural History Collections formerly 
in the Academy (open to the public daily, except Mon., 1-5). The collec- 
tion is divided into the Zoological and Comparative Anatomy Section and 
the Palaeontological, Geological, and Mineralogical Section. The former con- 
tains a fine array of birds and insects, and a collection of the vertebrates 
of Italy arranged in a separate gallery. The palseontological division 
contains a fine collection of fossil mollusca from the tertiary formations, 
and the skeletons of a gigantic armadillo (Olyptodon Clavipes) from Rio 
de la Plata, a Tetralophodon Avernensis, a Megatherium Cuvieri, and other 
antediluvian animals. 

In the Piazza Carignano , in front of the palace , stands the 
finely-executed marble statue of the philosopher and patriot Vin- 
cenzo Oioberti (PI. 32; 1801-52), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. 

The Piazza Carlo Alberto (PI. F, 3) contains a bronze monu- 
ment of King Charles Albert (PI. 27), designed by Marocchetti. The 
pedestal stands on four steps of Scottish granite ; at the corners are 
four colossal statues of Sardinian soldiers ; above are four female 
figures, representing Martyrdom, Freedom, Justice, and Independ- 
ence. — The Galleria Subalpina (p. 27) runs off this piazza. 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia No. 4, is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PI. 3; E, 3), containing a picture-gallery and museums 
of natural history and antiquities. The building, formerly the 
Jesuit College, was erected by Guarini in 1679. On the Ground 
Floor, to the right, are Egyptian, Roman, and Greek sculptures 
(key kept on the first floor) , on the First Floor smaller anti- 
quities ; on the Second Floor (98 steps) the picture-gallery. Both 
collections are open daily 10-4 (in summer 10-3); adm. to each 
1 fr. ; on Sundays and holidays 10-2, gratis. 

Museum of Antiquities (Museo Egizio e di Antichita Greco-Romane). — 
Halls I & II: Egyptian statues and late Greek works found in Egypt; 
in the centre of the room, Mosaics found at Stampacci in Sardinia , re- 
presenting Orpheus with his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probably the 
animals listening to him; large Egyptian sphinxes, figures of idols and 
kings, sarcophagi, reliefs. The finest figures are the colossal statue of 
Seti II., in red sandstone; the red granite statue of Amenophis II.; a 
smaller statue of the same monarch in black granite; a small white figure 
of Amosis; and the black '-Statue of Ramses II., above which is an in- 
scription in honour of the celebrated French Egyptologist Champollion. — 
We now enter the I. Gallery to the left. Statues of Jupiter, Marsyas, 
and Olympus, Youth (restored as Mercury), Hercules killing the snakes, 
a good torso, four figures placed round a column, bearing the name of 
Protys the sculptor. Minerva, over lifesize. Amazon (in green basalt; 
freely restored). Etruscan sepulchral urn from Chiusi, with recumbent 
figure of the deceased. Inscriptions. 

30 Route 7. TURIN. Picture Gallery, 

The Small Antiquities are on the First Floor. In the 1st Room are 
mummies, papyrus writings, scarabeei, trinkets, vases, porcelain sta- 
tuettes, and terracottas, many of which are Grseco-Roman. The 2nd Room 
on the right contains a papyrus with fragments of the annals of Manetho 
(a list of the kings of Egypt down to the 19th dynasty), discovered by 
Champollion; the 'Book of the Dead 1 , edited by Lepsius; the Tabula 
Isiaea found in the pontificate of Paul III., etc. — A passage to the left 
of the 1st Room contains inscriptions and statuettes. — We now turn to 
the left into a room containing Cyprian antiquities, several interesting 
Etruscan cinerary urns with traces of painting, and (at the door) two 
Assyrian reliefs, the heads of a king and a eunuch. 

Beyond, on the left, is a room devoted to Roman Sculptures: in 
the middle, heads of poets and philosophers; along the longer wall, 
busts of emperors ; in the corner to the left , colossal head of a goddess, 
fine *Head of Venus (bust modern), head of Antinous, fragments of a fine 
relief of a youth in a chariot with four horses, probably a Greek work, etc. 

— A room on the right contains the Greeco-Etruscan vases ; by the window 
wall are two complete tombs found between Turin and Milan, and early 
Italian vessels. In the next room are bwmzes and a few reliefs in silver. 
In front of the wall-presses are a tripod and a Silenus, found near Turin, 
head of Caligula, and Minerva, found in the Versa near Stradella in 1828. 

— The room in the middle contains terracottas, coins, and 'Glass. 

The *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) , on the second floor, is 
important for the study of Macrino a" Alba (1460-1510) and his 
pupil Deferrari da Chivasso, and of Gaudenzio Ferrari (1471?- 
1546), who was inspired by Leonardo and influenced by theUmbrian 
school (Nos. 49 and 54). Sodoma (1480-1549), who originally be- 
longed to the Lombard school, is well represented by three pictures. 
Lorenzo di Credi's (1459-1537) Madonna, No. 356, of his best period, 
shows that he was influenced by Leonardo. Among numerous and 
important works of the old Netherlandish school are : 359. Petrus 
Cristus; 358. Memling ; 340. Sketch by Rubens; 338, 351, 363, 
384 by Van Dyck. (Catalogue l*/ 4 fr., obtainable only from the 
booksellers.) The pictures bear the names of their painters. 

I. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning 
on the right: ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene, by Huchten- 
burg; thirteen portraits of members of the House of Savoy; 28. Horact 
Vernet, King Charles Albert; 29, 31. French School; 26, 30. Dutch School; 
4. Van Schuppen, Prince Eugene on horseback. 

II. Room. 42. De/endente Deferrari, Madonna with SS. George and 
Barbara and Charles III. of Savoy (ancient frame) ; *49. Gaud. Ferrari, St. 
Peter and donor; 50 bis. Macrino d'Alba, Madonna and saints (1498); Gau- 
denzio Ferrari, 52. Visitation, 53. God the Father, 54. Pieta, 57. Joachim 
driven from the Temple, 58. Madonna and St. Elizabeth; 56. Bern. Lanini, 
Pieta; 50. Sodoma, Holy Family. On an easel: 784. Barnaba da Modena, 
Madonna (1370). 

III. Room. *55. Sodoma, Madonna and SS. Jerome, John, Lucia, and 
Catharine. — IV. Room : 90. Landscape by Massimo d^Azeglio. 

V. Room. 93. School of Fra Angelico, Madonna; 94, 96. Fra Angelico 
da Fiesole, Adoring angels; 97. Fiero Pollajuolo (School of Verrocchiof), 
Tobias and the angel; Studio of Sandro Botticelli, 98. Same subject, 99. Ma- 
donna; '-101. Fr. Francia, Entombment (1515); 106. Bugiardini, Holy Family; 
108. Garofalo, The boy Jesus in the Temple ; 108 bis. After Raphael, Portrait 
of Pope Julius II. in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence (p. 490); 844. Lod. 
Maxzolino, Madonna and saints; 114. Giov. Pedrini, SS. Catharine and Peter 
Martyr; 118. Girolamo Savoldo, Holy Family; 121. Franciabigio, Annuncia- 
tion ; 122. Franc. Penni, Good copy (1518) of Raphael's Entombment in the 
Palazzo Borghese at Rome; 127bis. Glovio, '11 Santissimo Sudario'' (comp. 

Picture Gallery'. TURIN. 7. Route. 31 

p. 33) ; 127, 128. Bronzino, Portraits of Eleonora da Toledo and her hus- 
band Cosimo I. de' Medici; 129. After Titian, an old copy, Pope Paul III. 
In the middle are four Madonnas : 779. Oiov. Bellini (ruined by retouch- 
ing) ; 780. Bart. Vivarini (1481) ; 828. Timoteo Viti (more probably School of 
Perugino ; forged signature) ; 824. Oregorio Schiavone. 

VI. Room. Above the door: 132. Boni/azio II., Holy Family; 137, 
138, 142, 143. Andrea Schiavone, Mythological scenes; 140. Ant. Badile 
(master of P. Veronese) , Presentation in the Temple ; opposite, 157. 
P. Veronese, The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 160. Agostino Carracci, 
Landscape; *161. Caravaggio, Musician. 

VII. Room. 163. Guido Reni, John the Baptist; 167. Jacopo Bastano, 
Cupid at the forge; 170. Giulio Cesare Procaccini (not Crespi), SS. Francis 
and Carlo Borromeo adoring the Madonna; 174. Spagnolelto, St. Jerome; 
182. P. Veronese, Finding of Moses. 

VIII. Room. Porcelain-paintings by Conslantin of Geneva, copied from 
celebrated originals; Luca della Robbia, Adoration of the Infant Saviour. 

IX. Room. Fruit and flower pieces : 220. by Snyders, 225. by Fyt, 228. 
by De Heem. — Then a corridor with inferior works. 

X. Room. e 234. P. Veronese, Mary Magdalen washing the Saviour's 
feet; Guercino, 242. Ecce Homo, 239. St. Francesca Romana; 823. P. 
Veronese, Danae; 241. Elisabetta Sirani, Cain and Abel ; 237, 238. Poussin, 
Waterfall, Cascades of Tivoli; 244. Orazio Gentileschi, Annunciation; 251. 
Strozzi (more probably Ribera), Homer. 

XI. Room. 257, 258. Sassoferralo , Madonnas, the first called 'della 
Rosa 1 ; 257 bis. Canalelto, Piazzetta in Venice; 262. Guercino, Return of 
the Prodigal Son; 263. Fr. Albani, Salmacis ; 260, 264, 271, 274. Albani, 
The four Elements ; 287. Gius. Crespi, St. Nepomuk in the confessional ; 
276. Carlo Dolci, Madonna ; 283, 288. Bernardino Belotto, Views of Turin ; 
295. Maratta, Madonna; 299, 300. Angelica Kaufmann, Sibyls. 

XII. Room. Netherlands and German school : 306. Engelbrechtsen 
(not Lucas van Leyden), Crucifixion; 307. Flemish Master of the Female 
Half -figures, Crucifixion; 309. Adoration of the Magi, in the style of Hieron. 
Bosch; 313. Van Eyck (?), St. Francis receiving the stigmata; *312, 320. 
Rogier van der Weyden, Madonna and St. Elizabeth, with portrait of the 
donor; 324. Flemish School (not Mostaert), Lute-player; *338. Van Dyck, 
Children of Charles I. of England; 340. Rubens, Sketch of his apotheosis 
of Henry IV. in the Uffizi; *351. Van Dyck, Infanta Clara Eugenia of Spain. 

XIII. Room. Gems of the collection. 355. Mantegna, Madonna and 
saints (much retouched) ; 356. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna ; 357. Guercino, 
Madonna; *358. Hans Memling , The Seven Sorrows of Mary, a chrono- 
logical composition of a kind much in vogue among northern artists ; 359. 
Petrus Cristus, Madonna; 849. Titian, St. Jerome, a late work; *361. Saenre- 
dam, Interior of a church, the figures by A. van Ostade; *363. Van Dyck, 
Prince Thomas of Savoy, a fine portrait; 364. D. Teniers, Tavern-scene; 
366. Wouverman, Cavalry attacking a bridge ; 368. D. Teniers, Musician ; 
369. Sandro Botticelli, Triumph of Chastity ; 371. Gaud. Ferrari, Crucifixion 
(an early work in distemper) ; *373. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda (a very 
fine picture, but the original is at Munich) ; *375. Desiderio da Settignano 
(not Donatello), Madonna (relief in marble); 376. Sodoma, Lucretia; 377. 
Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing; 377bis. Rembrandt, Old man asleep (an 
early work) ; 378. Jan Brueghel, Landscape ; 379. Frans van Mieris, Por- 
trait of himself; 384. Van Dyck, Holy Family, painted under the influence 
of Titian; 386. H. Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus (a copy); 389. J. Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 391. Gerard Dou, Girl plucking grapes; *392. Velazquez, Phil- 
ip IV. of Spain; 393. Rubens (?), Holy Family; 394. C. JVetscher, Scissors 

XIV. Room. 398. Sallaerl, Procession ; 410. Floris, Adoration of the 
Magi; 420. Wouverman, Horse-market; 435. Gerard Dou, Portrait; 428. 
D. Teniers, Card-players; 434bis. J. Ruysdael, Landscape; 441. B. Fabritius, 
Holy Family. 

XV. Room. 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 481. Bourguignon, 
Battle; 501. P. Mignard, Louis XIV. 

32 Route 7. xukun. Mon. of Cavour. 

Opposite the Academy, to the E., is the large church of San 
Filippo (PI. 16; F, 3), erected by Guarini in 1679, and restored by 
Juvara in 1714. The portico in front is a later addition. The church 
contains pictures by Guercino, Soiimena, and others. 

The neighbouring Piazza San Carlo (PL E, 3), 587 ft. long 
and 264 ft. wide , is embellished with an equestrian *Statue of 
Duke Emmanuel Philibert (PI. 28), in bronze, designed by Maroc- 
chetti (1838). The relief on the W. side represents the Battle of 
St. Quentin; that on the E. side the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis 
(1559), by which the duchy was restored to the House of Savoy; 
the duke as l pacem redditurus' is in the act of sheathing his sword. 
— The two churches on the S. side of the piazza are San Carlo 
(PL 9) and Santa Cristina (PI. 9b), both founded at the beginning 
of the 17th cent., with facades of later date : that of S. Cristina by 
Juvara (1718); that of S. Carlo, in Baveno granite, an imitation of 
Juvara's, added in 1836. S. Carlo contains a monument of the 
condottiere Francesco Maria Broglia, ancestor of the French family 
of Broglie. The high-altar-piece is by Morazzone. 

The Via Roma leads from the Piazza S. Carlo to the N. to the 
Piazza Castallo (p. 27), and to the S., passing the QaUeria Nazionale 
(PL 21; E, 4), built by Camillo Riccio in 1889, to the Piazza Carlo 
Felice (p. 35) and the railway- station ; to the E. the Via Maria Vit- 
toria, with the Pal. della Cisterna (PL 46, F 3; at the corner of the 
Via Carlo Alberto), the residence of the Duke of Aosta, leads to 
the Piazza Carlo Emanuele Secondo (see below). — In the Via dell' 
Ospedale is the Exchange (PL 6 ; F, 3), and adjoining it is a Museo 
Industriale Italiano (PL 63 ; open on week-days 10-12 and 2-4, 
on Sun. and holidays 12.30-4, gratis). Farther on is the large Ospe- 
dale di San Giovanni Battista (PI. 38 ; F, 3). 

The Ajoola Balbo (PI. F, 3,4). behind the hospital, is adorned with 
a monument to Dawele Manin (d. 1857; comp. p. 250), by Vela, and with 
statues of Cesare Balbo (d. 1853), the minister and historian, by Vela, and 
of the Piedmont ese general Bava, by Albertoni. — To the N.E. are the 
grounds of the Piazza Cavour (PI. G, 3), with a bust of the Sardinian 
state-man, the Marchese Pes di Villamarina, by Tabacchi. — Farther on, 
in the direction of the Piazza Maria Teresa (PI. G, 3), is a monument, by 
Butti, to Gen. Guglielmo Pepe (d. 1l53), the gallnnt defender of Venice in 
1849. — A few paces to the S., in the Via Mazzini, stands the domed 
church of San Massimo (PI. 15; F, G, 4), built in l;45-54 by C. Sada. The 
facade is adorned wi h figures of the Evangelists, and the interior con- 
tains good modern trescoe-! and some statues by Alber'oni. 

The Pia/za Bodoni (PI F, 4), to the S.W. of the Ajuola Balbo, is 
adorned with an eques rian statue, in bronze, by Sperati (1^91), of General 
Alfonso La Marmora (d 1878), whose reputation, made in the Crimea and 
the war of l->59, was somewhat dimmed by his less successful appearance 
in the war of 1866. 

In the centre of the Piazza Carlo Emanuele Secondo (PL F, 3), 
commonly called the 'Piazza Carlina', rises the imposing *Monument 
of Cavour (PL 26), 48 ft. high, by Qiov. Dupre, erected in 1873. 
Grateful Italy presents the civic crown to the creator of Italian unity, 
who holds a scroll in his left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa 

Cathedral. TURIN. 7. Route. 33 

in libero stato'. The pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of 
Justice, Duty, Policy, and Independence 5 the reliefs represent the 
return of the Sardinian troops from the Crimea , and the Paris 
Congress. — A memorial tablet at Via Cavour, No. 8, marks the 
house (PI. 44 ; F, 4) in which Count Camillo Cavour was born in 
1810 (d. 1861). ___ 

Adjoining the Pal. Re ale (p. 28) on the "W. is the Cathedral 
(San Giovanni Battista; PI. 10, E 2), erected on the site of three 
earlier churches in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprino of Florence ; it is 
in the Renaissance style, with a marble facade. The upper part of 

the tower dates from 1648. 

The Interior consists of nave , aisles , and transept , with octagonal 
dome. Over the W. portal is a copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 127). 
Over the second altar on the right are small pictures , blackened with 
age, by Deferrari (not Diirer). Frescoes on the ceiling modern. The seats 
of the royal family are to the left of the high-altar. 

Behind the high-altar is the *Cappella del Santissimo Sudario or delta 
Santissima Sindone (open during morning mass till 9 o'clock; reached by 
37 steps to the right of the high-altar) , constructed in the 17th cent, 
by the Theatine monk Ouarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark 
brown marble, contrasting strongly with the white monuments, separated 
from the choir by a glass partition, and covered with a curiously shaped 
dome. This is the burial- chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, and was embel- 
lished by King Charles Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and 
symbolical figures to the memory of illustrious members of his family: 
(r.) Emmanuel Philibert (d. 1580), 'restitutor imperii' 1 , by Marchesi; Prince 
Thomas (d. 1656), 'qui magno animo italicam libertatem armis adseruit 
nee prius dimicare destitit quam vivere' 1 , by Gaggini; Charles Emmanuel II. 
(d. 1675), by Fraccaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cacciatori. The 
peculiar light from above enhances the effect. In a kind of urn over the 
altar is preserved the Santissimo Sudario or Santissima Sindone, a part of 
the linen cloth in which the body of the Saviour is said to have been 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we pass to the W. through the Via 
della Basilica to the Via Porta Palatina, which leads (N.) to the 
Palazzo delle Torri (PI. 47; E, 2), a Roman gateway with two 
mediaeval towers (or, according to others, a Lombard building of the 
8th cent.), now fitted up as a drawing-school. In the same street, 
to the S. of the cathedral, is the church of Corpus Domini (PL 12; 
E, 2), erected in 1610 by Ascanio Vittozzi, on the site of a chapel 
built in 1543 to commemorate a miracle of the Host (1521). — In 
the adjacent church of Santo Spirito, dating from 1610, Rousseau, 
an exile from Geneva, at the age of 16, became a Roman Catholic 
in 1728, but he again professed Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Palazzo di Citta (PL 40; E, 2), or town-hall, containing a 
library, was erected by C E. Lanfranchi in 1669. The Piazza in 
front is adorned with a monument to Amadeus VI. (PL 25), the 
l Conte Verde' (p. 24), conqueror of the Turks and restorer of the 
imperial throne of Greece (d. 1383), a bronze group designed by 
Palagi in 1853. The marble statues in front of the Palazzo of (1.) 
Prince Eugene (d. 1736 ; by Simonetta) and (r.) Prince Ferdinand 

Baedeker. Italy I. 11th Edit. 3 

34 Route 7. TURIN. La Consolata. 

d. 1855; by Dini), Duke of Genoa and brother of Victor Em- 
manuel II., were erected in 1858; that of King Charles Albert 
(d. 1849), by Cauda, in the colonnade to the left, was erected in 
1859 ; that of King Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878), by Vela, to the 
right, in 1860. Opposite these statues are memorial tablets refer- 
ring to the events of their reigns. 

The Via Milano leads hence to the N. to the church of S. Domen- 
ico (14th cent. ; containing a Madonna and St. Dominic by Guer- 
cino) , and the Via Corte d'Appello to the W. to Piazza Savoia 
(PL D, 2), in which rises an obelisk (PL 35), 75 ft. in height, 
commemorating the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the 
minister Siccardi in 1850. — The Via della Consolata leads hence 
to the church of — 

La Consolata (PL 11; D, 2), formed by the union of three 
churches, now a building in the baroque style, erected by Guarini 
in 1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The chapel to the left 
below the dome contains kneeling statues in marble of Maria 
Theresa, Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of 
Victor Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), by Vela, erected 
in 1861. The church contains a highly revered Madonna. The 
passage to the right is hung with votive pictures. The campanile 
belonged to the convent of S. Andrea (9th century). — The column 
of the Madonna in the adjoining piazza, erected in 1835, commem- 
orates the cessation of the cholera. 

A little to the N.E., and intersected by the Corso Regina Marghe- 
rita, lies the Piazza Emanuele Filibekto (PL D, E, 1), adjoined 
on the S. by the Piazza Milano, and on the N. by the Piazza dei Mo- 
lini. To the N. of the latter runs the Via al Ponte Mosca, with the 
station of the Cirie-Lanzo railway (p. 39) on the left, and on the 
right the. new church of S. Gioachino, a basilica in the Lombard 
style, with a campanile 150 ft. high, erected in 1876-82 by Count 
Ceppi. — The street then crosses the Dora Biparia by the Ponte 
Mosca, a handsome bridge of one arch, constructed in 1830, and 
named after its builder. Fine view of the Superga and of the Graian 
Alps overtopped by the Gran Paradise 

From the Piazza Castello the Via Garibaldi leads to the Piazza 
deleo Statuto (PL C, 2), with the huge Mont Cenis Tunnel 
Monument, by Tabacchi (1879): the Genius of Science soars above 
a pile of granite rocks , on which lie the stupefied and conquered 
giants of the mountain. On a tablet are the names of the engineers, 
Sommeiller, Grattoni, and Grandis. 

From the Via Garibaldi we proceed to the S. by the Corso Sic- 
cardi to the Giardino della Citadella (PL D, 2, 3), where statues 
were erected in 1871 to Brofferio (d. 1866) , poet and orator, and 
opposite, in 1873, to the jurist G. B. Cassinis. — Farther on at 
the corner of the Via della Cernaia , in front of the former citadel, 

Arsenal. TURIN. 7- Route. 35 

is a monument by Gius. Bogliani (1834) in memory of Pietro Micca 
(PL 30b; D, 3), the heroic 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice 
of his own life saved the citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by 
springing a mine when the French grenadiers had already advanced 
to the very gates. Nearly opposite is a column bearing a bust of 
Al. Borella, the author, and in the Via della Cernaia rises the 
statue of General Alex. La Marmora (d. 1855 in the Crimea), by 
Gius. Cassano (1867). — A marble tablet above the gateway of the 
citadel commemorates the Italian soldiers who fell in Africa in 
January, 1887. 

In the Piazza Solfbrino, to the E. of the citadel, rises an 
equestrian statue of Duke Ferdinand of Genoa (PI. 29, DE3; 
comp. pp. 33, 34), commanding general at the battle of Novara, by 
Balzico (1877); and the gardens of the piazza contain monuments 
of General Gerbaix de Sonnaz, by Dini, and the historian Giuseppe 
La Farina, by Auteri-Pomar. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Solferino, in the Via dell' Arsenale, 
stands the Arsenal (PL 5; E, 4), founded in 1659 and containing 
the Museo Nazionale d' Artiglierta (adm. daily, except Sum), a col- 
lection of ordnance of every description from the 14th cent, to the 
present day. — In the Via S. Secondo, the continuation, to the S., 
of the Via dell' Arsenale, rises the church of San Secondo, completed 
in 1882 in the Lombard style, with a campanile 170 ft. high. 

In front of the imposing Central Station (p. 25 ; PL E, 4, 5) 
extends the Piazza Carlo Felice , with its tasteful gardens, 
adorned with a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio , patriot , poet, 
and painter (d. 1866) , by Balzico , erected in 1873. This piazza 
is adjoined by two smaller ones: the Piazza Paleocapa to the ¥,, 
with the statue of the minister of that name (PL 34), and the Piazza 
Lagrange, on the E., with the statue of L. Lagrange, the mathe- 
matician (d. 1813 at Paris; PL 33). 

The broad Corso Vitt. Emanuele II. leads to the W. to the Piazma 
Vittorio Emanuele #econdo (PL D, 4), with the monument of the king 
(PL 37; unfinished). To the E. the Corso leads to the Waldensian 
Church [Tempio Valdese; PL 18, F4; see p. 40), the first Protestant 
church built at Turin after the establishment of religious toleration 
in 1848. A few paces farther on, also to the right, rises the church 
of San Giovanni Evangelista, built by Count Mella in 1882 in the 
Romanesque style. — Giardino Pubblico, see p. 37. 

A little to the S. W. of the Waldensian church, at the corner of the 
Via S. Anselmo and the Via Pio Quinto, is the Synagogue (PL 19; F, 4, 5), 
in the Moorish style (1884). — In the Piazza Saluzzo, to the S.W., is the 
church of Santi Pietro e Paolo, with a Byzantine facade (1865). 

In the Via di Po (p. 27), which leads to the S.E. from the Piazza 
Castello , on the left , is the University (PL 51 ; F, 2), erected in 
1713 from designs by the Genoese Ricca , with a handsome late- 


36 Route 7. TURIN. Museo Civico. 

Renaissance court. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here 
to Carlo Emanuele III., and to Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the en- 
trance), both by the brothers Collini; to Prof. Riberi (d. 1861), 
by ALbertoni; to Dr. L. Gallo (d. 1857), by Vela; to Prof. Timer- 
mans (d. 1875), byTabacchi; and to Pescatore, the jurist, by Dini. 
On the corridor of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors 
and a large allegorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel I. The 
University Library, now the Biblioteca Nazionale (open to the public 
every week-day, 9-5 in summer, and 9-4 and 7-10 in winter; closed 
in Sept.; chief librarian, Comm. Cav. F. Carta), numbers 250,000 
vols. and. contains valuable Aldine editions and manuscripts from 
Bobbio. The University (founded in 1404) has at present 200 teach- 
ers and 2500 students. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti (PI. 1, F3; shown on week- 
days, 10-4 ; gratuity 50 c), founded in 1652, and transferred hither 
in 1833. It contains a small collection of pictures, many being 
copies. Among the best are : 126. Quinten Matsys (?) , Head of 
Christ; 140, 141. Fra Filippo Lippi, Four saints (wings of altar- 
piece); 218. Giovenone, Adoration of the Child. Also numerous 
*Cartoons by Gaudenzio Ferrari and Lanini, and a cartoon of Leo- 
nardo's Madonna with St. Anna by an artist of the Lombard School 
(copy of the picture in the Louvre). 

The Via Montebello, the next cross-street, leads to the so-called 
Mole Antonelliana (PI. 22, G 2; adm. 50 c), begun in 1863 as a 
synagogue by Antonelli (d. 1888) and completed by the city in 
1878-89 as a Museo del Risorgimento Italiano, in memory of Victor 
Emmanuel II. It is a square building (44 yds. each way) resembling 
a tower, with a singular facade formed of several rows of columns; 
its height to the head of the gilded statue (13 ft. high) at the top 
is 538 ft. (Washington Obelisk 555 ft.). The dome is striking from 
its bold disregard of the ordinary technical rules of construction. 
The hall beneath the dome is 84 ft. square and upwards of 300 ft. 
high, and contains three galleries one above the other. 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari, No. 1 , is the Museo Civico 
(PI. 62; F, 2), containing the civic collections (gratis on Sun., 
Thurs., and holidays, 12-3 ; on other days, 9-4, fee 50 c). 

Ground Floor. Early sculptures, early mediaeval relief of the Ma- 
donna, coffin of the poet Vagnone (d. 1499) with reliefs of Orpheus and 
Perseus, terracottas, wood-carvings of the 16th cent., a model of the Bucin- 
toro (p. 288). — First Floor. Modern paintings and sculptures. Marble 
statues of Eve by Fantacchiotti and Dante by Vela. The realistic tendency 
of modern Italian art is well illustrated in the death-agonies depicted in 
the Crucifixion of Eulalia by Franceschi and the 'Femme de Claude' by 
Mosso. Good water-colours by Bossoli, illustrating the events of 1859-61. 
Statuette by Balzico, the 'Plebiscite in Naples'. In the last room are a 
few old paintings by Bart. Vivarini(1), Bugiardini, Honthorst, and Victors, 
and a marble bust of Sappho by Canova. — Second Floor. Rooms 12-14: 
Sculptures in wood, tapestry, bronze and iron work. Room 15: Modern 

Mte. dei Cappuccini. TURIN. 7. Route. 37 

wood and ivory carvings ; six pieces of sculpture from the tomb of Gaston 
de Foix (p. 121), by Bambaja. R. 16: Miniatures (missal of Cardinal della 
Rovere, 15th cent.), enamels, majolica. R. 17: Italian ceramic ware. RR. 18, 
19: Mementoes of Massimo cTAzeglio (p. 35). R. 20: Interesting collection 
of stained glass. RR. 21, 22: Prehistoric and ethnographical collection. 

The Yia di Po (p. 35) ends at the large Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI. G, 3), on the other side of which is the handsome Ponte 
Vittorio Emanuele Primo or Ponte in Pietra (PI. G, H, 3), crossing 
to the Gran Madre di Dio (see below). Prom the S. side of the piazza 
the Corso Lungo Po, adorned with a Monument of Garibaldi (PL 31 ; 
G, 4) by Tabacchi (1887), leads up the river to the Ponte Maria 
Teresa or Ponte in Ferro (PL G, 4), the suspension-bridge at the E. 
end of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele II. (p. 35), and to the Giardino 

A favourite promenade is the Giardino Pubblico or Parco del 
Valentino (PL G, 4, 5), on the left bank of the Po (several cafe's), 
above the iron bridge. It comprises the Botanical Garden, and the 
royal chateau II Valentino, a turreted building of the 17th cent., now 
occupied by the Polytechnic School (Reale Scuola d' applicazione per 
gli Jngegneri). In the court is a bronze statue of Quintino Sella, the 
scholar and statesman, by Ces. Reduzzi (1894). On the S. side of 
the garden is a model of a Castle of the 15th cent, (open 9-12 and 
2-6; adm. 1 fr., on Thurs., Sun., and holidays 50 c.) with its depend- 
ent village, erected for the exhibition of 1884 (restaurant). This was 
the site of the Industrial Exhibition of 1898. — In the adjacent 
Corso Massimo d'Azeglio are several scientific and medical insti- 
tutions connected with the university. 

On the Right Banlt of the river, a little beyond the Ponte in 
Ferro (see above), stands the Crimean Monument (PL 31a; H, 4), by 
L. Belli (1892), a large granite pyramid, with bronze reliefs and 
marble figures of Victory, a Bersagliere , and a sailor, erected to 
commemorate the war of 1855-56. 

The Via Moncalieri leads from the chain-bridge to the left, along 
the bank of the river, to (5 min.) the Monte dei Cappuccini (PL H, 
3, 4; 955 ft. above the sea, 164 ft. above the Po), a wooded hill 
rising almost directly from the river and ascended by a cable-tram- 
way (return-fare 15 c). At the top are an old Capuchin church 
and a well-equipped station of the Italian Alpine Club (open when 
the flag is flying; adm. 25 a), with maps and other collections, and 
commanding a noble view. The hill was fortified down to 1802. 

The *View (best by morning-light) embraces the river, city, plain, and 
the chain of the Alps in the background, prominent among which are (right) 
the snowy peaks of Monte Rosa (15,215 ft.), the Gran Paradiso (13,780 ft.), 
and Monte Levanna (11,975 ft.); towards the N W. is the Rocciamelone 
(11,604 ft.), concealing Mt. Cenis ; then, to the left, the valley of Susa (p. 2), 
the Sagra di S. Michele (p. 3) on a conspicuous hill; farther to the S.W. 
Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 

Near the Monte dei Cappuccini, opposite the Ponte in Pietra 

(see above), stands the large domed church of Gran Madre di Dio 

(PL 14 ; H, 3), erected by Ferd. Bonsignore in 1818 in imitation of 

38 Route 7. TURIN. 

the Pantheon at Rome, to commemorate the return of King Victor 
Emmanuel I. in 1814. The groups flanking the steps represent Faith 
and Charity. The lofty columns of the portico are monoliths of gran- 
ite. — In front of the church rises a Monument of Victor Emmanuel I. 
(d. 1824), by Gaggini. — A few hundred yards farther on is the 
Villa della Regina, now a school for the daughters of officers who 
have fallen in battle. 

The Cemetery (Campo Santo), iy 2 M. to the N.E. of Turin, on 
the Chivasso road (open 10-4 in winter in fine weather; in March, 
April, Sept., and Oct. 9-6 ; in summer 8-12 and 2-7), is reached from 
the Ponte delle Benne by a shady avenue (steam-tramway from the 
Piazza Emanuele Filiberto, see p. 26). The front part of the cemetery 
is enclosed by a wall with arches, while the more interesting portion 
beyond is surrounded by arcades covered with domes. In the front 
section, to the left by the wall, is the tomb of Silvio Pellico (d. 1854) ; 
in the other section we observe the names of TfAzeglio, Bava, Brof- 
ferio, Gioberti, Pepe, Pinelli, and other eminent Italians. 

The *Superga, or Soperga (2205 ft. ; comp. Map, p. 25; tram- 
way from the Piazza Castello to the village of Sassi in Y2 Dr - '» thence 
to the top by cable-tram in 20 min. ; no change of carriages in the 
case of treni diretti; fares 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 85 c), is well worthy of a 
visit. The Superga, the royal burial- church, a handsome edifice 
with a portico, and crowned with a dome, is conspicuously situated 
on a hill to the E. of Turin. The church, a votive offering dedicated 
by Victor Amadeus II., the first king of Sardinia, on the occasion of 
the raising of the siege of Turin in 1706 (p. 24), was erected in 
1717-31 from designs by Juvara, and consecrated in 1749. The in- 
terior (closed 12-2) contains a room hung with indifferent portraits 
of all the popes. At the entrance to the burial-vault is the Arch- 
angel Michael contending with the Devil, a marble group by Carlo 
Finelli (1842). Splendid *View of the Alps, especially from the dome, 
the ascent of which is recommended. — Ristorante della Funicolare, 
dej. 3, D. with wine 4 fr., well spoken of (also bedrooms). 

To the S. of Turin, on the line to Genoa (R. 11a), lies Moncalieri 
(sterna-tramway from the Piazza Castello) , a pleasant little town of 
10,000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a chain of hills, and command- 
ing a superb view. On a height above the village is the royal Chateau 
(15th cent.) in which Victor Emmanuel I. died in 1824. The picture-gallery 
in the W. wing contains a series of large paintings illustrating the history 
of the House of Savoy. The last of the series, 'Delivery of the Plebiscite 
of Tuscany by Baron Ricasoli in 1860', is inieresting from its numerous 
portraits (fee '/2-1 fr-)- -^ horse-tramway runs to the chateau from the 
terminus of the steam-tramway. 

About 6 M. to the S.W. of Turin (steam-tr. mway, see p. 26) lies Stupi- 
nigi, a large royal hunting-chateau, erected from designs by Juvara in the 
reign of Charles Emmanuel III., with a beautiful and extensive park 
(jAlbergo del Castel Vecchio, at the back of the chateau, moderate). 

Another steam-tramway (p. 26) connects Turin with Carignano, a town 
with 4300 inhab. and several fine churches, situated on the highroad to 

CERESOLE REAI E. 8. Rcute. 39 

Nice. <?«» Giovanni Battista was erected by Count Alfieri ; Sanfct Maria 
delle Grazie contains a monument to Bianca Palseologus, daughter of Gug» 
lielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife of Duke Charles I., at whose 
court the 'Chevalier Bayard 1 was hi ought up. — Carignano, with the title 
of a principality, was given as an appanage to Thomas Francis (d. 1656), 
fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., from whom the present royal family 
is descended. — Steam-tramway to Carmagnola, see p. 47. 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin. 

a. From Turin to Ceresole Reale. To (28 M.) Cuorgne, rail- 
way in 2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 15 c). The trains start at the 
Stazione di Porta Susa (p. 25). The most important intermediate 
stations are (22 M.) Rivarolo (Canavese) and (26 M.) Valperga, the 
latter commanded by the (l^hr.) Santuario di Belmonte (2380 ft.; 
view), founded by King Arduin, Margrave of Ivrea, in 1010, restored 
in 1300, and now occupied by Observantist monks. — From Cuorgne 
(1350 ft.; Alb. della Corona Grossa; Cafe-Restaurant de Paris; 
omn. to Locana l 1 ^ fr-; one-horse Noascal6, two-horse 27 fr.; 
carr. from the Grand Hotel at Ceresole Reale meet the morning 
train) a road ascends to the W. through the valley of the Oreo (Val 
Locana) via (3!/ 2 M.) Ponte Canavese (1443 ft.; Alb. del Valentino), 
a picturesque little town at the mouth of the Val Soana, Locana 
(2025ft.; Corona Grossa; Tre Pernici; Cervo), and Perebecche to 
(20 M.) Noasca (3480 ft.; *Alb. Reale, R., L., & A. 3% de'j. 2i/ 2 , 
D. 3 3 / 4 fr.). In the neighbourhood is the pretty waterfall of the Noa- 
schetta. — A bridle-path (mule 6 fr.) leads from Noasca through the 
wild gorge of the Oreo (the l 8calari di Ceresole^ to (2 hrs.) — 

Ceresole Reale (4905 ft. ; *6rand Hotel, R., L., & A. from 3i/ 2 , 
B. 174, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. ; Antico Stabilimento ; Alb. Le- 
vanna ; Alb. della Galisia; Bell agar da, well spoken of), a village 
with 300 inhab., situated in a wide valley at the N.E. base of the 
four-peaked Levanna (11,875 ft.), and frequented as a summer 
resort for its chalybeate spring. 

Excursions (guide 5-6 fr. per day, mule and driver 10 fr). Via, Grosso 
and through fine fir-woods to the (1 hr.) Alpi Crusionay (5~06 ft.), the (1 hr.) 
Alpi Liet, and the (25 min.) Laghetti della Bellagarda (7340 ft.), on the N.E. 
slopes of the Monte Bellagarda (9642 ft.). — Via, Frera to the (2 hrs.) Lago 
di Dres (6830 ft.), affording a fine view of the Levanuetta (11,2F0 ft.). — 
From the O/2 hr.) Parrocchia (p. 54) to the (2V2 hrs.) Alpi di Nel and the 
Lago di Nel (7S00 ft.), at the foot of the vast Nel Glacier. — Over the Col 
de Nivolet to Val Savaranche (with ascent of the Gran Paradiso) and Ville- 
neuve (Aosta), see p. 53; to Cogne, see p. 57. 

b. From Turin to Lanzo, 20 M., railway in l^hr. (fares 3 fr. 
35, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c), starting from the Via al Ponte Mosca 
(PI. E, 1 ; p. 34). — 4*/ 2 M. Venaria Reale, with ruins of a royal 
hunting-chateau destroyed by the French Republicans, at the influx 
of the Ceronda into the Stura. The train crosses both streams and 
ascends the valley of the latter. — 8 M. Caselle ; 13 M. Cirie, with a 
Gothic church of the 13th century. — 20 M, Lanzo Torinese (1770 ft. ; 

40 Route 8. PINEROLO . 

Posta; Europa; Rail. Restaurant), prettily situated on a hill, with 
a ruined castle, and surrounded with villas. 

Lanzo is the best starting-point for excursions in the three Valleys 
of the Uppek Stuka. The southernmost of these is the Valle di Viu, 
through which a road leads to the village of Viu (2475 ft.). — In the middle is 
the Valle <PAla, which diverges from the N. or chief valley at Ceres (2310 ft.) 
and contains the villages of Ala di Stura (3545 ft.) and Balme (4785 ft.). 
Between the two villages is the fine waterfall of the Gorgia di Mondrone. 
— Through the northernmost, or Val Grande, a road ascends via Chialam- 
berto (2805 ft.) and Groscavallo (3615 ft.) to Forno Alpi Graie (3935 ft.), at 
the base of Monte Levanna (11,875 ft.). — An interesting excursion may also 
be made to the valley of the Tesso, and to the loftily situated Santuario 
di SanV Ignazio (30P0 ft. ; l J /2 hr.). The Ponie del Roc, which crosses the 
Stura near Lanzo with an arch of 120 ft. in widlh, was built in 1378. — See 
C. Ratti's ''Da Torino a Lanzo e per le Valli della Stura'' (Casanova, Turin). 

c. From Turin to Susa. — To (28 M.) Bussoleno by the Mt. 
Cenis Railway (l-l 3 /4 hr.), see pp.3, 2. — From Bussoleno a short 
branch-line (4*/ 2 M. in 17 min. ; fares 95, 65, 45 c.) runs to Susa 
(1625 ft.; Sole, well spoken of), a small and ancient town, the Ro- 
man Segusio, picturesquely situated on the right bank of the Dora. 
A garden on the W. side of the town contains a Triumphal Arch, 
44 ft. in height, 39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting 
Corinthian columns at the corners and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, 
erected according to the inscription in A.D. 8 to Augustus. There 
are also a few other Roman relics. The church of San Oiusto dates 
from the 11th century. On the opposite bank of the Dora rises the 
ruined castle La Brunetta. 

d. From Turin to Torre Pellice, 34 1 / 2 M., railway in 2^4 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr., 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 50 c). — The train diverges from the Genoa 
line (p. 45) at Sangone and turns to the S.W. — 15^2 M. Airasca, 
whence a branch runs to Saluzzo (22^2 M.; passing Moretta, p. 41). 

24 M. Pinerolo, Fr. Pignerol (1312 ft. ; Campana; Cannon cTOro), 
a town with 12,000 inhab., an old cathedral, and a monument to 
Gen. Brignone by Tabacchi. 

A steam - tramway runs hence to Cavour and Saluzzo (see p. 41). 
Cavour lies at the foot of the Rocca, an isolated granite cone rising 530 ft. 
above the plain, the once fortified top of which commands a fine view of 
the Alps. From the 17th cent, onwards it was the seat of the now ex- 
tinct counts of Cavour. — Another steam-tramway runs from Pinerolo to 
Perosa, in the Val Chisone, and thence to Perrero and Fenestrelle. 

29 ! /2 M. Brichemsio (branch-line to Barge, seep. 41) ; 33 M.Lu- 
sema. — 341/2 M. Torre Pellice, Fr. La Tour (1920 ft.; Ours, well 
spoken of; Lion d'Or; Pens. Bel-Air, Pens. Suisse, both well spoken 
of, pens. 6fr.), a town of 2800 inhab. and the capital of the Walden- 
sian Valleys. 

The Waldensian Vallets (Valines Vaudoises), adjoining the French 
frontier, were the home of those well-known Protestant communities (about 
25,000 souls) who were formerly so cruelly persecuted and who have resided 
here for upwards of six centuries. The language of the valleys is French. 
After Torre Pellice the chief settlements are Luserna (see above), Villar, 
and Bobbio Pellice (all three in the valley of the Pellice); Angrogna, in the 
beautiful valley of thes ame name to the N. of Torre Pellice ; San Germano 
in the Val Chisone 5 and Perrero (see above), in the Val Germanasca. ' 

SAVIGLIANO. 9. Route. 41 

e. From Turin to Crissolo. Railway to (371/2 M.) Barge in 
2</ 3 hrs. (5 fr. 75, 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 85 c). — Our line diverges to the 
S. at (29 1/ 2 M.) Bricherasio (p. 40) from that to Torre Pellice and 
runs via, (82 M.) Campiglione and (35 M.) Bagnolo Po to (37^2 M.) 
Barge, -with 2100 inhabitants. — From Barge a road leads to (3 M.) 
Paesana (see below) and up the valley of the Po to (^^M.) Crissolo, 
Fr. Crussol (4580 ft. ; Alb. del Club Alpino ; guide, Olaudio Perrotti). 

Crissolo is the starting-point for the ascent of Monte Viso (12,608 ft.), 
the highest summit of the Cottian Alps (not recommended to any btit ex- 
perts; guide 20 fr.). We follow the bridle-path leading to the W. to the 
Col de la Traverselte (9770 ft.) as far as the (2 hrs.) Plan del Re (.6625 ft. ; 
small inn), near the sources of the Po. Thence we proceed to the S., 
across the Passo delle Sagnette (9760 ft.), to the (3V2 hrs.) Rifugio Quintino 
Sella of the Club Alpino Italiano (9840ft), in the Vol delle Forciolline. 
From this point we reach the summit by a stiff climb of 4 hrs. up the 
S. face. The summit commands a splendid panorama, embracing Mont 
Blanc and Monte Rosa on the N. — From the Col de la Traversette to 
Abries, see Baedekers South-Eastern France. 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Ten da. 

116 M. Railway to (55 M ) Cuneo in 21/4-3 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 95 c, 7 fr., 4 fr. 
50 c); thence to (20 M.) Limone in O/z hr. (fares 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 
65 c). The railway from Limone to Ventimiglia is not yet finished, but 
it is expected to be open as far as Tenda before the end of 1898. In the 
meantime a Post Omnibus runs twice daily (3 and 8 p.m.) from Limone 
to (41 M.) Ventimiglia in 12 hrs. (in the reverse direction in 15 hrs. ; fare 
5 fr.). One-horse carr. from Limone to Tenda 7-10 fr., carr. and pair from 
Tenda to Ventimiglia 25 fr. — Beyond Tenda the road runs for some dis- 
tance through French territory, so that the custom-house formalities have 
to be undergone twice. 

From Turin to (18 M.) Carmagnola, see p. 47. — 24 M. Rac- 
conigi, with a royal chateau built in 1570, restored in 1834, and 
once the favourite residence of Carlo Alberto (d. 1849) ; the park was 
laid out in 1755 by Le Notre. — From (28 M.) Cavallermaggiore 
branch-lines run E. to (8 M.) Bra (p. 48) and W. to (10 M.) Moretta 
(p. 40). — 32 M. Savigliano (Corona), a town of 10,000 inhab., on 
the Macra, with ancient fortifications. The principal church con- 
tains paintings by Mulinari (1577-1640), a native of the town, sur- 
named Carraccino, as an imitator of the Carracci. 

From Savigliano a branch-line (10 M., in 1/2 hr. ; fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30, 
95 c.) runs to Saluzzo (1197 ft. ; Corona Grossa), capital of the province 
(formerly marquisate) of that name, with 19,700 inhab., the seat of a 
bishop , with flourishing trade and industries. The higher part of the 
town affords a fine survey of the Piedmontese plain. A monument was 
erected here in 1863 to Silvio Pellico, the poet (d. 1854), author of 'Le Mie 
Prigioni' and the tragedy of 'Francesca da Rimini'', who was born at Sa- 
luzzo in 1788 and expiated his patriotic efforts by ten years' imprison- 
ment in S. Margherita, the Doges' Palace (see p. 265), and the Spielberg 
at BrtLnn. — Railway to Airasca, see p. 40. Tramway to Turin, p. 26 ; to 
Pinerolo, p. 40; to Venasca; and to Revello, where there is an ancient copy 
of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 127), with variations. From Revello a road 
ascends the valley of the Po to (772 M.) Paesana and Crissolo (see above). 

Fkom Saluzzo to Cuneo, 2OV2 M-i railway in I74-IV2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 75, 
2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). The intermediate stations are insignificant. 

36 M. Oenola. — 40 M. Fossano (Rail. Restaurant), with 8000 in- 

42 Route 9. CUNEO. From Turin 

hab., situated on a hill on the left hank of the Stura, seat of a bishop, 
has an academy and mineral baths (branch-line to Mondovi, p. 45). — 
44 M. Maddalena. — 47 M. Centallo, a picturesque place with re- 
mains of mediaeval fortifications. — 50 M. San Benigno di Cuneo. 

55 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1722ft.; *Alb. Superga, unpretending; 
Barra di Ferro, well spoken of; Stella d'Oro), the capital of a pro- 
vince, with 20,000 inhab., lies on a view-commanding hill at the 
confluence of the Stura and the Gesso. After the battle of Marengo 
the fortifications were converted into shady promenades, which 
afford splendid views of the Maritime Alps, of Mte. Viso (p. 41 ; 
N.W.), and the Eesimauda (p. 45; S.E.). In the Piazza Vitt. Ema- 
nuele a monument to Giuseppe Barbaroux, by Dini, was erected in 
1879. The Franciscan Church, is in the Gothic style (13th cent.). 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna degli Angeli, at the confluence of the 

From Cuneo to the Certosa di Val Pesio and to Mondovi, see pp. 44, 45; to 
Saluzzo, see p. 41. — Steam Tramway from Cuneo, via Caraglio, to Dronero, 
situated to the N.W. in the Maira valley ; and also to Borgo San Dalmazzo 
(see below). 

The railway to Limone at first traverses a plain covered with 
groves of chestnuts. 60 M. Boves. 

63 M. Borgo San Dalmazzo (Tre Galli; Delfino), a smalltown 

with 2500 inhab., is overlooked by the church of Madonna del Mon- 

serrato (view). 

From Borgo S. Dalmazzo a delightful excursion may he made to the 
Upper Valley of the Gesso (diligence daily in summer as far as the 
Bagni di Valdieri). — The road ascends along the left hank of the Gesso 
to (6 M.) Valdieri (2485 ft. ; Corona Grossa), a village with 1400 inhab., 
which is the starting-point for an ascent of the Monte V Arp (6C00 ft.), an 
excellent point of view. — Beyond Valdieri a road leads to the left to 
(3'/2 M.) Entraque (2958 ft.; *Angelo, unpretending; Moro), a village of 
1700 inhab., finely situated in a lateral valley. From this point excur c ir>ns 
(guides obtainable) may be made to the Bousset Valley through which a 
road ascends to (7 M.) a waterfall 1280ft. high; to (2^/2 hrs.) the Lake of 
Rovina (5117 ft.) and on, past a picturesque waterfall, to the (4V2hrs.) 
mountain-lake of Brocan (fi578 ft.; chalet of the I. A. C, with rfmts. in 
summer), with a magnificent environment, a good starting-point for an 
ascent of tbe Punta delV Argentera (4 hrs. ; see below) and other moun f ain 
tours; to the top of the Bee d'Orel (8145 ft.; *View); and to (fi M.) the 
royal hunting-lodge of San Oiacomo (good road through beech-woods). From 
S. Giacomo bridle-paths lead to the glacier-filled head of the valley at the 
Mon'e Clapier, and across the Colle delle Finestre to (8 hrs.) St. Martin- 
V&subie (see Baedeker's South-Eastern France). — The main road continues 
to ascend the Gesso valley. About 8 M. above Valdieri, in a sequestered 
upland va'ley, lie the Bagni di Valdieri (4410 ft.), with eight warm sulphur 
springs (100-156° Fa hr.) and a well-equipped hotel (season, June 25th' to 
Sept. 30th; pens. 8-10 fr.). The splendid situation attracts many other guests 
beside the patients. To the E. lies a fine beech-forest. To the W. a pleasant 
excursion may be made into the Vallasco Valley, with its royal shootin"-box. 
The chief mountain-ascent is that of the ''Punta deW Argentera (10,^83 ft. ; 
6 hrs , recommended to experts only; guide 12 fr.), the highest of the Marit- 
ime Alps, the splendid panorama from which includes the plain of the Po 
and the Tyrolese Alps on the N.E., the Alps of Dauphiny on the W., the 
coast of Provence on the S.W., from the lower valley of the Var to the 
Islands of Hyeres, and Corsica on the S. The ascent of the * Monte Matto 
(10,130 ft,) is fatiguing though not difficult (5 hrs. ; guide 10 fr.). 

to Ventimiglia. COL DI TENDA. 9. Route. 43 

Another road connects Borgo S. Dalmazzo with the Upper Valley of 
the Stoka, a tributary of the Tanaro (diligence to Bagni di Vinadio in 
summer). The capital of this fair valley, known to the Romans as the 
Vallis Aurea on account of its fertility, is (IOV2 M.) Demonte (2550 ft. •, Alb. 
Garibaldi), an industrial place with 2400 inhab., pleasantly situated in an 
open part of the valley. Above Demonte the valley contracts. The next 
villages pre (17 M.) Vinadio (3020 ft.; Alb. d'ltalia), picturesquely situated 
and encircled by strong fortifications, Sambuco, and Argentera (Fr. Argen- 
tine), with the Italian custom-house. [For the route over the Col de 
Larche or Col de VArgentiere to Larche and Barcelonnette, in France, see 
Baedeker's South-Eastern France.] — A road to the left, halfway between 
Vinadio and Sambuco, leads to the high-lying Bagni di Vinadio (4363 ft.), 
situated in a lateral valley, 7 M. to the S.W. of Vinadio, and possessing 
a hotel (pens. i l fe-9 fr.) and eight hot sulphur-springs (8'>144° Fahr.), sim- 
ilar to those of Valdieri (p. 42). A pleasant excursion may be made 
hence to the (1 hr.) hamlet of Callieri, with its old woods of beech and 
pine and a fine waterfall. Admirable views are had from the Becco 
d'lschiatbr (9860 ft.; 5 hrs.), reached by passing the lakes of the same 
name, and from the Monte Tinibras (9950 ft.); but the ascent in each case 
is fatiguing (guide 12 fr.). 

63 ^2 M. Roccavione. The train enters the valley of the Verme- 
nagna, enclosed now "by wooded heights, now "by precipitous lime- 
stone cliffs. Numerous tunnels. — 65 M. Robilante; 70 M. Vernante. 
We pass through a long loop tunnel and across a lofty viaduct. 
Fine but fleeting retrospect (r.) of Mte. Viso. 

76M. Limone (3285 ft.; Posta, Europa, plain), the present 
terminus of the railway, lies in an open stretch of the valley, at the 
N. base of the Col di Tenda. — Post-Omnibus to Ventimiglia, see 
p. 41 (to Nice, see p. 44). Ascent of the Besimauda, see p. 45. 

The old road over the fortified heights of the Col di Tenda, or 
di Cornio (6263 ft.), where the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and 
the Ligurian Alps (E.) begin, is now closed to ordinary traffic. The 
new road, constructed in 1883, penetrates the Tenda by means of 
a tunnel, about l 1 ^ M. long, which first gradually ascends and then 
descends (N. entrance 4330 ft., S. entrance 4196 ft.). From the 
central point both ends are visible. The road then descends through 
the valley of the Roja, which reaches the sea at Ventimiglia, to the 
(9 M.) foundries of Vievola, where the main tunnel of the railway, 
5 M. long, is to emerge. Farther on we pass through a ravine, en- 
closed by curious sandstone rocks, and reach — 

11 M. (from Limone) Tenda (2675 ft. ; Alb. Nazionale, Lanza, 
Croce Bianca, Cannon d , Oro, all plain), a picturesque little town 
with 2000 inhab., overhung by precipitous walls of rock. Fragments 
of the castle where Beatrice di Tenda was born (comp. p. 134) stand 
on a rock here. 

Excursions (guides) may be made from Tenda through the Urno Wood 
to (4 hrs.) the top of the Monte Ciagore (7525 ft.), which commands a view 
extending to the sea; to the N.E., through the picturesque valley of the 
Rio Freddo and over the (4 hrs.) Colle dei Signori (refuge-hut), to the top 
of the Cima di Marguareis (8690 ft.), the highest summit of the Ligurian 
Alps pView). 

"We now descend through a narrow rocky valley to — 

14 M, San Palmazzo di Tenda (2250 ft. ; Italian custom-house), 

44 Route 9. S. MARIA MADDALENA. 

situated amid luxuriant groves of chestnut, with several villas and 
an old Carthusian abbey, fitted up as a hotel and hydropathic (open 
from mid- April to the end of Oct., pens. 8 fr. ; Engl. Ch. service). 
Some interesting caves have recently been discovered in the vicinity. 
About 2 M. to the E. of S. Dalmazzo lies Briga (2500 ft.-, Hotel de la 
Source, well spoken of), in the valley of the Levenza, with an interesting 
church. A little to the S. is the pine-forest of Pine". — A bridle-path leads 
to the W. to (3 hrs.) Santa Maria Maddalena (5110 ft.; good accommoda- 
tion), in the attractive Val di Casterino, surrounded by larch-woods. Ex- 
cursions (guides) may be made from this point past the old silver and 
lead mine of Valanria, once worked by the Saracens, to the wild Valle 
delP Inferno, strewn with huge blocks of rock and containing 14 small 
lakes, and on to (3 hrs.) the Meraviglie (7218 ft.), rocks of slate inscribed 
with rude drawings of unknown antiquity, to the (5 hrs.) top of the "Monte 
Bego (9425 ft.), which commands a splendid view of the Alps, Nice, and 
the Riviera (ascent fatiguing but not difficult)-, and to the three large 
mountain-lakes of "Valmasca, which lie in a rocky solitude, one above 
another, the largest (2 J /2 hrs. -, toilsome walk) at a height of 7675 ft. at 
the foot of the snow-clad Mte. Ciaminejas (9556 ft.). 

Near the (17 M.) French frontier the valley contracts to the *Gola 
di Gaudarena, one of the most imposing gorges of the Alps, so nar- 
row at places as barely to leave room for river and road between 
the perpendicular rocks (1200-1300 ft.). — At (19 M.) Fontana 
(Fr. Fontan, 1424 ft.), with the French custom-house, the scenery 
assumes a more southern character and the first olives appear. 
Farther on Saorgio (Fr. Saorge), on a lofty rocky terrace to the left, 
with the Tuins of a castle destroyed by the French in 1792, com- 
mands the road. Adjacent is a large monastery. 

At (24 M.) La Giandola (1250 ft. ; Hotel des Etrangers; Poste), 
situated in a green valley at the foot of bare cliffs of slate, the roads 
to Nice and Ventimiglia part company. 

The Road to Nice (38 M. ; post-omnibus from Limone once daily in 
18 hrs.) leads over the Col di Brouis (2748 ft.) to Sospello, Fr Sospel (1175 ft. ; 
Hotel Carenco, mediocre), and then over the Col di Braus (4230 ft.) to UEs- 
carene (Ital. Scarena). Finally we descend along the Paillon. — Comp. 
Baedekers South-Eastern France. 

The road to Ventimiglia follows the picturesque valley of the 
Roja, passes the little town of Breglio or Breil, with the ruined 
castle of Crivella, and regains Italian soil (custom-house). It then 
threads two tunnels, below the rocky nest of Plena, built about 
1300 ft. above the floor of the valley, and farther on traverses the 
villages of (311/2 M.) SanMichele and (3372 M.) Airole. 

41 M. Ventimiglia, see p. 92. 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona). 

221/2 M. Railway in iy 4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 35 c). 

Cuneo, see p. 42. — From (5 M.) Beinette an omnibus runs 
daily (5.45p.m. ; fare 1 fr.) in summer to the secularized Certosa di 
Val Pesio, which lies about 10 M. to the S. 

The Certosa di Pesio , in the lonely and romantic Val Pesio, was 
founded in 1173, and is now a *Hydropathic and pleasant health-resort 

MONDOVI. 10. Route. 45 

open from June 1st to the end of Sept. (pens, from 8 fr.). An excursion 
may be made hence to the Sources of the Fesio, in a rocky ravine below 
the steep N. side of the Cima di Marguareis (p. 43). The Certosa is also 
the starting-point for the ascent of the Collet Piana (6825 ft.), with its large 
Alps, and of the "Besimauda or Bisalta (7880 ft.), a ridge of gneiss rising 
abruptly from the plain and commanding a splendid view of the valley of 
the Po and the Ligurian Alps (mule-path, 4 hrs. ; descent to Limone, see p. 43). 

Several unimportant stations are now passed. 

17 M. Mondovi (*Tre Limoni d'Oro), a town of 8700 inhab., 
was the seat of a university from 1560 to 1719. In the Breo, or 
lower and industrial part of the town, is a statue (Piazza del Muni- 
cipio) of Senator Giovanni Garelli (lb25-71). A wire-rope railway 
ascends to the Piazza, or upper part of the town, with the Palazzo 
Vescovile, the Cathedral (15th cent.), and monuments to the 
Marchese Sambuy and Francesco Beccaria, the physicist (1716-81). 
The Belvedtre (1873 ft.), with its Gothic tower, commands a fine 
view of the Alps. 

From Mondovi a tramway runs to (20 min.) the 'Santuario di Vico, 
a huge domed structure, erected in 15b6-1736 from the plans of Ascanio 
Vittozzi. It contains the tomb of Charles Emmanuel I. (p. 24), and there 
is a marble statue of the same monarch, by Delia Vedova (1691), in front 
of the church. 

From Mondovi a road (omn. 50 c.) ascends the valley of the Ellero, 
passing the Cappella delV Annunziata, to (4'/2 M.) Villanova Mondovi (inn), 
a picturesque little town on the slope of the Monte Calvario (2410 ft. ; 
view). About l 1 /* M. to the W. of Villanova, and reached Irom the 
Cuneo-Beinette road by a steep zigzag path in a few minutes, is the 
*Grotta dei Dossi, an interesting stalactite cavern, rendered accessible in 
1893 (adm., May-Get., 1 fr. ; excursion-parties from Mondovi in summer 
at fixed rates). Various fantastic names are attached to different parts of 
the cave, an exploration of which takes about 2 hrs. — About 12 M. to 
the S., in the Valle di Coi'saglia, is the Grotta di Bossea, which is also 
lighted with electricity and repays a visit. It is reached by carr. in 374 hrs., 
via, the Cappella dell' Annunziata (see above) and Frabosa Soprana. 

From Mondovi to Fossano (p. 41), 15 M., railway in l'/4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 30 c.) ; to San Michele, steam- tramway in 3 /i hr. 

22^2 M. Bastia, on the railway from Turin to Savona, see p. 48. 

11. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Via Alessandria and Novi. 

103 M. Railway in 3i/ 4 -7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 75, 13 fr. 15, 8 fr. 46 c. ; ex- 
press 20 fr. 65, 14 fr. 45 c). 

The line at first runs towards the S., at some distance from the 
left bank of the Po, crosses its affluent the Sangone (beyond which 
the branch-line to Pinerolo diverges, p. 40), and then the Po itself 
by a bridge of seven arches. — 5 M. Moncalieri, with a royal cha- 
teau on the hill (p. 38). A final retrospect is now obtained of the 
hills of Turin, and of the snowy Alps to the left. — From (8 M.) 
Trofarello branch-lines diverge to Savona (p. 48), to Cuneo-Tenda 
(RR. 9, lib), and to Chieri. — Stations: Cambiano-Santena, Pessione, 
Villanova d' Asti, Villa f r anca d' Asti, Baldichieri, San Damiano. The 
train then crosses the Borbore and reaches the valley of the Tanaro, 
on the left bank of which it runs to Alessandria. 

46 Route 11. ALESSANDRIA. From Turin 

35^2 M. Asti (Leone cTOro; Albergo Reale; Rail. Restaurant), 
the ancient Asta, a mediaeval-looking town with 17,300 inhah. and 
numerous towers, is famous for its sparkling wine (Asti spumante) 
and its horticulture. The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected 
in 1348, contains (2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints by a 
master of the school of Vercelli, and (3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, prob- 
ably by the same. — The adjacent church of San Giovanni (the sac- 
ristan of the cathedral keeps the key) is built over an ancient Christ- 
ian basilica, part of which has again been rendered accessible, and 
has monolithic columns with capitals bearing Christian symbols 
(6th cent.). The Piazza is adorned with a statue of the poet Alfieri 
(1749-1803, a native of Asti), by Yini,.and the Giardino Pubblico 
with a monument of Victor Emmanuel- II. Near the Porta Ales- 
sandria is the small octagonal Baptistery of San Pietro (11th cent.), 
borne by short columns with square capitals, and enclosed by a low 
polygonal gallery. — Asti is the junction of the line via Aequi- 
Ovada (p. 48). 

From Asti to Mortara (Milan), 46 M., in 23/4-3 V2 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 40, 
5 fr. 90, 3 fr. 80 c). Stations unimportant ; 29 M. Casale-Monferrato, see p. 60 ; 
Mortara, see p. 160. — Fkom Asti to Castagnole (p. 4S), 13 M., in 1 hr. — 
Steam Tramway from Asti to Cortanze and to Canale. 

Next stations : Annone , Cerro , Felizzano, Solero. Country flat 
and fertile. Near Alessandria the line to Bellinzona (R. 25) diverges 
to the N. The train crosses the Tanaro by a bridge of 15 arches, 
skirts the fortifications, and reaches — 

56^2 M. Alessandria (310 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; Europa, fair; 
Grand Mogol et des Etrangers, well spoken of; Londra), a town with 
30,800 inhab., situated on the Tanaro in a marshy district, and re- 
markable only as a fortified place. It was founded in 1168. by the 
Lombard towns allied against the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, and 
named after PopeAlexander III. A bronze statue, byMonteverde, was 
erected here in 1883 to the statesman TJrbano Rattazzi (1810-73), 
a native of the town. — Alessandria being a junction of several lines, 
carriages are generally changed here. Railway to Vercelli via Valenza, 
p. 60 ; to Novara and Bellinzona, pp. 160, 159 ; to Milan via Mortara 
andVigevano, see p. 160; to Pavia via Valenza, see p. 176; toPia- 
cenza, Parma, Bologna, etc., see RR. 44 and 45; to Bra, see p. 48. 

Steam Tramways from Alessandria via, Marengo to Sale and Tortona, to 
Casale-Monferrato (p. 60), to Spine.Ua (p. 315), and to Montemagno (p. 61) via. 

From Alessandria to Savona (via. Acqui), 65 M., in 374-4 hrs. (fares 
11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 35, 5 fr. 35 c). — As far as Cantalupo the line is the same 
as to Bra (see p. 48). — 21 M. Acqui, also a station on the railway from 
Asti to Ovada and Genoa (see p. 49). — The line ascends the valley of the 
Bormida, passing through ten tunnels. Stations of little importance. 52 M. 
San Giuseppe di Cairo, see p. 48. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 48. 

The line crosses the Bormida (p. 48). About I1/4 M. to the E. of 
the bridge, in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia lies 
the village of Marengo, near wbich, on 14th June, 1800, Napoleon 

to Genoa. CARMAGNOLA. 11. Route. 47 

defeated the Austrians in a battle momentous for the destinies of 
Europe. — 62 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi (Hot. Novi), a town with 10,000 inhab., commanded 
to the right by hills with a belvedere-tower, was the scene of a 
victory gained by the Austrians and Russians under Suvorov over 
the French on 15th Aug., 1799. Branch-line to Pavia and Milan 
via Tortona and Yoghera, see R. 30. Steam -tramway to Ovada, 
see p. 49. 

At (74 M.) Serravalle-Scrivia the train enters a mountainous 
region. 77 M. Arquata-Scrivia, with a ruined castle. Between this 
and Genoa there are twenty-four tunnels. The train threads its way 
through rocky ravines (la Bocchetta) and over lofty embankments, 
crossing the Scrivia several times. Scenery imposing. &3 l / 2 M. Isola 
del Cantone; on the hill to the right a ruined castle. — 86 M. Ronco 
is the junction of the old line to Genoa via Pontedecimo. 

The train enters the Ronco Tunnel, upwards of 5 M. in length, 
and then descends through the narrow Polcevera Valley with the help 
of numerous viaducts and cuttings. Opposite we see the old line 
via Busalla. — 91 M. Mignanego ; 95 Y2 M. San Quirico. The valley 
now expands; its well-cultivated slopes are dotted with the summer 
villas of the Genoese. 

101 M. Sampierdarena (p. 83), where through- travellers to or 
from San Remo and Ventimiglia change carriages (Rail. Restaurant, 
dej. with wine 372 fr.)- On the right are the lighthouse and citadel, 
below which the train passes by a tunnel. 

103 M. Genoa, see p. 64. 

b. Via Sra and Savona. 

Feom Turin to Savona, 91 M., in 4i/ 4 -5V2 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 65, 11 fr. 65, 
7fr. 50 c; express 18 fr. 30, 12 fr. 80 c.) ; thence to Genoa, 27 M., in 
IV2-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 90, 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20 c. ; express 5 fr. 45, 4 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello, 8 M., see p. 45. — 12V 2 M. Villa- 

18 M. Carmagnola, with 2900 inhab., was the birthplace (1390) 
of the famous Condottiere Francesco Bussone, son of a swineherd, 
usually called Count of Carmagnola , who reconquered a great part 
of Lombardy for Duke Filippo Maria Visconti, and afterwards be- 
came Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice. At length his fidel- 
ity was suspected by the Council of Ten , and he was beheaded in 
the Piazzetta (p. 258) on 5th May, 1432. Bussone's fate is the sub- 
ject of a tragedy by Manzoni. — The 'Carmagnole', the celebrated 
republican dance and song of the French Revolution, was named 
after this town, the home of most of the street-musicians of Paris. 
— Steam-tramway to Carignano (p. 38) and Turin. — To Cuneo 
(Ventimiglia), see pp. 41, 42. 

The line continues towards the S.E. 24 M. Sommariva del 
Botco; 26 M. Sanfre; 29 M. Bandito. 

48 Route 11. BRA. From Turin 

31 M. Bra (10,000 inhab.), with a busy trade in wine, cattle, 
truffles, and silk. Branch to Cavallermaggiore, see p. 41. 

From Bra to Alessandria, 53 M., railway in 3-33/ 4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
65, 6 fr. 76, 4 fr. 35 c). — 4V2 M. Santa Vittoria; pleasant excursion thence 
to' the royal chateau of Pollenzo, with the remains of the Roman town of 
Pollentia. — l\ x /i M. Alba, with 6900 inhab.; the cathedral of San Lorenzo 
dates from the 15th century. — 19 J /2 M. Castagnole-Lanze; branch- line to 
Asti (p. 46). We next traverse a fertile wine-country. 2572 M. Santo Stefano 
Beibo, on the Belbo, the valley of which the train traverses for some 
distance. 34 M. Nizza Monferrato , also on the Asti -Ovada- Genoa line 
(p. 49). — 53 M. Alessandria, see p. 46. 

36 M. Cherasco, at the confluence of the Tanaro and Stura, is 
not seen from the line, which ascends the former. Stations: Narzole, 
Monchiero-Dogliani, Farigliano, Carrii. — 53 M. Bastia Mondovi, 
the junction of the line to Cuneo (p. 45). 

56 1/ 2 M. Niella; 60 M. Castellino- Tanaro. — 62y 2 M. Ceva, on 
the Tanaro. 

From Ceva to Oemea, 221/2 M., railway in IV4-IV2 hr. (4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 
1 fr. 85 c). — The train ascends the valley of the Tanaro. Intermediate 
stations unimportant. 15 x /2 M. Garessio (1970 ft.; Leon d'Oro ; Rosa Bossa), 
with 1000 inhab. and marble quarries, is connected with (22 M.) Albenga 
(p. 85) by a road crossing the pass of San Bernardo (3165 ft.). — 22^2 M. 
Ormea (2398 ft.; Grand Hdtel. with hydropathic; Albergo Nazionale), an 
ancient and picturesque little town , with marble quarries. It is fre- 
quented as a summer-resort; and pleasant excursions may be made to 
the imposing stalactite cavern of Nava (discovered in 1886), to the rocky 
gorges of the Negrone, to the Pizzo d? Ormea, (8125 ft.; 3J/2 hrs.), and via 
Viozene (2V« hrs.; two inns; guides) to the top of the Mongioje (8630ft.; 
not difficult). — From Ormea a picturesque road (railway projected) leads 
across the fortified Col di Nava (3074 ft.) and past the prettily situated 
village of Preve to (31 M.) Oneglia (p. 86). 

The train passes under the old castle of Ceva by a tunnel and 
begins to cross the Ligurian Alps, the most imposing part of the 
line. Between this and Savona are numerous viaducts and 28 tunnels. 
The train quits the Tanaro and ascends. Beyond (66y 2 M.) Sale 
delle Langhe is the Galleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards of 3 M. in 
length, the longest on the line. 69y 2 M. Saliceto ; IS^fe M. Cengio, 
in the valley of the Bormida di Millesimo. 

79 M. San Giuseppe di Cairo, on the Bormida di Spigno, through 
the valley of which the Acqui railway descends (see p. 46). 

Interesting journey amid the deep ravines and precipices of the 
Apennines. Tunnels and viaducts in rapid succession. 86y2 M. 
Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage-church, founded in 1536. 

91 M. Savona, and thence to Genoa, see pp. 84, 83. 

c. Via Acqui and Ovada. 

100 M. Railway in 5-6V4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 10, 12 fr. 70, 8 fr. 15 c). 

From Turin to(35y 2 M.) Asti, seeR. 11a. Our line here diverges 
from that to Alessandria and crosses the Tanaro. Near (39 M.) San 
Marzanotto-Rivi we reach the fertile and wine-growing hill-district 
of the Colli Astigiani. On the heights is the old chateau of Bel- 
langero. — 41 M. Mongardino. We thread a tunnel and enter the 

to Genoa. ACQUI. 11. Route. 49 

valley of the Tiglione. 42 M. Vigliano d'Asti; 43 M. Montegrosso. 
Tunnel. 46 M. Agliano-Castelnuovo-Calcea. — The line now crosses 
the Belbo and unites -with that from Bra to Alessandria at (50^2 M.) 
Nizza Monferrato (p. 48), a town of 5000 inhah., producing wine and 
silk. — Farther on we again cross and recross the Belbo. Tunnel. 
53 M. Bazzana. Another tunnel. 55 V2 M. Mombaruzzo, in the Val Cer- 
vino. — We thread a long tunnel near (58Y2M.) Alice-Belcolle and 
reach the valley of the Medrio, which the train crosses repeatedly. 

63 M. Acqui (Grand Edtel; Moro ; Italia), the Aquae Statiellae 
of the Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 7400 in- 
hah., is known for its warm sulphur springs. The Cathedral, with 
its double aisles, is of the 12th century. The Austrians and Pied- 
montese were defeated by the French near Acqui in 1794. Good wine 
is produced in the vicinity. — To Alessandria and Savona, see p. 46. 

"We now cross a hridge of fifteen arches, spanning the Bormida, 
which falls into the Tanaro helow Alessandria. Beyond (65 M.) 
Visone we cross the torrent of that name. Tunnel. 65 M. Visone, in 
the valley of the Caravagna, which the train crosses thrice near 
(67V2 M.) Prasco-Cremolino. — We then penetrate the tunnel of 
Cremolino, which is 2 M. long, and enter the valley of the Orba, 
an affluent of the Tanaro. — 71 V2 M. Molare. — 72 l / 2 M. Ovada 
(655 ft.), a town with 4600 inhah., at the confluence of the Stura 
with the Orha. Steam-tramway hence to Novi, see p. 47. 

We now aseend the pretty valley of the Stura, traversing via- 
ducts and emhankments. 77 V2 M. Bossiglione. — Numerous via- 
ducts and tunnels. Beyond (8IV2M.) Campoligure (1165 ft.), the 
highest point of the line, it pierces the crest of the Apennines hy 
the Galleria del Turchino (3 M. long). Overhead is the pass of the 
same name (1745 ft.). We then descend to (86 M.) Mele, about 
3 M. above Yoltri (p. 84). 

Farther on the line skirts the slopes of the mountains. 88 M. 
Acquasanta; 92 M. Granara; 94 M. Borzoli. Several fine views of 
the sea are obtained to the right. — 97*/ 2 M. Sampierdarena, and 
thence to Genoa, see p. 83. — 100 M. Genoa, see p. 64. 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. 

Railway to (80 M.) Aosta in 31/4 -5Vz hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 25, 
6 fr. 60 c. ; express train in summer only). The part of the line between 
Ivrea and Aosta (42 M. ; fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c.) is distinguished 
both by the beauty of the scenery and the boldness of its engineering. — 
From Aosta to Courmayeur, 21 M., Omnibus thrice daily in July and Aug. 
(at other times to Pre-St-Didier only) in 5 hrs. (return 4 hrs.), fare 5 fr. 
(outside seat 5V2 fr.). The hours of starting from Aosta have hitherto been 
6, 11, and 3.30, from Courmayeur 6, 1, and 5. One-horse carr. 18, two- 
horse 30 fr. 

From Turin to (18 M.) Chivasso, see p. 60. Between the de- 
pressions of the lower mountains peeps the snowy summit of the 
Gran Paradiso, and to the E., farther on, that of Monte Rosa. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 11th Edit. 4 

50 Route 12. IVREA. From Turin 

22 M. Montanaro ; 25 M. Rodallo; 27 M. Caluso-Canavese; 29 M. 
Candia; 31 M. Mercenasco ; 33 M. Stramblno. 

38 M. Ivrea (770 ft.; Scudo di Francia; Universo; Corona 
d'ltalia) , a town with 5400 inhab., is picturesquely situated on 
the Dora Baltea (Fr. Doire), on the slope of a hill crowned with an 
extensive and well-preserved old Castle, with three lofty brick 
towers, now a prison. Adjacent is the Cathedral, a building of an- 
cient origin, but frequently restored. An ancient sarcophagus 
adorns the adjoining Piazza. A monument was erected here in 1880 
to Ettore Perrone, general and minister (d. 1848). Ivrea, the an- 
cient Eporedia, was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 100, in order to 
command the Alpine routes over the Great and Little St. Bernard. 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage-church) and 
the lake of S. Giuseppe with a ruined monastery (1 hr.). 

Steam-tramway from Ivrea in i 3 /t hr. to (I8V2 M.) Santhid (p. 60; fares 
2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 c). 

The train penetrates the hill on which Ivrea stands by means of 
a tunnel, 1100 yds. long, and enters the fertile valley of the Dora. 
41 M. Montalto ; on a rocky hill to the right stands the ruined battle- 
mented castle of that name. 42 y 2 M. Borgofranco (840 ft.) ; 45 M. 
Tavagnasco; 47 M. Quincinetto. 

49 M. Pont-St-Martin. The village (1030 ft. ; Rosa Rossa, Ca- 
vallo Bianco), with a ruined castle, foundries, and an old Roman 
bridge over the Lys, is very picturesquely situated at the mouth 
of the deep Val Gressoney, 1 M. from the station (see Baedeker s 

We next cross the Lys and follow the broad valley, flanked 
by fine mountains, to (50^2 M.) the prettily- situated Donnas 
(1066 ft. ; Rosa). The train now ascends a rocky defile and passes 
through a tunnel 660 yds. long under Fort Bard (1282 ft.), which 
was built in the beginning of the 11th cent, and was taken in 1242 
by Count Amadeus of Savoy after a long siege, while in May, 1800, 
before the battle of Marengo, it was gallantly defended by 400 Aus- 
trians, who kept the French army in check for a week. The train 
then crosses the Dora to (52 M.) Hone-Bard, beautifully situated. 
On the left opens the Val di Camporciero, or Champorcher, with its 
fine rocky peaks (p. 56) ; to the N.W. towers the Becca di Luseney 
(11,500 ft.). — At Campagnola the train crosses the Dora and inter- 
sects a promontory of debris. — 55 M. Arnaz, with a ruined castle. 

5672 M. Verres. The village (1207 ft. ; Italia; Ecu de France), 
with 1100 inhab. and the old castle of Rocca , belonging to the 
former Counts of Challant (built in 1390, refortified in 1536), lies 
picturesquely at the entrance of the Val Challant, 8/4 M. from the 
station. Opposite, on the right bank of the Dora, lies Issogne, also 
with an interesting chateau of the Counts of Challant (end of the 
15th cent.). To the N.E., between the Challant and Gressoney 
valleys, towers the rocky pyramid of the Becca di Vlcu (9370 ft.). 

to Courmayear. CHATILLON. 12. Route. 51 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 2) were alternately occupied by 
the Franks and the Longobards, and belonged to the Franconian Empire, 
in consequence of which the French language still predominates in these 
Italian districts. The village of Bard (below the fort) is the point of 
transition from Italian to French, while at Verre's the latter is spoken al- 
most exclusively. 

Above Verres the valley expands, but soon contracts again. Ex- 
tensive vineyards are passed. We cross the Evancon and the Dora. 
On the slope to the left is the village of Champ de Praz, lying at 
the entrance of the Val Chalame, the torrent of which has overspread 
the valley of the Dora with detritus. Farther on lofty walls of rock 
rise to the left. — • Near (60 M.) Montjovet appear on the right, 
high above us, the extensive ruins of the chateau of Montjovet or 
St. Germain. Tunnel. The train crosses the Dora by means of a long 
viaduct and enters the picturesque *Defile of Montjovet, the grand- 
est part of the line, with a succession of tunnels and buttresses of 
masonry, and the brawling Dora far below. 

63 M. St. Vincent (1415 ft). To the right, 1 M. above the 
station, at the end of the defile and the foot of Mt. Zerbion (8925 ft.), 
lies the village (1886 ft. ; *Lion d'Or; Corona), with a mineral spring 
and baths. — Two short tunnels. Loftily perched on the left is the 
old castle of Ussel, belonging to the Counts of Challant. 

64 >/ 2 M. Chatillon (1807 ft. ; * Hotel de Londres, R., L., & A. 
372 fi\; *Pens. Suisse; Hot. des Alpes, at the rail, stat., new), with 
900 inhab., is beautifully situated 1 M. above the railway, at the en- 
trance to the Vol Tournanche. Its houses are picturesquely scattered 
over the gorge of the Matmoire or Marmore, a torrent descending 
from the Matterhorn ; and in the middle of the town is a bridge 
spanning the ravine in one tine arch. (To Val Tournanche, and over 
the Theodule Pass to Zermatt, see Baedeker's Switzerland.) 

The line crosses the Matmoire, traverses a deep cutting through a 
deposit of debris, threads two tunnels, and reaches (67^2 M.) Cham- 
bave, noted for its wine. To the W. opens the view of the beautiful 
valley of Aosta, rich in fruit and surrounded by lofty mountains, 
with the three-peaked Rutor (p. 58) in the background. 

Beyond a tunnel the line traverses a mass of de'bris at Diemoz 
(viaduct 107 yds. long), and crosses the Dora. To the left lies the 
picturesque chateau of Finis (with old mural paintings), at the mouth 
of the Clavalite Valley, through which peeps the snowy peak of the 
Tersiva (11,520 ft.). The train crosses the Dora twice and reaches 
(72 M.) Nus, with a ruined castle, at the mouth of the Val St. Barthe- 
lemy. "We then recross to the right bank of the Dora. On the slope 
above (73 M.) St. Marcel, which lies at the mouth of the valley of 
the same name (p. 57), is the much-frequented pilgrimage-church 
of Plou. We again cross the Dora to (74Y2 M.) Quart -Villefranche, 
with the chateau of Quart on a hill to the right (2485 ft.). We then 
cross the Bagnere and the Buthier. 

80 M. Aosta. — "Hotel Royal Victoeia, opposite the station, E,., 
L., & A. 4 J /2, B. iy-z, dej. 3 x /2, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr.; *H6t. du Montblanc, 


52 Route 12. iWBTft-.- From Turin 

at the W. end of the town. R., L., & A. 3-3V2, B. I1/2, D. 5 fr., these two 
open in summer only. — Albergo Lanieb, in the Hotel de Ville, in the 
market-place, good cuisine; *Coeona, opposite, Italian; Hot.-Pens. Centoz, 
also in the market-place, well spoken of. — Caffe Nazionale, in the Hotel 
de Ville; Railway Restaurant, poor. Beer at Zimmermantfs, near the Hotel 
de Ville. Good bedrooms at the omnibus -office in the market-place 
(R., L., & A. 3 fr.). — Omnibus and carriages to Courmayeur, see p. 49. 

Aosta (1910ft.), with 5700 inhab. , the Augusta Praetor ia Salas- 
sorum of the Romans and now the capital of the Italian province of 
Aosta, lies at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire or Dora 
Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by the Salassi, a Celtic 
race, who commanded the passage of the Great and the Little 
St. Bernard, the two chief routes from Italy to Gaul. They frequently 
harassed the Romans in various ways, and on one occasion plundered 
the coffers of Caesar himself. After protracted struggles the tribe 
was finally almost extirpated by Augustus, who captured the sur- 
vivors, 36,000 in number, and sold them as slaves at Eporedia (p. 50). 
He then founded Aosta to protect the roads, named it after himself, 
and garrisoned it with 3000 soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts. The 
importance of the Roman Aosta is indicated by the extant remains. 

Near the railway-station, which lies on the S. side of the town, 
is an excellent bronze Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., in hunting 
costume, designed by Tortone (1886) and commemorating the king's 
sporting expeditions amid the Graian Alps. A short walk brings 
us to the ancient Town Walls, flanked with square towers (partly 
restored), which form a rectangle 790 yds. by 620 yds. They are 
preserved in their entire extent, and on the S."W. side the ancient 
facing and cornice are still in situ. 

The walls of the old Theatre and the arcades of the Amphitheatre 
are visible above the houses in the market-place (Piazza Carlo 
Alberto), where the main streets of the town, still preserving the 
old Roman arrangement, intersect each other. 

The principal street leads to the E., through the ancient three- 
arched *Porta Pretoria, the only well-preserved Roman gate, to 
the (Y4 M.) handsome *Tkiumphal Arch of Augustus, with its ten 
Corinthian pilasters. It then crosses the Buthier, which has changed 
its channel, to the beautiful arch of the old Roman Bridge, now 
half-buried in the earth. 

In the suburbs lies the church of St. Ours or Sant' Orso 
(12th cent.), the choir of which contains the tomb of Bishop Gallus 
(d. 546) and finely carved stalls of the 15th century. The old crypt 
i3 borne by Roman columns. The cloisters contain early-Roman- 
esque columns (12th cent.), with interesting capitals. Near the 
church rises a Tower, built of Roman hewn stones in the 12th cent., 
opposite which are a sarcophagus and two ancient columns at the 
entrance of a chapel. In the same piazza is the Priory of St. Ours 
(15th cent.), with terracotta ornamentation and an octagonal tower. 
The interior contains good wood-carvings and frescoes. 

to Courmayeur. YILLENEUVE. 72. Route. 53 

The Cathedral owes its present form to the 14th century. 
Above the portal is a painted terracotta relief; in the choir, two 
mosaics of the 10th cent, and early-Renaissance stalls. The treasury 
contains two shrines of the 13th and 15th cent. (SS. Gratus and Ju- 
cundus), a cameo of a Roman empress in a setting of the 13th cent., 
and an ivory diptychon of the Consul Probus (406) with a representa- 
tion of the Emp. Honorius. 

At the S. gate rises the tower of Bramafam (12th cent.), in 
which a Count Challant is said to have starved his wife to death out 
of jealousy. By the W. wall is the mediaeval Tour du Lepreux, 
described in Xavier Le Maistre's novel, in which a leper named 
Guasco (d. 1803) and his sister Angelica (d. 1791) dragged out 
their miserable existence. — Numerous cre'tins will be seen in 

The * Becca di Nona (10,305 ft.), rising to the S. of Aosta, commands 
a superb view of the Alps. Ascent 6-7 hrs., with guide (12 fr.). Two-thirds 
of the way up is the Alp Comboe (6959 ft. ; inn) ; on the top is a refuge-hut 
(Capanna Budden). — The Mont Emilius (11,677 ft.) may he ascended by 
experts from Comboe in 4 hrs., with guide (30 fr.). The view is still more 
extensive than that from the Becca di Nona. 

The Road to Coukmayeur traverses the broad and shadeless 
valley of the Dora Baltea, passing the handsome royal chateau of Sarre 
(2145 ft.), to AymaviUe (2120 ft.), with iron-foundries and a chateau 
with four towers. Opposite St. Pierre (2165 ft.), with its church and 
a picturesque chateau (partly restored) on a rock, opens the Val de 
Cogne on the S. (see p. 55). Thence we continue, enjoying a fine 
view of the three-peaked Rutor, the Grivola, etc., and passing an 
old tower, to (6 M.) — 

Villeneuve (2132 ft.; Cervo, poor), a picturesquely situated 
village, commanded by the rock-perched ruin of Argent. 

Fkom Villeneuve to Ceresole over the Col de Nivolet (13 hrs.). 
Ascent from Villeneuve by a paved path, rough and steep. To the W., a 
fine view of Mont Blanc. Opposite (3/ 4 br.) c/iamplong, where we reach 
the lowest part of the Val Savaranche (see below), the beautifully wooded 
Val de Ehemes opens on the W. ; on the height between the valleys rises 
the chateau of Intro d (p. 58). Following the lofty right bank of the deep 
valley, we next come to (3hrs.)Degioz-Valsavaranche (p. 57), then Tignet 
and Bien and (2*/4 hrs.) Pont (63tf(J ft. ; inn, with 4 beds), the highest hamlet 
in the Val Savaranche, at the W. base of the Gran Paradiso (p. 57). 

The Val Savaranche divides here. We cross the brook descending 
from the W. branch of the valley, and ascend a steep rocky slope in 
numerous windings, passing a line waterfall, to the (1 hr.) Croix oVAro- 
letta (7800ft.), a cross on the brink of a precipice, where we enjoy a 
magnificent survey of the Gran Paradiso and its three peaks opposite to 
us, to the N. of which are the Becca de Montandeyne, Pointe Herbetet, and 
the Grivola. Traversing a desolate, and at places marshy, valley , with 
numerous traces of glacier-friction, we next pass (1 hr.) the Chalets de 
Nivolet (rustic little inn) and a small lake with a royal shooting-box, 
which lie to the left , and reach the (1 hr.) Col de Nivolet (8660 ft.), a 
narrow ridge of rock with a superb view of the Levanna (p. 40), rising 
on the opposite side of the deep Val a" Oreo. To the W. are the lofty Col 
de la Oalise and the Cima di Houston ; to the E., the chain of the Gran 
Paradiso. (A route leads across the Colle Rossetto into the Val de Rhemes.) 

Our route descends a steep rocky slope, in many windings, to a bleak 

54 Route 12. PR^-ST-DIDIER. 

valley with several small tarns and a few chalets, and thence by steep 
zigzags on the left side of the Agnello with its numerous falls, to (2 hrs.) 
Chiapili di Sopra (5748 ft.), the highest hamlet in the valley of the Oreo. 
Farther on we pass the beautifully situated Parrocchia or parish-church 
(5290 ft.) and finally reach the hotels of (2 hrs.) Ceresole Reale (p. 39). 

Beyond Villeneuve we cross the Savaranche and ascend rapidly 
to (33/ 4 M.) Arvier (2545 ft. ; Croce Bianca). High up on the precip- 
itous cliff to the right stands the church of St. Nicolas (3925 ft.). 
In front of us is the snowy Rutor (p. 58). Near the beautifully 
situated but dirty village of ( 3 / 4 M.) Liverogne (2395 ft.; Hot. du 
Col du Mont, plain) we cross the deep gorge of the Dora di Valgri- 
sanche, a S. affluent of the Dora Baltea (p. 58), and traverse a rocky 
gorge to Ruinaz (2580 ft. ; Croix, poor). Opposite lies Avise, with 
a ruined castle and an old church. Mont Blanc now comes in sight. 
The road passes through another wild defile (Pierre Taillee) and 
crosses to the left bank by the (2 M.) Pont d'Equilive (2570 ft.). 
The valley expands. On the right bank is the pretty Cascade de 
Derby, descending in several leaps. 2Y2M. Morgex (3020 ft. ; Chene 
Vert; Ange). The road now follows the lofty slope for some dis- 
tance, with a fine retrospective view of the Grivola (p. 56), and 
crosses to the right bank of the Dora Baltea before (2y 2 M.) — 

Pre-St-Didier (3250 ft.; *H6tel de VZJnivers; Restaurant de Lon- 
dres\ a picturesquely situated village with baths, where the road to 
the Little St. Bernard diverges to the left. 

Excursions. The ascent of the "Tete de Crammont (8955 ft.), 4 hrs. to 
the W. of Pre-St-Didier, is highly interesting (riding practicable to within 
V2 hr. of the top). Following the St. Bernard road to a point about 6 min. 
above the first tunnel (shorter footpath in 20 min.), we thence ascend to 
the right to the (2 hrs.) hamlet of Chanton (5970 ft.), whence we reach the 
summit in IV2 hr. more. Splendid view of Mont Blanc and the Graian 
Alps. About 5 min. below the top is the Pavilion Saussure, a refuge-hut 
of the Italian Alpine Club. Another and easier route diverges to the right 
from the St. Bernard road at Elevaz, 3 M. from Pre-St-Didier, joining the 
above route before the final ascent. Experts may dispense with a guide. 

To Bourg-St-Maurice over the Little St. Bernard, 24 M., a route 
preferred by some to the Col de la Seigne. The fine new road (footpath 
shorter) ascends the valley of the Thuile via, Balme and (6 M.) La Thuile 
(4726 ft. ; Alb. Nazionale, Alb. della Goletta, both primitive), where we 
have a view of the great glacier of the Rutor (p. 58), which may be as- 
cended hence (2 hrs. to the S. are the beautiful "Rutor Waterfalls) to (3 3 /4M.) 
Pont-Serrand (4515 ft.), and past the (3M.) Gantine des Eaux-Rousses (6740 ft.) 
to the (IV4 M.) pass of the Little St. Bernard (7175 ft.). The boundary 
between France and Italy is on the S. side, about 3 /t M. beyond the sum- 
mit and near a Hospice (7060 ft.) affording good accommodation. [The 
Mt. Valaisan (9455 ft.), 31/2 hrs. to the S.E., the Belvedere (9665 ft.), 
IV2 hr. to the E., and the Lancebranlette (9605 ft.), 3 hrs. to the W., all 
afford admirable views of the Mont Blanc chain.] We now descend gradu- 
ally, overlooking the beautiful upper valley of the Isere (La Tarentaise) 
and the Savoy Mts. the whole way, to St. Germain, Siez, and (12 M) 
Bourg-St-Maurice (2805 ft.; "H6t. Mayet, R. & A. 3 1 /--, D. 3 fr.), a small 
town on the Isere, whence a diligence runs twice daily in 472 hrs. to 
(16 M.) Moutiers-en- Tarentaise (p. 2). 

Beyond Pre'-St-Didier the road ascends the left bank to (i/ 2 M.) 
Paleusieux, and winds through a wooded ravine to (3 M.) — 

VAL DE COGNE. 13. Route. 55 

Courmayeur. — *H6tel Royal, *Angelo, in both R., L., & A. 5-6, 
B. I1/2, dej. 31/z, D. 5 fr. ; ""Union; *Mont Blanc, '/z M. to the N. of the 
village, R. & A. 21/2, D. with wine 4 fr. — Restaurant Savoy e (also rooms); 
Cafe" du Montblanc. — Diligence to Aosta, see p. 49; carr. with one horse 15, 
with two 25 fr. — English Church Service in the Vaudois Church. 

Courmayeur (4360ft.), a considerable village, beautifully situ- 
ated at the head of the Aosta valley, is much frequented by 
Italians in summer. The highest peak of Mont Blanc is concealed 
from Courmayeur by the Mont Chetif (7685 ft), but is seen from 
the Pre'-St-Didier road, 1/2 M - to tlie s - — About 1 M. to the N. 
are the small sulphur baths of La Saxe. 

The *Mont de la Saxe (7735 ft.; 21/2-3 hrs.; gnide, 6 fr., unnecessary) 
affords a complete view of the S.E. side of Mont Blanc with its numerous 
glaciers, from the Col de la Seigne to the Col de Ferret, the Col du 
Geant and the Jorasses being prominent. A good bridle-path ascends 
from Courmayeur, by La Saxe (see above) and Le Villair, to the (2 hrs.) 
Chalets du Pre" (6480 ft.) and the (1 hr.) summit. The descent may be made 
by the Chalets de Leuchi into the Val de Ferret. — Excursions in the Mont 
Blanc chain , to Chamonix, etc., see Baedekers Switzerland or South- 
Eastern France. 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps. 

The Graian Alps, an extensive mountain-system culminating in the 
Grand Paradis (13,324 ft.) and the Orivola (13,022 ft.), lie between the 
valleys of the Dora Baltea and the Isbre on the N., and those of the 
Dora Riparia and the Arc on the S. We here describe a few of the most 
interesting routes through the E. part of this grand mountain-region, 
in the form of a circular tour of four days from Aosta , taking in Cogne, 
Valsavaranche, Rhemes Notre-Dame, Valgrisanche, and Liverogne. Cogne is 
the best centre for' excursions. 

The mountains of Cogne form a favourite chasse of King Humbert, 
as they did of his father Victor Emmanuel (p. 52), and the mountain 
goat ('Steinbock', Ital. 'stambecco', Fr. 'bouquetin 1 ) , elsewhere nearly 
extinct, is still found here. Several excellent bridle-paths, leading to the 
royal shooting-lodges, are a great assistance to the pedestrian. — The 
Ouida delle Alpi Occidentali, by Bobba and Vaccarone (Vol. II, Oraie e Pennine; 
1896), published by the Italian Alpine Club, may be recommended. 

1st Day. — FroM Aosta to Cogne (6^2 hrs.). As far as (6 M.) 
Aymaville (2120 ft.) we may follow the highroad (p. 53), but it is 
preferable to cross theDoire near Aosta, and to goby Oressan and Jo- 
vencan, across meadows and fields. The bridle-path then ascends 
rapidly past the church of St. Martin to Poia (2790 ft.), and enters 
the monotonous Val de Cogne at a great height above the ravine of 
the brawling Grand 1 Eyvie. Far below we soon observe the houses 
of Pont d'El (2865 ft.), with its admirably preserved *Roman 
Bridge (formerly an aqueduct), 60 yds. long and 171 ft. above the 
stream. It was erected in the xeign of Augustus. The valley con- 
tracts. Near the bridge by which we cross the stream we obtain a 
view of the Grivola for a short time. We next reach (iy 2 hr.) 
Vieyes (3714 ft.; cantine), at the mouth of the Combe de Nomenon 
(pretty waterfall), with the Grivola and the Gran Nomenon 
(11,440 ft.) in the background. Beyond (i^hr.) Silvenoire (on the 
right) and a deserted iron-foundry we again cross the brook by 

56 Route 13. COGNE. Oraian 

the Pont de Laval (4480 ft.), where the mountains of Cogne are 
revealed. We then recross to (li/ 2 hr.) Epinel (4760 ft.), opposite 
the lofty Punta del Pousset (see belowj, with the Trajo Glacier on 
the right. At (V2 hr.) Cretaz the Valnontey descends from the S. to 
the Grand' Eyvie; (20 min.) Cogne. 

Cogne (5033 ft.; *H6t. Grivola, K. 2, pens. 6y 2 fr.; Mont Emilius, 
R. 2fr., primitive), charmingly situated, with a beautiful view of 
the Grand Paradis and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, with their 
glaciers (Glacier de la Tribulation, du Grancrou, de Money, etc.) 
to the S., and of the Mont Blanc to the N.W., is an excellent start- 
ing-point for excursions. Three valleys converge here : the Val- 
lone di Valnontey from the S., the Vallone d'Urtier from the S.E., 
and the Vallone di Grauson from the N.E. 

Ascents and Passes. (Guides, Louis and Joseph Jeantet.) "Punta del 
Pousset (99t)4 ft.; 4*/2 hrs.; guide 6, with mule 12 fr.), a superb point of view. 
At Cretaz (see above) the bridle-path crosses the Valnontey and enters a wood 
and then ascends grassy slopes to the chalets of Pousset- Desso us and (3 lirs.) 
Pousset-Dessus or Superiori (8385 ft.). Thence a steep climb of 1V2 hr., 
passing a very giddy place near the top, brings us to the rocky crest of the 
Punta del Pousset. Cluse to us, above the Trajo Glacier, towers the 
Grivola, which is hardly inferior in boldness to the Matterhorn, and other 
mountains of the Pennine and Graian Alps are also visible. — Grivola 
(13,022 ft. ; from Cogne 9 hrs. ; two guides at 28 fr. each), difficult, and fit 
for experts only. Ascent from Valsavaranche still more difncult. 

The *Punta Tersiva (11,526 ft. } 7 hrs., with guide) presents no dif- 
ficulty to adepts. We proceed through the Vallone di Grauson to the 
(2i/2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (7450 ft.) and to ( 3 /4 hr.) Ervilliere (8245 ft.); 
thence, passing the little Lac Borieres, to the (1 hr.) l*asso d Invergneux 
(9485 ft.) and by the W. arete to the (2 J /2 hrs.) summit. Magnificent view 
of the Graian and Pennine Alps and of the plain of Piedmont (Turin), etc. 
The ascent may be also made from the S. from the Val d^Urlier via, the Pon- 
ton Alp, or from the N. (mure difficult) from the Val de Clavaliti (p. 51). 

In the Vallone di Valnontey, opening to the t>. of Cogne, lie the (6 hrs.) 
chalets of Le Money (7b04 ft.), which command an admirable view of the 
Grand Paradis with its glaciers (ascent, see p. 57). Two difficult glacier 
passes, the Colle Grancrou (10,844 ft.), between the Grand Paradis and 
Becco di Gay, and the Colle Money (11,247 ft.), between the Roccia Viva 
and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, lead from the head of the Vallone de 
Valnontey to Ceresole (p. 39; guide 15 fr.). 

From Cogne to Hone-Bard ovek the Finestra di Champorcher, 
11-12 hrs., attractive and not difficult. A bridle-palh (royal hunting-path) 
crosses the Urtier at (i/ 2 hr.) Champlong (8185 ft.), and ascends the valley of 
the stream with its abundant flowers and waterfalls, commanding fine views 
of the Grivola to the W. and of the Combe de Valeille (see p. 5<) to the S. 
We next pass the chapel of Cret to the (2 hrs.) chalets of Chavanis, whence 
wc may either follow the lower path to the right by Brouillot and Peiratza, 
or that to the left along the slope of the Tersiva (see above), via Piands 
and Ponton, with its little lake, and along the Tour de Ponton (9846 ft.), 
to the (2 hrs.) linestra di Champorcher (9311 ft.), between the Tour de 
Ponton and the Becco Costassa. We descend into the pastoral Val Cham- 
porcher or Camporciero , passing the chalets of Dondena, to (3i /2 hrs,) 
Champorcher (4b82 ft. ; rustic inn) , and thence by Pont-Boset to (2V2 hrs ) 
Hdne-Bard (p. 50). 

From Cogne to St. Marcel over the Col de St. Marcel, 8 hrs. not 
difficult (practicable for mules). The route leads through the Vallone di 
Grauson to the (2*/2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (see above), and thence past the 
little Coronas Lake (8830 ft.) to the (2 hrs.) Col de St. Marcel {Colle di 


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Alps. VALSAVARANCHE. 13. Route. 57 

Coronas, 9535 ft.), a saddle of the Cresta del Tessonet. We descend through 
the wooded Vallone di St. Marcel to (3»/2 hrs.) St. Marcel (p. 51). 

From Cogne to Aosta over the Colle di Garin, 9 hrs. (with guide), 
fatiguing but interesting. The route ascends via. the chaleis of Chavanis 
and Arpisson (7630 ft.) to the Colle di Garin (Col d'Arbole, 9715 ft.) ; ad- 
mirable view of the Grand Paradis and Grivola. Descent via, the Chalets 
d'Arbole (8186 ft.) and the hermitage of St. Grat (5315 ft.). — lo Atmaville 
over the Colle de Chaz-Seche (9260 it.) or the Colle del Brine (8735 ft.), 7-8 hrs., 
both attractive and nut diflicult. 

From Cogne to the Val Soana across the Col della Nouva, 7-8 hrs., 
attractive and repaying. Passing the chalets of Chavanis and Brouillot 
(see above and p. 56) to the foot of the glacier and skirting this to the right, 
we reach (3 hrs.) the Colle della Nouva (Colle delf Arietta; 9623 ft.), and 
enjoy an admirable view of Mont Blanc and the S. side of the Graian Alps. 
Steep descent to the chalets of Arietta, and through the Val Campiglia to 
(3 hrs.) Campiglia, (}J2 hr.) Valprato, and O/2 hr.) Ronco (inn, clean), in the 
Val Soana, 2*/2 hrs. above Ponte Canavese (p. 39). — Two other passes to the 
Val Soana lead respectively across the Colle Bardoney (9295 ft.), between 
the Punta Lavina (10,854 fi.) and the Grande Arolla (10,833 ft. •, fatiguing), 
and across the Bocchetta Scaletta (9373 ft.), between the Punta Lavina and 
Punta Nera (10,052 ft.). 

To the Val d'Oruo ( Val Locana) over the Colle Grancrou or the Colle 
Money, see p. 56. Two o.her diflicult passes lead from the Vallone di 
Valeille, the lateral valley parallel to the Vallone d' Urtier on the S. (see 
p. 56), to the Rifugio (9020 ft.) of the Italian Alpine Club in the Val Piunto- 
netto and to the Val a"' Oreo: the Colle di Teleccio (10,910 ft.), between the 
Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,113 ft. ; the difficult ascent of which may be 
made from the pass) and the Ondezana (ll,36il ft.) ; and the Colle delle 
Sengie (1U,515 ft.), between the Ondezana and the Punta Sengie(ii,V6Qlt.). 

2nd Day. — From Cogne to Valsavaranche over the Colle 
del Lauzon (8-9 hrs.), easy and attractive (guide, 10 fr., not indis- 
pensable). From (3/ 4 hr.) Valnontey (5505 It.) the bridle-path as- 
cends to the right, through wood, passing a pretty 1'alL of the Lauzon, 
to the (2y 2 hrs.) royal shooting-lodge ('Campement du Roi' ; 8490 ft.) 
and the (2 hrs.) Colle del Lauzon (10,850 ft.), with an admirable 
view (still more extensive from a height a few minutes to the S.). 
We now descend, enjoying superb views of the Grand Paradis, on the 
left, and Grivola, on the right, to (IV2 nr t^ e Chalets de Leviona 
(7966 ft.). (Good walkers may cross the brook here near the small 
waterfall, and descend by a steep path direct to Valsavaranche.) 
The bridle-path follows the left bank and reaches the bottom of the 
Val Savaranche near the (1V2 hr.) hamlet of Tigntt, 1 M. to the S. 
of Valsavaranche, or Degioz (5055 ft.; * Hotel- Restaurant du Club 
Alpin, unpretending, R. l 1 /^, D. 2*/2 fr.), the chief village in the 
Valsavaranche (guides, G. Bianc and G. l)ayne). 

Two other somewhat fatiguing passes from Cogne to Val Savaranche 
are the Col de VHerbetet (10,830 ft.), and the Colle Mesoncles or di Belle/ace 
(10,174 ft.). — From Val Savaranche to Ceresole Eeale, see p. 53. 

The Grand Paradis (13,32i ft. ; difficult, for adepts only; guide 60 fr.) 
may be ascended in 7-8 hrs. from (2^4 hrs.) Pont (p. 53), the highest 
hamlet in the Val Savaranche. About 1/4 hr. to the S. of Pont we ascend 
to the left to the (4 hrs.) Ricovero Vittorio Emmanuele Secondo (10,200 ft.), 
built by the Italian Alpine Club, above the Moncorvi Alp, and thence cross 
the Glacier de Moncorvi to the (4 hrs.) summit. The descent may be made 
to the Chalet d'Herbetet (accommodation) and through the Valnontey (p. 56) 
to Cogne (very difficult). 

3rd Day. — From Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Dame over 

58 Route 13. VALGRISANCHE. 

the Colle D'ENTRELOR(6hrs.; guide 6 fr.). The bridle-path ascends 
from Valsavaranche by (1 M.) Creton, at first somewhat steeply, to 
(2 hrs.) a royal shooting-lodge (7185 ft.), and thence leads in zig- 
zags along the slope to the left, passing (l 1 ^ hr.) the small Lago di 
Djouan (8280 ft.) and the Lago Nero (9075 ft.), to the (lV2h.r.) Colle 
d'Entrelor (9872 ft.), between the Cima di Oollien (10,115 ft.) and 
the Cima Percia (10,110 ft.). Fine view of the Rutor (see below) to 
the "W., and of the Grand Paradis and Grivola to the E. Descent 
rather steep through the Vallone d'Entrelor, with the Beccadi Sam- 
beina (10,370 ft.) on the left, to (2*/2 hrs.) Rhemes Notre-Dame 
(6015 ft. ; poor cantine, or a bed at the cure's), the chief place in 
the Val de Rhemes, which is enclosed by imposing glaciers. Notre- 
Dame is 5 hrs. from Villeneuve. The route down the valley passes 
Rhemes St-Oeorges and Introd (2885 ft.), with the chateau of that 
name, where the Val de Rhemes unites with the Val Savaranche 
(p. 53). In descending we obtain a fine view of Mont Velan and the 
Grand Combin to the N. 

A shorter but more toilsome route than the Col d'Entrelor leads from 
Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Dame across the Colle di Sort (9730 ft.), 
which lies to the S. of the Mt. Roletta (11,100 ft.). 

4th Day. — From Rhemes Notre-Dame over the Finestra 
del Torrent to Valgrisanche and to Liverogne (6 hrs. to Valgri- 
sanche ; guide 6 fr. ; 3 hrs. more to Liverogne). Steep ascent to the 
(3^2 hrs.) Finestra del Torrent or di Tei (9260 ft.), between the 
Becca di Tei (10,434 ft.), on the right, and the Becca dell' Invergnan 
(11,838 ft.), on the left, with fine view of the Ormelune and the 
Rutor. The path descends through the stony Vallone del Bouc. 
Where it divides, we keep to the left. On our left are the Glacier 
de Rabuigne and Mont Forciat. Passing (IV2 nr tne Alp Nouva 
(7020 ft.), we descend and cross the brook to Fornet (5675 ft.; 
small inn), the highest hamlet in the Val Grisanche; then to Sevey 
and (2 hrs.) Valgrisanche or L'Eglise (5470 ft. ; poor accommo- 
dation at the Cantine, or a bed at the cure's), the chief village in 
the valley, prettily situated at the base of the Rutor. 

The ascent of the Rutor, an extensive, glacier-clad mountain with 
several peaks (S. and highest peak 11,435 ft.; N. peak 11,310 ft.), either 
from Valgrisanche, or better from La Thuile on the Little St. Bernard 
route (p. 5i), presents no serious difficulty (guide 40 fr.). From La Thuile 
a bridle-path leads through the deep and narrow Rutor valley to the 
(2 hrs.) grand *Falls of the Rutor (6345 ft.) whence we ascend to the left 
by a new path to the (I1/2 hr.) Capanna Santa Margherita (£085 ft.), situated 
above the small Rutor Lake (now drained). Thence across the large Rutor 
Glacier to the (3 hrs.) Tele du Rvtor (11,438 ft.), which commands a most 
splendid panorama (refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club on the top). — 
Fkom Valgrisanche to Boueg-St-Maubice (p. 54; 15 hrs. from Aosta), 
over the Col du Mont (8630 ft.), a tolerable bridle-path. 

The bridle-path from Valgrisanche to Liverogne (3 hrs.) leads 
through the beautifully wooded Val Grisanche, on the left bank of 
the Dora di Valgrisanche, to Ceres or Serre (Hot. Frassy, rustic) and 
Revers, where the river disappears for a short distance under rocks. 

BIELLA. Id. Routt. 59 

The hamlet of Planaval lies to the left. The valley contracts to a 
wild ravine. The path on its left side skiits a precipice high above 
the roaring torrent. On the opposite bank, on an apparently in- 
accessible rock, is perched the ruined castle of Montmajeur or 
Tour d' Arboe. — Liverogne, see p. 54. Near Liverogne the path 
quits the gorge and descends to the left through meadows and groups 
of trees to the road from Courmayeur to Aosta (p. 51). 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella. 

I81/2 M. Railway in ca. 1 hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c). 

Santhia, see p. 60. The intermediate stations are unimportant. 

18^2 M. Biella (Testa Grigia; Angelo ; Leon d'Oro ; Alb. Centrale, 
all in the new town; Grand Hotel, with hydropathic establishment, 
in the old town ; photographs of mountain-scenery at Vittorio Bella's), 
an episcopal see with 11,700 inhab., lies on the Cervo and is divided 
into Biella Piazzo (1558 ft.), the high-lying old town, and Biella Piano 
(1410 ft.), the new town. The power for the electric lighting of the 
industrial new town and for its factories is furnished by the falls of 
the Chiusella, 12 M. to the S.W. The new town possesses arcaded 
streets and a tine Cathedral of the beginning of the 15th cent., with 
a facade of 1825. The latter stands in a spacious Piazza, where the 
episcopal palace is also situated. Near the cathedral is an early- 
Christian Baptistery. The church of S. Sebastiano is a tine Kenais- 
sance structure of 1504. The Giardino Pubblico contains monuments 
of Gen. Alfonso La Marmora (p. 32) and Garibaldi, while the Piazza 
del Teatro has a statue of Quintino Sella (1826-84), the statesman, 
by Ant. Bortone (1888). — The palaces of the old town, rising 
picturesquely on the hill and reached by a Cable Tramway, are now 
tenanted by the lower classes. — About 3 M. to the N.E. of Biella, 
near the village of Bioglio (2235 ft.), lies the Villa Sella, with a beau- 
tiful garden and a splendid view of the Alps (visitors admitted). 

From Biella Steam Tkamways run to (13 M.) Valle Mosso via (T M.) 
Cossato, and to (b l fe M.) Mongrando via (2 M.) Occhieppo (see p. 60). A 
third line ascends to the N. through the valley of the Cervo to (5 M.) An- 
dorno (1803 ft.; "Grand Hdtel, pens. 12-15 fr. ; Grace Rossa; Engl. Ch. service 
at the Grand Hotel), a charmingly situated village, with two water-cure 
establishments, which has recently become popular as a summer-resort with 
English and other visitors. The Gothic church (1304) has been modernized. 
Numerous pleasant excursions may be made in the neighbourhood. — 
Beyond Andorno the tramway goes on to (6 M.) Sagliano, with a monument 
to Pietro Micca (p. 35), and (9 M.) Balma, whence omnibuses (i& c.) run 
to Campiylia (2460 ft. ; albergo). From Campiglia a road ascends to the 
Santuario di S. Giovanni (3345 it.), situated on the height to the left. Another 
leads via. Eosazza (Alb. della Gragliasca) to Piedicavallo (34U5 ft. ; Alb. Mo- 
logna, well spoken of), whence Mte. Bo (8385 ft. ; *View) may be ascended 
in 4 1 /* hrs. (guide 5 fr.). 

A pleasant excursion may also be made via, (1V4 M.) Cossila (1970 ft.), 
with its water-cure, and Favaro (2460 ft.) to Oropa, 6 M. to the N.W. of 
Biella (omn. live times daily. 2^2 fr., down l 1 ^ fr. ; carr. with one horse 
6, with two 12 fr.). Here stand a large Stabilimento Jdroterapico (3480 ft.), 
founded in 1850 (open June-Sept. 5 R. 1V2-3, A. 1, pens. 6, water-treatment 

60 Route 15. VEROELLI. From Turin 

2 fr. daily; Engl. Ch. service in June and July), and the famous pilgrimage 
church of Madonna d'Oropa (3870 ft.). 

About 7V2 M. to ihe W. of Biella (road via Occhieppo, see p. 59; omn. 
from the Leon d'Oro 2V2 fr. ; carr. with one horse 6, with two 12 fr.) lie 
the pilgrimage- church and hydropathic establishment of Graglia (2625 ft.), 
situated 2 M. above the village of that name, in the midst of a splendid 
array of mountains. Comp. Pertuti-Ratti, 'Guida pel Villeggiante nel 
Biellese 1 (Casanova, Turin). 

15. From Turin to Milan via No vara. 

93 M. Railway in 23/4-71/2 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c. ; ex- 
press 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10 c). Glimpses of the Alps to the left. — Stations at 
Turin, see p. 25. 

The Dora Riparia is crossed , then the Stura between (5 M.) 
Succursale di Torino and (10i/ 2 M.) Settimo Torinese, whence a rail- 
way runs N. to Rivarolo, with branches thence to Cuorgne (p. 39) and 
Castellamonte. We cross the Oreo and the Malon. 15 M. Brandizzo. 
— < 18 M. Chivasso (600 ft.; Alb. del Moro\ a town with 4300 inhab., 
near the influx of the Oreo into the Po. Branch-lines hence to Aosta 
(p. 51) and (30^2 M.) Casale-Monferrato (see below). Tramway to 
Turin. A road leads from Chivasso to the S. to (2 M.) San Genesio, 
with sulphur baths (Gr. Hot. S. Genesio; pens, from 8 fr., open 1st 
May to 1st Dec). — 20 M. Castelrosso ; 22*/ 2 M. Torrazza di Verolan. 
Near (25 M.) Saluggia the train crosses the Dora Baltea (p. 62). 
29^2 M. Livorno- Vercellese ; 32 M. Binnze ; 35^2 M. Tronzano. 

37 M. Santhih (Alb. del Pallone; Rail. Restaurant), with 3500 in- 
habitants. The church, restored in 1862, contains an altar-piece by 
Gaud. Ferrari. — Railway to Biella, see p. 59; steam-tramway to 
Ivrea, see p. 50. 

The train skirts the highroad. 40y 2 M. San Germano-Vercellese. 

491/2 M. Vercelli (430 ft.; TreRe; Leond'Oro), an episcopal 
town with 20,200 inhabitants. From the station we see the impos- 
ing church of S. Andrea, founded in 1219, with a dome and W. 
towers like those of northern churches. Interior early-Gothic. Ad- 
jacent is a Museo Lapidario, with Roman inscriptions and sculptures. 
The church of S. Cristoforo contains frescoes by G. Ferrari (1532-38) 
and B. Lanini; by the high-altar, *Madonna and donors in an 
orchard, by Gaud. Ferrari. S. Caterina, S. Paolo, and the Istituto di 
Belle Arti also contain works by Ferrari. ]n the cathedral-library are 
some rare old MSS. The town possesses statues of Cavour (1864), 
Victor Emmanuel II., and Garibaldi. — To the S. of Vercelli lie the 
Campi Raudii, where Marius defeated the Cimbri in B.C. 101. 

Steam-tramways ply from Vercelli to Trino on the S.W. , to Casale- 
Monferrato (see below) on the S., and to the N. to Aranco in the valley 
of the Sesia and to Biandrate and Fara. 

From Vercelli to Alessandria, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 45, 2 fr. 85 c). The chief intermediate station is (I4y 2 M.) Casale-Mon- 
ferrato (377 ft. ; Ro*a Rossa; Angelo ; Leon d^Oro), on the right bank of the 
Po, with 17,000 inhab., the ancient capital of the Duchy of Monferrato, 
which afterwards belonged to the Gonzagas. The interesting Romanesque 
Cathedral, a vaulted basilica with double aisles and a fine atrium, was 

to Milan. NOVARA. 15. Route. 61 

founded in 741 by the Lombard king Liutprand, and rebuilt in 1107. It 
contains several good paintings (by G. Ferrari and others), and sculptures 
by Lombard masters. The church of S. Domenico, in the Renaissance style, 
the Palazzo di Citta, with a handsome colonnade, and other palaces are also 
noteworthy. The Ghibelline prince William of Montferrat is mentioned 
by Dante in his Purgatory (VII. 134). Casale-Monferrato is the junction of 
the Asti-Mortara line (p. 48) and of that to Chivasso (p. 60). It is also con- 
nected with Alessandria, with Vercelli (p. 60), and with Montemagno (p. 46; 
via Altavilla) by tramways. — Various small stations, including Valenza 
(p. 160). — 35 M Alessandria, see p. 46. 
From Vercelli to Pavia, see p. 160. 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 172); to the left rise the Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is conspicuous. 
6272 M. Borgo- Vercelli; 56Y 2 M - Ponzana. 

62M. Novara (Rail. Restaurant; Alb. a" Italia, well spoken of; 
Ire Re; Roma; Hotel de la Ville), the Roman Novaria, an episcopal 
town and formerly a fortress, with 15,000 inhab., was the scene of 
a victory gained by the Austrians under Radetzky over the Pied- 
montese in 1849, which led to the abdication of Charles Albert. 

From the station we cross the Piazza Carlo Alberto, with a 
Monument of Garibaldi, to the Via Vitt. Emanuele, passing a Mon- 
ument of Cavour, by Dini, and turn to the right to the church of 
S. Gatjdenzio, erected about 1570, with a facade by Tibaldi and a 
dome 396 ft. high, added by Antonelli (p. 36) in 1875-78. The church, 
without aisles, in imitation of S. Fedele at Milan, contains several 
good pictures by Gaud. Ferrari, The tower (300 steps) commands a 
wide view. 

The Cathedral, a Renaissance building upon old Roman found- 
ations , connected with the Baptistery by an entrance-court , pre- 
sents a picturesque appearance. It contains a Marriage of St. Ca- 
tharine, by Gaud. Ferrari. — To the N.W., behind the Teatro Coccia, 
is a marble statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marchesi. — The 
Mercato, or Corn Exchange, near the Porta Torino, is a handsome 
building with colonnades. Between the Mercato and the Castello 
is a monument to Victor Emmanuel II. — In the Corso Garibaldi, 
near the Palazzo Civico, is a monument to Charles Albert. 

Tramway to Vigevano (p. 160) and to Biandrate (p. 60). 

From No vara to Vakallo, 34 M., railway in 2 ! /4 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 25, 
4 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80 c). Unimportant stations. — Varallo, see p. 172. 

Fbom Novaea to Akona, 23 M., railway in ca. 1 hr. (fares 4 fr. 20, 

2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 90 c). — 8V2 M. Bellinzago and (IO1/2 M.) Oleggio are also 
stations on 1he Jtsellinzona-Luino- Genoa line (p. 160) 15V2 M. Varallo 
Pombia; lVfe M. Borgo Ticino. — 23 M. Arona, see p. 158. 

From Novara to Seregno, 34 M., railway in l 1 /2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50, 

3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 20 c). Unimportant stations. — 17 M. Busto-Arsizio (p. 155). 
— 25i/2 M. Saronno (p. 136). — 34 M. Seregno (p. 138). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by those from Domo- 
dossola (p. 4) and from Bellinzona to Genoa (R. 27). Carriages are often 
changed at Novara. 

69 M. Trecate. Near S. Martino the line crosses the Ticino by 
a handsome stone bridge of eleven arches , which the Austrians 
partially destroyed before the battle of Magenta. 

62 Route 15. 

iVlAUJ^n XA. 

Farther on we cross the Naviglio Grande (p. 109). On the 
right, near (77 M.) Magenta , stands a monument erected to Napo- 
leon III. in 1862 , to commemorate the victory of the French and 
Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 1859, which compelled 



orta di Geneva 

the latter to evacuate Lombardy. Opposite the station are numerous 
graves of those who fell in the struggle, with a small chapel on an 
eminence, and adjoining it a charnel-house and a bronze statue 
of MacMahon, by Luigi Secchi (1895). Tramway to Milan. 

The line intersects numerous rice-fields, which are kept under 
water two months in the year. 79 M. Vittuone ; 84*/ 2 M. Rhb 
(p. 155), where the line unites with that from Arona. 

93 M. Milan (see p. 105). 

III. Liguria. 

16. Genoa 64 

a. The harbour and adjoining streets, 69. — b. From the 
harbour through the Via S. Lorenzo to the Piazza Nuova 
and the Piazza Deferrari, 71, — c. From the Piazza De- 
ferrari to the main railway-station and the lighthouse, 
73. — d. From the Piazza Deferrari via the Piazza Cor- 
vetto, Acquasola, and Corso Andrea Podesta to the Via 
di Circonvallazione a Mare, 79. — e. From the Piazza 
Corvetto to the Piazza Manin-, Via di Circonvallazione a 
Monte-, Castellaccio ; Campo Santo, 81. — f. Excursions, 82. 

17. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. Riviera di Ponente . . 82 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 93 

The Maritime and LigurianAlps and the contiguous Apennines (the bound- 
ary between which is some 20 M. to the W. of Genoa) slope gently north- 
wards to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling country, and descend 
abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow Rivieea, or coast-district, 
expands at a few points only into small plains. The cultivated land climbs 
up the hillsides in terraces, sheltered from the N. wind, and enjoying a 
fine sunny aspect. While the mean temperature at Turin is 52° Fahr., 
it is no less than 61° at Genoa; and again, while the temperature of Jan- 
uary averages 31° at the former, and occasionally falls below zero, it 
averages 46° at the latter, and is rarely lower than 23°. The climate 
of the Riviera is therefore milder than that of Rome, and is even favour- 
able to the growth of the palm. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of Upper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. To what 
race the Ligurians belong has not yet been ascertained. As the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Nice as its extreme 
outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for the 
traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part witn 
Nice belonged to Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of the 
Counts of Savoy, forming their only access to the sea down to the period 
when they acquired Genoa (1815). After the Austrian war of 1859 Nice 
(1512 sq. M-) and Savoy (3889 sq. M.) were ceded by Italy to France in 
1860 as a compensation for the services rendered by Napoleon III. The 
district of Liguria, consisting of the provinces of Porto Maurizio and 
Genoa, with an area of 2040 sq. M. and 899,300 inhab., once formed the 
Republic of Genoa, which in the 13th cent, became mistress of the W. 
part of the Mediterranean, and afterwards fought against Venice for the 
supremacy of the Levant. Genoa's greatness was founded on the ruin of 
Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was embodied in the saying — 

64 Route 16. GENOA. Hotels. 

'Mare senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza 
vergogna', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) addresses them with the words — 

'Ahi, Genovesi, uomini diyersi 
D'ogni costnme, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi?'" 
Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy, they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. Giuseppe Mazzini, the chief leader of the national revolutionary 
party, was born at Genoa in 1808, and Garibaldi, though born at Nice 
(1807), was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry of the once 
far-famed republic with the upstart Turin , and of the restless harbour 
population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years been pro- 
ductive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, regained its 
ancient mercantile importance , though its naval arsenal has been trans- 
ferred to Spezia. 

16. Genoa.* 

Railway Stations. The Stazione Piazza Principe (PI. B,2; restaurant, 
dej. or D. 3 fr.), the West or Principal Station (for all trains), is in the 
Piazza Acquaverde. The hotel-omnibuses and cabs (tariff, see p. 65) wait 
here only. — The East Station, or Stazione Piazza Brignole fPl. H, 6), at 
the end of the Via Serra, and connected with the chief station by means 
of a tunnel below the higher parts of the town, is the first place where the 
Spezia and Pisa trains stop and the starting-point for the local trains to 
Chiavari. — The Stazione Caricamento (PI. D, 4; starting-point of the local 
trains to Voltri) and the Stazione Marittima (PI. A, 2) are the goods-stations 
for the harbour traffic, while the internal trade is carried on through the 
goods station in the Piazza Principe, adjoining the main station. — Railway 
tickets of all kinds may also be obtained of the Fratelli Gondrand. Via 
Roma 45; Thos. Cook & Son, Via Cairoli 17; H. Gaze & Sons, Via Balbil79 
(Hotel de Londres). 

Arrival by Sea. Passenger-steamers land at the Ponte Federico Gu- 
glielmo (PI. B, 3) or anchor near it (emba r king or disembarking by boat 
30 c, at night 60 c; luggage 50 c per 110 lbs.). On ihe wharf are the 
custom-house, post and telegraph office, and railway booking-office. — 
Travellers wishing to go on by rail without delay, may, immediately after 
the custom-house examination on the quay, book their luggage there for 
their destination (fee to the facchino of the dogana, 20 c). 

Hotels (comp. p. xix; most of them are in noisy situations ; the larger 
hotels have lifts). *Grand Hotel de Savoie (PI. s ; C, 2), opposite the main 
station, with electric light and steam heating, R., L.. & A. 4-6, B. I72, 
dej. 372 (at separate tables 4), D. 5 (K), pens. 12-15, omn. V2 fr-i Grand Hotel 
de Genes (PI. f ; E, 5), by the Teatro Carlo Felice, with electric light, R., 
L., & A. from 4'/2, B. 2, dej. S l /2, D. 5, pens, from 12, omn. 1 fr. ; Grand 
Hotel Tsotta (PI. a; F, 5), Via Roma 5, with electric light and railway 
office, R. from 4, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3 l /2, D. 5, pens. 14, omn. 1 fr. ; 
Eden Palace Hotel (formerly Hot. 'h Pare; PI. b, G 5), Via Serra 6-8, be- 
low Acquasola (p. 80) and not far from the E. Station, quiet, with pleasant 

+ Genoa is divided into the Settieri of Pre, Molo, Portdria, San Vicenzo, 
San Teodoro, and Maddalena. — The focus of traffic is the Piazza Deferrari 
(PI. E, 5, 6). — Via, street; vico, lane; vico chiuso, blind allev; salita, as- 
cending street; mura, rampart. — The houses are numbered in black; red 
numbers are used only for shops (botteghe) and for entrances of houses. 




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Tramways. GENOA. 16. Route. 65 

garden, electric light, and steam heat, similar charges. — *H6tel de la 
Ville (PI. d; D, 4). in the Pal. Fieschi, R. 3V2-5, L. 1/2, A. 1, B. li/ 2 , dej. 
3V2, D. 5, pens. 9-14, omn. 1 fr. ; *H6t. de Londees (PL h ; C, 2), near the 
principal station, R., L., & A. 4-8, B. 11/2, d^j. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr.; 
Hotel des Etrangees (PL 1; E, 4), Via Cairoli 1, with electric light and 
rail, ticket-office, R. & A. 372-6, L. 7,, B. I1/2, dej. 3-3V 2 , D. 5, pens. 9-14, 
omn. IV4 fr. (prices exhibited in rooms). — Hotel Central (PL c; F, 5), Via 
S. Sebastiano 8, R., L., & A. 3-4, B. I1/4, dej. with wine 272, D. with wine 4, 
pens, from 81/2, omn. 3/4-I74 fr., well spoken of; Hotel de France (PL g; 
D, 5), R., L., & A. 272-372, B. I72, dej. 3, D. incl. wine 472, pens, from 8 fr. ; 
Hotel Smith (PL e, D 5 ; English landlord), near the Exchange, Vico Dene- 
gri, R., L., & A. 272-3V2, B. 17 4 , dej. 27 2 , D. incl. wine 37 2 , pens. 8-9 fr., 
well spoken of; Hot. Mi5:tkopole (PL 0; F, 5), Piazza Fontane Marose, R., 
L., & A. 3, B. I74, dej. 3, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 8 fr.; Aquila (PL k; C, 2), 
Piazza Acquaverde, near the station, with trattoria, well spoken of, R., L., 
& A. 3-472, B. I74, dej. 272-3, D. 472 fr.; Hot. de Milan et Pens. Suisse 
(PL i ; C, 2), Via Balbi 34, near the Palazzo Reale, R., L., & A. 3-4, B. li/ 4 , 
dej. 3, D. 4 fr. (tariff shown in bedrooms); Lloyd Hotel (Nederland Pen- 
sion), Via Balbi 36. — Italia (PL p; F, 5), Via Carlo Felice 14, R., L., 
& A. 3, B. 17 4 , dej. 274, B. 372, pens. 972 fr. ; Hot. de Geneve (Ginevra; with 
lift), Vittoeia, both in the Piazza Annunziata (PL D, 3); Concordia (PL n; 
F, 5), Via S. Giuseppe, opposite the Galleria Mazzini; Ligueia, Via Balbi 26, 
well spoken of; Confidenza (PL m ; F, 5), Via S. Sebastiano 13, R. 2, L. y 2 , 
A. 72, dej. 2V2, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 8 fr.; Unione, Piazza Campetto 9, 
R. 2, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Alb. Nazionale, Via Lomellina 14, R. 2-272 fr.; Fieenze, 
Via Carlo Alberto 31, R. from 172 fr.; Geemania, Via Carlo Alberto, near 
the station, R. 17 2 , pens. 472 fr.; Piccolo Torino, Piazza Fossatello, these 
two unpretending. — Pensions. Villa Alberti, Via Cafl'aro 8, first floor; 
Christian Hospice (Ospizio Gristiano), Via Caffaro 12, near the Teatro Paga- 
nini, R. 3, L. */ 2 fr., A. 30 c, B. 17 4 , dej. 2, D. 3 fr. (rooms should be 
ordered in advance). — Notices of lodgings to let may be found at the 
paper kiosques, in tobacconists' shops, and in the 'Indicatore degli Alloggi', 
published on the 1st and 15th of each month. 

Cafes. Roma, Via Roma and Galleria Mazzini (also luncheons); Con- 
cordia, Via Garibaldi, opposite the Pal. Rosso (PL E, 4; p. 74), with a 
garden, pleasant and cool (music in the evening); Milano, Gall. Mazzini; 
Andrea Doria, Via Roma, on the groundfloor of the Prefecture ; Posta, Via 
Carlo Felice; Labb, Piazza Deferrari. 

Restaurants. Teatro, in the Teatro Carlo Felice (PI. E, F, 5; p. 66); 
Concordia (see above), dej. 3, D. 4 fr., both incl. wine; Labb, Via Carlo 
Felice 7, well spoken of; Milano, see above; "Cambio, Piazza delle Vigne, 
Italian; Aquila d'Oro, at the Exchange (p. 70); Hdt.-Restaurant Right, see 
p. 81. — Beer: ''Gambrinus, Monsch, both in the Via S. Sebastiano (PL F, 5), 
also cold viands; Augustiner Brauhaus (formerly Jensch), Piazza Corvetto 
(PL G, 5); Ehrhardt, Via Carlo Felice; Munich beer at all these. 

Cabs (a tariff in each) in the Town, which extends to the Bisagno on 
the E. and to the lighthouse on the W. : 

Per drive 
Per hour 
Each addit. 72 hr. 

One-horse cab 

Two-horse cab 

By day At night By day At night 

1— 1.50 1.50 2 — 

2- 2.50 2.50 3 — 
1 — 1.25 1.25 1.50 

Small articles of luggage free ; trunk 20 c. — Night-fares are reckoned from 
the time when the street-lamps are lighted. 

Electric Tramways: 1. Piazza Deferrari (PL E, 6) -Piazza Corvetto (PL 
G, 5) -Piazza Zecca (PL D, 3) -Via Balbi- Acquaverde- Piazza Principe (P1.B,2). 
Part of this line runs through a chilly subway, which may easily cause 
a cold to the unwary. — 2. Piazza Deferrari -Piazza Corvetto -Piazza Brignole 
(PL H, 5, 6). — 3. Piazza Deferrari-Fia.zza Corvetto -Corso Andrea Podesta- 
Via di Circonvallazione a Mare (PL E, F, 9 ; p. 81). — 4. Piazza Cavour (PL C, D, 6)- 
Via di Circonvallazione a Mare -Bisagno Bridge (PL H, I, 7)- Campo Santo 
{p. 82). — 5. Piazza Deferrari -Fia,zz& Corvetto- Via Assarotti-Piazza Mania 

Baedeker. ItaWI. 11th Edit, 5 

66 Route 16. GENOA. Theatres. 

(PL I, 4)- Campo Santo. A few cars go on to S. Oottardo and Prato, in 
the upper valley of the Bisagno. — 6. Piazza D eferrari- Piazza Manin (PI. 1,4)- 
Via di Circonvallazione a Monte (station of S. Nicolo, see below) -Piazza 
Principe (PI. B, 2). — 7. Via Venti Settembre (PI. F, 6) -Ponte Vi\&- Sturla (to 
be extended to Quinto and Nervi). 

Cable Tramways (Funieolari) : 1. Piazza Zecca (PI. D, 3)- Corso Carbonara 
(PI. E, 2 ; tunnel to this point; comp. p. 65) -S. Nicolo (see &hove)-Castellaccio 
(p. 81). Fare 50 c. — 2. Piazza Portello (PI. F, i)-Corso Magenta (PI. F, G, 3 ; p. 81). 

Tramway Cars run from the Piazza Caricamento (PI. D, 5) by the Via 
Carlo Alberto and the Piazza Principe (PL B, 2) to Sampierdarena (25 c. ; 
unpleasant drive), and thence in the one direction to Cornigliano (30 c), 
Sestri Ponente (45 c), Multedo. Pegli (55 c), and Voltri, and in the other 
to Rivarolo (40 c), Bolzaneto (55 c), and Pontedecimo (80 c). 

Omnibus from the Piazza Deferrari (PI. E, 6) via the Via Garibaldi 
and Via Balbi to the principal station and the Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2; fare 
10 c; some of the omnibuses go on to the Piazza Dinegro, p. 79), and from 
the Piazza Colombo (PI. H, 6,7) to S. Francesco d Albaro, Sturla, Quinto, and 
Nervi (see pp. 82, 94; electric line in progress). 

Small Boats. For l-4pers. 2fr. per hour ; best to enquire beforehand. 

— Steam Launches, starting near the Banca S. Giorgio (PI. D, 5), to Sam- 
pierdarena and Sestri Ponente (p. 83); also for a visit to the harbour (p. 69). 

Baths. At the ''Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina (PI. F, 5); others at 
Via delle Grazie 11, and Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea Baths (July & Aug.) 
by the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare (p. 81) ; also beyond the lighthouse 
(p. 79 ; poorly fitted up). Sea-bathing places on the Riviera, see pp. 84, 93. 

Theatres. *Teatro Carlo Felice (PL E, F, 5) , one of the largest in 
Italy, open in winter only, for operas ; Politeama Genovese (PL F, G, 4), near 
Villetta di Negro, for operas (smoking allowed); Paganini (PL F, 3), chiefly 
drama; Politeama Regina Margherita (.PL G,7), Via Venti Settembre, for 
dramas, operas, and operettas; Alfleri, Via Corsica, in summer only; variety 
theatres (not for ladies) at the Gaffe d" Italia, Acquasola (adm. lfr.), and 
the Cafi Zolesi, Galleria Mazzini. — Band in the Acquasola Park (p. 80) three 
times a week, 7-9 p.m. in summer and 2-4 p.m. in winter; excellent con- 
cert of the band of the Pompieri (firemen) once weekly in the Piazza Fon- 
tane Marose (PL F, 4, 5). 

Shops. Booksellers: A. Donath, Via Luccoli 33 (PL E, 5; p. 70), 
with circulating library; L. Beuf, Via Cairoli2; Libr. Sordo-Muti, Piazza 
Fontane Marose. — Photographs: Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs 
(his views of the Riviera and N. Italy also to be had from the booksellers, 
etc.); Degoix, Via Cairoli 7; Lupi, Via Orefici 148. — Filigree Work: 
Forte, Codevilla, and others in the Via Orefici ; Sivelli, Via Roma. — Ala- 
baster and Marble: Bianchi, Gall. Mazzini 5; CI. Pocchini, Via Cairoli 1. 

— Silk and Velvet ( Veluto di Genova) : Deferrari, Piazza Soziglia. — Candied 
Fruit (Frutti canditi) : Vedova Bomanengo, Via Orefici, opposite Piazza Cam- 
petto ; Pietro Bomanengo, Piazza Soziglia; Ferro e Cassanello, Piazza Defer- 
rari ; Florin, Via Balbi. 

Post Office, Galleria Mazzini (PL F, 5), open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Tele- 
graph Office, Palazzo Ducale, Via Sellai (PL E, 6). 

Bankers, Granet, Brown, & Co., Via Garibaldi 7; Sandoz, Via Luccoli; 
Ritd. Hofer, Via S. Lorenzo 8 (1st floor) ; C. Pfister, Piazza Deferrari 38 
(1st floor). — Money Changers abundant near the Exchange. 

Steamboats (comp. p. xviii). The most important for tourists are those 
of the Navigazione Generate Italiana (Florio-Rubattino ; office, Piazza Acqua- 
verde), to all the chief ports of Italy and to the Levant. Comp. the Italian 
time-table (larger edition). — Tha Sloman Steamers ply to Barcelona, Malaga, 
and Lisbon. — The North German Lloyd (agents, Leupold Fratelli, Piazza 
S. Siro 10) maintains a weekly line of steamers from Genoa to Gibraltar 
and New York, while the China and Australian steamers of this company 
also touch at Genoa (2-3 times a month). 

Consuls. British, William Keene, Esq., Via Palestro 10; American, Hon. 
James Fletcher, Via Assarotti 36. 

Physicians : Dr. Breiling (speaks English), Corso £olferino20; Prof. Giov. 
Ferrari (speaks English), Via Asfaiotti 12; Dr. Schneegans, Coreo Carbonara 

Collections. GENOA. 16. Route. 67 

14} Dr. Zdslein, Via Mameli 31. — Protestant Hospital, Salita S. Rocchino, 
supported by the foreigners in Genoa (physician, Dr. Breiting). — Dentists : 
Bright, Via SS. Giacomo e Filippo 35; Terry, Piazza Cavour 5; Mela, 
Salita S. Catarina 1 ; Grimm, Via Roma 5. — Chemists : Farmacia Anglo- 
Americana (Cabella), Via Cairoli 38 ; Zerega (English prescriptions), Via Carlo 
Felice 2; Moretta, Via Roma 10; Farmacia Internazionale, Via Carlo Felice. 

Goods Agents. Jesinghaus, Pal. Doria (PL A, B, 2) ; Weiss, Via Balbi 36 ; 
Semler & Gerhardt, Via S. Pancrazio 2; Weidmann, Via Balbi, Vico S. An- 
tonio 5. 

English Churches. Church of the Holy Ghost (built by Street, in the 
Lombard style), Via Goito; services at 8.15, 11, and 5; chap., Rev. Ronald 
MacDonnell. Church Seamen's Institute, Via Mil an o 26 (Mr. MacDonnell) ; 
serv. Sun. and Thurs. 7.30 p.m. ; weekly concert on Sat. ; reading , writing, 
and recreation rooms open daily for seamen, 10-10. — Presbyterian Church, 
Via Peschiera 4 (Rev. Donald Miller, M. A.) ; service at 11 a.m. Genoa Har- 
bour Mission, in connection with the Brit. & For. Sailors 1 Society and the 
Amer. Seaman's Friend Society; serv. Sun. and Tues. at 7.30 p.m. in the 
Sailors'" Rest. 15 Via Milano (Rev. D. Miller and Capt. Clucas). Social 
entertainments Frid. at 7.30 p.m. (visitors welcome). 

Collections and Galleries. 
Cathedral Treasury (p. 72), Mon. & Thurs. 1-4; 1 / 2 fr. 
Museo Givico (pp. 79, 80), daily, except Mon., 11-4; fee, on Sun. free. 
Palazzo Bianco (p. 75), daily, 11-4 from Oct. to March (April to Sept. 10-4), 

50 c, Sun. & Thurs. 25 c, the last Sunday of each month free. 
Palazzo Durazzo-Pallavicini (p. 76), daily, 11-4. 
Palazzo Reale (p. 78), daily, in the absence of the court. 
Palazzo Rosso (p. 74), on Mon., Wed., Thurs., Frid., and Sat., 11-3, free 
(no gratuities), closed on Tues., Sun., and holidays. 

Principal Attractions (two days). 1st Day. Morning: row in the Har- 
bour (p. 70); walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the Cathedral (p. 71) 
to the Piazza Nuova with S. Ambrogio (p. 72) and to the Piazza Deferrari. 
Afternoon: through the "Via Garibaldi (p. 73), with visits to the Palazzi Rosso 
(p. 74) and Bianco (p. 75); Via Balbi (p. 76); Palazzo Doria (p. 78); "Light- 
house (p. 79). — 2nd Day. Morning: "Villelta di Negro (p. 79); Corso Andrea 
Podesta (p. 80); "Santa Maria di Garignano (p. 80); Via di Circonvallazione 
a Mare (p. 81). Afternoon: Via di Circonvallazione a Monte (p. 81), with the 
Castellaccio, or to the Campo Santo (p. 82). Excursions to Nervi (p. 93) and 
to Pegli, including the Villa Pallavicini (p. 84; closed on Sat.). 

Genoa, Italian Geriova, French Genes, with 221,500 inhab. , the 
seat of a university and of an archbishop, is a strong fortress and the 
chief commercial town in Italy. Its situation, rising above the sea 
in a wide semicircle, and its numerous palaces justly entitle it to 
the epithet of l LaSuperba\ The old town is a net-work of narrow 
and steep streets, lined with many-storied buildings, but the newer 
quarters have broad and straight thoroughfares. The principal streets 
are lighted with electricity. The extensive fortifications, dating from 
the beginning of the 17th cent., have been recently strengthened. 
From the large lighthouse on the W. side, where the barracks of 
S. Benigno afford quarters for 10,000 men, a broad rampart runs up 
the hill at some distance from the town, past the Forte Begato 
(1620ft.), to the Forte dello Sperone (1690 ft.), the highest point; 
then descends past Forte Castellaccio (1250 ft. ; view) to the mouth 
of the Bisagno, which falls into the sea to the E. of Genoa, a circuit 
of about 9^2 M. in all. The heights around the town are crowned 
with ten detached forts. 

The beauty of its situation and the reminiscences of its ancient 


68 Route 16. GENOA. History. 

glory render a visit to Genoa very attractive. Invalids , however, 
must be on their guard in winter against the raw winds and the 
abrupt changes of temperature. 

From the earliest times Genoa has been famous as a seaport, and it 
is believed to derive its name from the fact that the shape of the coast 
here resembles that of a knee (genu). The Roman form of its municipal 
government was maintained throughout the period of the barbarian in- 
vasions, when a new feudal nobility sprang up alongside of the native 
noblesse. The smaller towns on the Ligurian coast looked up to Genoa 
as their champion against the Saracens, who ravaged the country from 
Frassineto , and in 936 even plundered Genoa itself. In 1015 the Genoese 
made themselves masters of Corsica, and in 1119 they waged a victorious 
war against Pisa, then mistress of the Tyrrhenian Sea. From that date 
the rival cities were almost permanently at war down to 1284, when a 
terrible naval battle took place between them at Meloria, on which oc- 
casion the Genoese captured 29 Pisan galleys, and sank 7 others. From 
this disaster Pisa never recovered, and Genoa now obtained the suprem- 
acy over the W. islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. 
At a still earlier period Genoa had participated in the Crusades, and se- 
cured to herself a busy trade with the Levant. She also possessed settle- 
ments at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at 
Tunis and Majorca. The rivalry of the Genoese and Venetians was a fruit- 
ful source of wars and feuds during the 12-14th centuries, which at length 
were terminated by a decisive victory gained by the latter in 1380. 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party-conflicts between the £reat families of the Doria and 
Spinola (Ghibellines) on one side, and the Grimaldi and Fieschi (Guelphs) 
on the other , led to some extraordinary results. The defeated party 
used, at the expense of their own independence, to invoke the aid of 
some foreign prince , and accordingly we find that after the 14th cent, 
the kings of Naples and France, the counts of Montferrat, and the dukes 
of Milan were alternately masters of Genoa. Nor was this state of 
affairs materially altered by the revolution of 1339, by which the ex- 
clusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, and a Doge invested with 
the supreme power. In the midst of all this confusion the only stable 
element was the mercantile Banco di S. Giorgio, which had acquired ex- 
tensive possessions, chiefly in Corsica, and would, perhaps, have eventually 
absorbed the whole of the republic and converted it into a commercial 
aristocracy, had not Genoa lost its power of independent development by 
becoming involved in the wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 78), 
the admiral of Emperor Charles V., at length restored peace by the estab- 
lishment of a new oligarchic constitution (1528), and the unsuccessful con- 
spiracy of Fiesco in 1547 was one of the last instances of an attempt to 
make the supreme power dependent on unbridled personal ambition. But 
the power of Genoa was already on the wane. The Turks conquered 
its Oriental possessions one after another, and the city was subjected to 
severe humiliations by the French, who took Genoa in 1684, and by the 
Imperial troops by whom Genoa was occupied for a few days in 1746. 
These last were expelled by a popular rising, begun by a stone thrown 
by Balilla, a lad of 15 years. In 1736 the ambition of Theodore de Neuhof, 
a Westphalian nobleman, occasioned great disquietude to the republic. 
He was created king by the Corsicans, who were subjects of Genoa, but 
the usurper was expelled with the aid of the French, who afterwards 
(1768) took possession of the island on their own behalf. After the battle 
of Marengo (1800) Genoa was taken by the French. In 1805 it was formally 
annexed to the Empire of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. 

To 1he student of art Genoa offers much of interest. Some of the 
smaller churches are of very ancient origin, though usually altered in the 
Gothic period. The Renaissance palaces of the Genoese noblesse are, on 
the other hand, of the greatest importance, surpassing in number and 
magnificence those of any other city in Italy. Many of these palaces were 
erected by Galeazeo Alessi (a pupil of Michael Angelo, born at Perugia 

Harbour. GENOA. 16. Route. 69 

1500, d. 1572), whose style was followed by subsequent architects. In 
spite of occasional defects, the architecture of the city is of an imposing 
and uniform character, and great ingenuity has been displayed in making 
the best of an unfavourable and limited site. The palaces, moreover, con- 
tain a considerable number of works of art, while Rubens, who resided 
at Genoa in 1606-8, and Van Dyck at a later period, have preserved the 
memory of many members of the noblesse. The native school of art, 
however, never rose to importance, and was far from being benefited by 
the zeal of its artists in painting facades. The chief painters were Luca 
Cambiaso (1527-85), Bernardo Strozzi, surnamed II Cappuccino or Prete Oe- 
novese (1581-1644), Oiov. Batt. Paggi, and Benedetto Gastiglione. 

a. The Harbour and the Adjoining Streets. 

Until recently the harbour consisted solely of the Porto or inner 
harbour, which was closed on the S. by the Molo Vecchio (492 yds. 
long), said to have been constructed in 1134, and by the Molo Nu- 
ovo (722 yds. long), dating from the 18th century. In 1877-95, 
however, very extensive additions were made, a sum of 20 million 
francs having been presented to the city for the purpose by the Mar- 
chese Raffaele Deferrari , Duke of Galliera (d. 1876). The Molo 
Nuovo was prolonged to the S.E. by the Molo Duca di Galliera, 
and on the E. side a new breakwater, the Molo Giano or Orientale 
(547 yds. long), was added, creating a new harbour (Porto Nuovo) and 
an outer basin (Avamporto) for war-vessels (comp. the Plan, p. 82). 
The total expense was 63 million francs. The aggregate water area 
of these different basins is 555 acres ; the length of the quays is 
5 M. In 1895 the harbour was entered and cleared by 11,980 ves- 
sels, of which 6665 were steamers. The value of the imports 
(2,696,244 tons) was 365,000,000 fr., that of the exports (143,508 
tons) was 138,000,000 fr. 

To reach the harbour from the railway-station, we traverse the 
Piazza Acquaverde (PI. O, 2 ; p. 78) and descend the narrow Via 
San Giovanni (PL C, 2) towards the S. To the right, at the corner 
of the Piazza della Comenda, is the small early-Gothic church of 
S. Giovanni Battista or di Pre (13th cent.), which originally be- 
longed to a commandery of the Knights of St. John. Since a recon- 
struction in the 17th cent, the entrance has been at the E. end. 

The busy Via Caklo Albbkto (PI. C, D, 3, 4), skirting the 
Piazza della Comenda, leads to the W. to the new Dogana (PI. B, 2), 
or custom-house, and to the Ponte Federigo Guglielmo (p. 64), the 
landing-place of the oceanic steamers. Farther on are the Palazzo 
Doria (p. 78) and the large lighthouse (p. 79). To the E. the 
street leads past the Magazzini della Ddrsena, the former marine 
arsenal, and the old Darsena (PI. C, 3), or war-harbour, in which 
Fiesco was drowned in 1547, to the Piazza Camcamento (PI. D, 

4, 5), in which a bronze statue, by Rivalta, was erected in 1893 
to Raffaele Rubattino (1809-72), the Genoese steamship - owner. 
On the S. side of the square is the building of the former Bank of 

5. Giorgio (p. 68), occupied until recently by the Dogana. The large 

70 Route 16. GENOA. Exchange. 

hall is embellished with 21 marble statues of men who have 
deserved well of the city, partly of the 15th century. On the upper 
floor are the Archives. Farther on is the Porto Franco, or free 
harbour, with extensive bonded warehouses (visitors admitted ; no 

The Via del Commercio and the Via Vittoeio Emanuele (PI. 
D, 5), skirting the E. side of the free harbour, lead to the S.W. 
to the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6), to the S. of which begins the Via 
di Circonvallazione a Mare (p. 81). To the W. is the Molo Vecchio, 
with the Porta del Molo (PI. C, 5), a gateway built in 1550 by Gal. 


A Row in the Harbour (tariff, see p. 66) is very attractive when the 
sky is clear and the sea calm. We first proceed to the end of the Molo 
Vecchio, on which stands a small Female or lighthouse (PI. A, 5; no ad- 
mission). Thence we cross to the Baciiii di Carenaggio (PI. C, D, 7,8), 
large dry docks constructed in 1893-95. After seeing these, we row past 
the end of the Molo Giano (lighthouse) to the Molo Duca di Galliera, which 
commands a line view of the city and mountains. Hence we return on 
foot, passing the Quarantine Station, and traverse the Molo Nuovo to the 
large lighthouse (p. 79), which may now be visited. Then by tramway 
to the Darsena (p. 69). 

The following route avoids the noisy and crowded streets near 
the harbour. From the S.E. end of the Darsena (PI. 0, 3), whence 
the Via delle Fontane leads to the left to the Annunziata (p. 76), 
we pass through the fine Gothic Porta dei Vacca, erected on the 
site of the old gate of 1159 and adorned with its mediaeval sculp- 
tures and towers of the 16th cent., to the Via del Campo (PI. D, 4) 
and the Piazza Fossatello (PL D, 4). [From this piazza the Via 
Lomellina, with the Palazzo Centurione (No. 1), by Alessi, and 
the house in which Mazzini was born (No. 33), leads to the left to 
the Annunziata (p. 76).] Then through the Via di Fossatello and 
the Via S. Luca to the Piazza Banchi, with the Exchange [Loggia 
de 1 Banchi, Borsa; PI. D, 5), erected at the end of the 16th cent, 
from plans by Alessi, and adorned with a marble figure of Cavour 
by Vine. Vela (business-hours, 11-3). [In the small Piazza S. Siro, 
to the left of the Via S. Luca and opposite the North German 
Lloyd Agency, is the old cathedral of S. Smo (PL D, E, 4), rebuilt 
about 1580, with a facade of 1830, containing statues by Taddeo and 
frescoes by Giov. Bait. Carlone.] — To the left of the Exchange, 
the narrow Via Orefici (PL D, E, 5), with numerous goldsmiths' 
shops (a door on the right is adorned with an Adoration of the Magi 
in relief, 15th cent.), and then the Piazza Soziglia and the Via 
Luccoli, lead to the Piazza delle Fontane Marose (p. 73). 

To the N. of the Piazza Soziglia is the church of S. Maria delle Vigne 
(PI. E, 5), containing a wooden crucifix with painted statues of the Virgin 
and St. John by Maragliano, three Gothic figures above the side-portal on 
the right, and a tower of the 13th century. On the left is a ruined cloister 
of the lith century. In the piazza is the Palazzo De Amicis, of the 16th 
century. — On the S. side of the Pia'/za Soziglia (Piazza Campetto, No. 8) 
is the handsome Palazzo Imperiali, by G. B. Castello (1560). 

From the Exchange the Via S. Pietro della Porta, passing the 

5. Lorenzo. GENOA. 16. Route, 71 

church of S. Pietro de' Banchi (1583), with its high flight of steps, 
leads to the S. to the Via S. Lorenzo (see below). 

The narrow streets to the S. of the Via Vitt. Emanuele (p. 70) and 
the Via S. Lorenzo, in Ihe oldest and most unsavoury part of Genoa, 
contain several churches of considerable artistic interest. The Via S. 
Giorgio, a side-street of the Via Vitt. Emanuele, and the continuation of 
the above-mentioned Via S. Pietro della Porta, both lead to the Piazza 
S. Giorgio (PL D, 6), on the S.E. side of which stands the church of S. 
Giorgio, a baroque structure with a dome, containing a Pieta by the 
Spanish master, Sanchez Coello (1st chapel to the left of the choir). Ad- 
joining it is a charming little church in the same style, by Borromini. 
A few yards to the S.W. of the latter is the small Piazza Cattaneo, with 
the palace of that name, a room on the second floor of which contains 
eight portraits by Van Dyck. The Via delle Grazie leads hence to the 
Gothic church of SS. Cosmo e Damiano, which contains a Florentine Ma- 
donna of the 14th cent, (left of the high-altar). — Continuing to ascend 
beyond S. Cosmo, we reach the church of Sta. Maria di Castello (PI. D, 6), 
on the site of the Roman castle. Above the portal is an ancient archi- 
trave; ten of the shafts of the columns in the interior are also ancient. In 
the first chapel on the left is a Roman sarcophagus, used as an altar; the 
third has an Annunciation by Giovanni Mazone of Alessandria (15th cent.) ; 
in the third to the right are tasteful mural decorations and an altar-piece 
by Sacchi (1526). The choir was added in the 15th century. In the tran- 
sept is a Madonna by Justus (PAllamagna (1451; under glass). — We now 
descend to the E. to San Donato (PI. E, 6), a Romanesque structure of the 
12th cent., containing some ancient columns. The architrave and columns 
of the entrance show an archaistic tendency like those of the cathedral. 
The Salita Pollajuoli leads hence to the N.E. to the Piazza Nuova (p. 72). 

b. From the Harbour through the Via San Lorenzo to the Piazza 
Nuova and the Piazza Deferrari. 

Near the beginning of the Via Vitt. Emanuele (p. 70) is the busy 
Via San Lorenzo, running towards the S.E. It contains the new 
Banca d'ltalia (PI. D, 5) and the cathedral of — 

*San Lorenzo (PI. E, 5, 6), founded in 985, re-erected about 1100 
in the Romanesque style, restored in the Gothic style in 1307, and 
provided with a Renaissance dome by Goleazzo Alessi in 1567. The 
choir was modernized in 1617, and in 1896 the interior was har- 
moniously restored. The lower part of the facade, which consists of 
alternate courses of black and white marble, was constructed in imi- 
tation of the French Gothic churches ; the two lower of the re- 
cumbent lions which adorn it on the right and left of the steps are 
modern. Only one of the towers is completed. The sculptures of 
the principal portal date from the end of the 13th century. The 
Romanesque entrances to the aisles are richly decorated with sculp- 
tures of the 12-14th cent, (on the N. portal, a carver's inscription 
of 1342) and with archaistic ornamentation on the entablature and 
capitals. A small oriel of 1402, formerly belonging to the Hospital 
of St. John, has been built into the right aisle. 

The Interior, to which the massive substructure of the towers forms 
a kind of atrium, stiU retains 16 Corinthian columns from the original 
Romanesque building. The upper series of columns alternating with piers, 
and also the whole of the vaulting, belong to the building of 1307. On 
the right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of Cardinal Luca 
Fieschi (d. 1336), by Giov. di Balduccio of Pisa. In the chapel to the right of the 

72 Route 16. wj&inua. S. Ambrogio. 

choir, a "Crucifixion with saints and angels (covered), the masterpiece of Fed. 
Baroccio, the statues by P. Francavilla. In the choir, handsome stalls with in- 
laid work. In the chapel to the left of the choir, six pictures and a statue of 
Fides by L. Cambiaso. In the left aisle, seven statues by Ougl. della Porta. — 
The second chapel to the left of the entrance, that of *S. Giovanni Battista, 
erected in 1451-96, contains in a stone area of the 13th cent, (below the al- 
tar) relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine during the Crusades. 
The six statues at the sides and the reliefs above them are by Matteo Ci- 
vitali (p. 395); the Madonna and John the Baptist by Andrea Sansovino 
(1503) ; the canopy and the other sculptures by Oiacomo and Guglielmo 
della Porta (1532). The external decoration of the chapel , with admir- 
able reliefs above (best light in the afternoon), was executed by the 
Lombardic masters, Dom. and Elia Oazini and Oiov. da Bissone (1449-50). 
— In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasury (adm., p. 67). Among the 
relics here are a silver shrine for the Procession of Corpus Domini, ex- 
ecuted in 1553-1611 by Franc. Rocchi of Milan and other artists; and (to 
the left) a cross from Ephesus, captured at Phocseain 1308. To the right is 
the Sacro Catino, the vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said 
to have partaken of the paschal lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is 
said to have caught some drops of the blood of the Crucified (a fine glass 
vessel, captured by the Genoese at Cesarea in 1101 and supposed to be 
made of a large emerald, until it was broken at Paris, whither it had been 
carried by ^Napoleon I.). The setting dates from 1827. Beneath is a silver 
altar-front by the German goldsmith Melchior Suss (1599) ; opposite is a 
silver shrine for the procession on Ash Wednesday, by Teramo di Daniele 
(1437); a casket for the relics of John the Baptist, probably a Florentine 
work of the end of the 16th century. On the third wall are two choir 
vestments (15th and 16th cent.) and costly vessels; beneath is a modern 
altar-front, with a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper (1892). 

To the left of the cathedral are Romanesque cloisters of the 

12th century. — Farther on, in the Piazza Nuova, is S. Ambrogio 

(PI. E, 6), a church of the Jesuits, of the close of the 16th cent., 

profusely decorated. 

3rd Altar on the right : Assumption by Ouido Reni (covered). High-altar- 
piece, Presentation in the Temple, by Rubens. The four black monolith 
columns are from Porto Venere (p. 98). First chapel on the left, Martyrdom 
of St. Andrew, by Semino the Elder. Third Altar on the left : "Rubens, St. 
Ignatius healing the sick (ca. 1620, restored in 1896; covered). 

The house Vico dei Notari No. 1, to the right of the church, has 
a fine Renaissance portal. In the Piazza Nuova is also situated the 
Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6), the grand old residence of the doges, 
originally a building of the 13th cent., to which the tower on the 
left belonged, but completely remodelled by Rocco Pennone in the 
16th cent, (fine staircase), and modernised after a lire in 1777. Facade 
by Simone Cantoni. It now contains the telegraph-office, law-courts, 
and police and government offices. 

From the Piazza Nuova the Via Sellai leads to the left to the 
busy Piazza Deferrari (PL E, 5, 6; 78ft. above the sea; start- 
ing-point of the electric tramways mentioned at p. 65), which is 
embellished with a large Equestrian Statue of Garibaldi, by Aug. 
Rivalta, unveiled in 1893. — On the N.W. side of the piazza stands 
the Palazzo Deferrari (18th cent.). Opposite are the Teatro Carlo 
Felice (PL E, F, 5; see p. 66) and the Accademia delle Belle 
Arti (PL E, F, 6), on the first floor of which is the Biblioteca Civica 
(about 45,000 vols.; always accessible); on the second floor a col- 

8. Matteo. GENOA. 16- Route. 73 

lection of casts and a few paintings. — The Via Venti Settembre 
leads from the Academy to the S.E. to the old Porta d'Archi (p. 80) 
and to the Bisagno bridge, where the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare 
(p. 81) ends. Farther on are S. Francesco d'Albaro and Nervi 
(comp. p. 82). 

The Salita di S. Matteo, the second side-street to the left, leads from 
the Piazza Deferrari to the small Gothic church of S. Matteo (PI. E, 5 ; 
1278) , containing many memorials of the Doria family, the facade heing 
covered with inscriptions in their honour. The interior was altered 
in 1530 by the Florentine Montorsoli, who was invited to Genoa by An- 
drea Doria, and, with his assistants, executed the whole of the sculp- 
tures which adorn the church. The balustrade of the organ-loft is par- 
ticularly fine. Above the high-altar is Doria's sword, and his tomb is in 
the chapel below. To the left of the church are handsome cloisters with 
double columns in the early-Gothic style (1308-10), with 17 ancient in- 
scriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of Montorsoli's statue of An- 
drea Doria, which was mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. An ancient 
sarcophagus-relief, with an inscription in honour of Lamba Doria, who 
defeated the Venetians at Curzola in 1297, is built into the right side of the 
facade. — The little piazza in front of the church is surrounded with 
Palaces of the Doria Family; one nearly opposite, the lower half of which 
is covered with black and yellow marble, bears the inscription, '■Senat. 
Cons. Andreae de 0?'ia, patriae liberatori munus publicum? (1528). — No. 13, 
to the left of S. Matteo, is the Palazzo Centurione, with a colonnaded court 
of the early Renaissance. 

c. From the Piazza Deferrari to the Main Railway Station and 

to the Lighthouse. 

From the Piazza Deferrari two broad streets lead to the N.E. : 
to the right the Via Roma, to the left the short Via Carlo Felice. The 
latter leads past the Palazzo Pallavicini (No. 12), now belonging to 
the Durazzo family (p. 76), to the Piazza delle Fontanb Marosb 
(PI. F, 4, 5). No. 17 in this piazza is the Pal. della Casa, orig- 
inally Spinola (15th cent., but restored in the 17th), adorned with 
five statues in niches; No. 27 is the Pal. Lod. Stef. Pallavicini, 
sumptuously fitted up in modern taste. 

From the S.E. angle of the Piazza delle Fontane Marose the Salita S. 
Caterina leads to the Piazza Corvetto (p. 79). — Through the Via Luccoli 
to the harbour, see p. 70. 

At the Piazza delle Fontane Marose begins a broad line of 16th 
cent, streets, extending to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 78), under the 
names of Via Garibaldi (formerly Nuova) } Via Cair6li (formerly 
Nuovissima), and Via Balbi. In these streets, which form one of 
the chief arteries of traffic, are the most important palaces and 
several churches. Some of the former should be visited for the sake 
of their noble staircases, one of the sights of Genoa. 

The first of these main streets , *Via Garibaldi (PI. E, 4), is 
flanked with a succession of palaces. On the right, No. 1, Palazzo 
Ces. Cambiaso, by Gal. Alessi. On the left, No. 2, Pal. Oambaro, 
formerly Cambiaso. Right, No. 3, Pal. Parodi, erected in 1567-81 
by Gal. Alessi for Franco Lercaro, containing frescoes by Luca Cam- 
biaso and others. Left, No. 4 , Pal. Cataldi, formerly Carega, 

74 Route 16. GTSnTFI.. Pal. Rosso. 

erected about 1560 by Giov. Batt. Castello. Right, No. 5, *Pal. 
Spinola, by Gal. Alessi, containing pictures of the Genoese school, 
a portrait of Cambiaso by himself, a Madonna by Luini, an eques- 
trian portrait and a Madonna by Van Dyck. Left, No. 6, Pal. 
Giorgio Doria (not always open), by Alessi, adorned -with frescoes 
by Luca Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione , Shepherd and 
shepherdess; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady; P. Veronese, Susanna). 

Left, No. 10, Pal. Adorno (accessible by introduction only), also 
by Gal. Alessi , contains several good pictures : Rubens, Hercules 
and Dejanira; three small pictures attributed to Mantegna, though 
more in the style of S. Botticelli (Triumph of Amor, of Jugurtha, 
of Judith; comp. p. 31, No. 369); Cambiaso, Madonna and saints; 
Clouet, Portraits of four children ; Piola, Frieze with children ; 
Perino del Vaga, Nativity of Mary. 

Left, No. 12, Pal. Serra, by Alessi; interior rebuilt by De Wailly 
(d. 1798) and Tagliafico, with a magnificent hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo Municipale (PI. E, 4), formerly Doria 
Tursi, by Rocco Lurago (16th cent.), has a handsome staircase and 
court, skilfully adapted to its sloping site. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi, the Codkt with a marble statue of Mazzini , and the Stair- 
case with a statue of Cataneo Pinelli. — In the large Council Chamber 
on the upper floor are mosaic portraits of Columbus and Marco Polo. In 
the adjacent room are facsimiles of letters of Columbus (the originals are 
in the pedestal of his bust in the Sala della Giunta) ; large bronze tablet 
of B. C. 117, recording the judgment of Roman arbiters in a dispute between 
Genoa and a neighbouring castle. A cabinet to the left contains Paganinfs 
violin (a 'Guarneri 1 ). 

Left, No. 18, *Palazzo Rosso (PI. E, 4), by Alessi, so named 
from its red colour, formerly the property of the Brignole-Sale 
family, was presented to the city of Genoa in 1874, along with its 
valuable contents, library, and Picture Gallery (aim., see p. 67; 
lists of pictures in each room), by the Marchesa Maria Brignole-Sale, 
Duchess of Galliera (d. 1889), and her son Filippo. 

Ascending the staircase to the third story, we pass to the right into 
the Stanza delle Arti Liberali (R. I), named, like the following rooms, 
after the ceiling-paintings (by Carlone, Parodi, Deferrari, and others), and 
containing three portraits of Doges of the Brignole family (17-18th cent.). 
The ceiling-paintings are sometimes continued by the relief-work of the 
cornices. — To the right, the Alcova (R. II): Rigaud, Lady and gentleman 
of the Brignole family. — III. Stanza della Gioventu. Over the door: 
Carletto Caliari, Martyrdom of St. Justina. Adjacent, to the right: Guer- 
cino , Cleopatra; B. Strozzi, Hi Cappuccino'', Charity (after Cambiaso); L. 
Cambiaso, Holy Family (injured); B. Strozzi, Cook with poultry; A. del 
Sarto, Holy Family (copy). — IV. Sala Grande, with ceiling decorated 
with the armorial bearings of the family. Exit-wall: Ouidooono di Savona , 
Lot and his daughters; Valerio Castello, Rape of the Sabines. Entrance 
wall: Guidobono, Lot in captivity; D. Piola, Sun-chariot of Apollo; Guido- 
bono, Abraham dismissing Hagar. — V. Stanza della Primavera : Style 
of Paris Bordone, Venetian woman ; Moretlo (?), Physician (1533) ; * Van Dyck, 
Marchese Antonio Giulio Brignole-Sale on horseback; A. Durer, Portrait 
(1506; ruined); Titian (school-piece), Philip II. of Spain. Exit-wall: Van 
Dyck, Prince of Orange, Portrait of a father and son. On the entrance 
wall: B. Strozzi, Flute-player; Van Dyck, Marchesa Paola Brignole-Sale; 

Pal. Bianco. GENOA. 16. Route. r 75 

Rubens (not Van Dyck), Bearing of the Cross; *Jac. Bassano, Portrait of 
father and son •, "Paris Bordone, Portrait. — VI. Stanza dell 1 Estate : 
Guercino, Suicide of Cato •, Luca Giordano, Clorinda liberating Olintho and 
Sophronia (from Tasso) ; L. Garracci, Annunciation ; Guercino, Christ driving 
out the money-changers ; B. Strozzi, St. Paul •, Lanfranco, Bearing of the 
Cross; Caravaggio, Raising of Lazarus; Guido Eeni, St. Sebastian (early 
copy). By the window-wall is a large mirror, with a magnificent baroque 
frame by Fil. Parodi. — VII. Stanza d'Autcnno : Bonifazio II., Adoration 
of the Magi; Bassano , Adoration of the Child; adjoining, Guido Rem, 
Half-figures of Christ and the Madonna; Guercino , Madonna enthroned, 
with saints ; Venetian School (attributed to Bellini), Portrait of Franc. 
Philetus; G. Eeni. , St. Mark. — VIII. Stanza dell 1 Inveeno : School of 
Leonardo da Vinci, John the Baptist (original in the Louvre); Paris Bordone, 
Holy Family with SS. Jerome and Catharine (one of the master's chief 
works, but much injured); Carlo Mar atta, Repose during the flight to Egypt; 
Pellegro Piola, Holy Family; "Style of P. Veronese, Judith and Holofernes; 
Murillo (?), Holy Family; P. Bordone (?), Half-length of an old man; Varo- 
tari (Padovanino), Magdalen. — IX. Stanza della Vita dell 1 Uomo : Van 
Dyck, Portrait; P. Veronese (?), Venetian lady; Van Dyck, Marchesa Gero- 
nima Brignole-Sale, with her daughter (retouched througho nt). — Coebidoe, 
with roof painted to imitate ruins. 

No. 13, opposite Pal. Rosso, and named 'white' by way of con- 
trast, is the Palazzo Bianco (PI. E, 4), erected in 1565-69, also 
for a long period the property of the Brignole-Sale family, but be- 
queathed in 1889 with numerous works of art to the city by the 
Duchess of Galliera (seep. 74), and since 1893 converted into a 
museum known as the *Galleria Brignole Sale-Deferrari (adm., 
see p. 67; picture-lists in each room). 

Staiecase. On the walls are numerous inscriptions and sculptures, 
including the remains of Genoese monuments. 

Enteesol. — Room I (left): 137. Genoa with the walls of 1159, a large 
oil-painting; 110, 105. Views of Genoa in 1597 and 1656; 126, 138. Scenes 
in the Genoese rising against Austria in 1746; 154. Part of the harbour 
chain of Pisa, captured in 1290; church-bell of 1292; old Genoese weights 
and measures; old cannon found in the harbour in 1890; national relics; 
Abyssinian weapons, captured in 1885-96. — Room II: 1. View of Corsica, 
Genoa, and the Riviera di Levante in 1548; 3. Banner of the 'Thousand 
of Marsala 1 . The glass-cases contain Genoese coins and medals; two letters 
of Andrea Doria; facsimiles of two letters of Columbus, discovered in 1877 
in the Cathedral of Santo Domingo. 

Second Flooe. — The Ante-Room contains sculptures: 1. Plead of Janus 
from S.Lorenzo (10th cent.); 6. Giov. della Robbia, Terracotta altar, with 
the Coronation of the Virgin (from Spezia) ; 7. Bacchic procession, a Roman 
sarcophagus-relief from the tomb of Franc. Spinola in Gaeta; 22, 23. As- 
syrian limestone reliefs. 

Room I. Models of the caravels of Columbus; two globes, by Padre 
Coronelli (1688); large Chinese and Japanese vases; pictures of little value. 

R. II. 7. Byzantine pallium, with legends of the saint*. (13th cent.) ; 
Flemish tapestry ; Japanese vases. In the middle, marble group of Children 
playing with a cat, by Giulio Monteverde. 

R. III. Paintings of the Flemish school. To the left, *6. Rubens, 
Venus and Mars (ca. 161S) ; 13. A. van der Neer, Moonlight-scene; 14. Jan 
Steen, Children's festival (spoiled); 15. Flemish School (16th cent.), Triptych 
with Adoration of the Magi, Annunciation, and Flight into Egypt; *11. 
Gerard David (not Floris), Madonna, with SS. Jerome and Nicholas of To- 
lentino; 16. G. David, Crucifixion (school-piece); 21. J. van Ruysdael, Land- 
scape; 22. Van Dyck, Christ and the Pharisees ; 5 26. G. David (here ascribed 
to Memling), Madonna; 25. Teniers the Younger, Guard-room. — In the middle : 
Penitent Magdalen, by Canova (1796). 

R. IV. Spanish and French paintings. To the left, 3. Murillo, St. Francis 

76 Route 16. GENOA. Pal. Durazzo Jfatiavicini. 

(school-piece); 4. Velazquez (?), Philip IV.; 5. Murillo, St. Francis in ecstasy; 
10, 12. ZurbaranO), SS. Ursula and Euphemia; 17. L. David, Portrait; 21. 
Murillo, Madonna (copv); 18. L. Robert, Funeral in the Campagna; 19. Mu- 
rillo, t light into Egypt (school-piece). — la the middle : Jenner vaccinating 
a child, marble group by G. Monteverde (187.-0. 

R. V. Italian paintings. To the left, 6. Caravaggiotf), Lute-player; 

10. Paolo Veronese (V) , Boy praying; 12. Sassoferrato , Virgin at prayer; 
30. Filippino Lippi , Madonna and angels, with SS. Francis, Sebastian, and 
John the Baptist (1503; damaged); 39. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 38. Palma 
Vecchio, Madonna, with the Magdalen and the Baptist; 43. Correggio, Ma- 
donna adoring the child (copy). 

R. VI and Gallery I. Paintings of the Genoese school and drawings. 

— R. VII. Genoese paintings. The cases contain several 'antiphonaries 1 , 
with beautiful miniatures by Maestro Bart. Neroni ('il Riccio Sanese^ltithcent.). 
Collection of coins made by Prince Odone of Savoy. 

R. VIII. Italian paintings of various schools. In the middle, a bridal 
bed of the Brignole family (17th cent.). — Gallery II. Ecclesiastical vest- 
ments (17th cent.), miniatures, and small sculptures. 

R. IX. Modern paintings. In the cases are antique lamps, vases, glass, 
and the like. — R. X. Majolica from Savona and elsewhere. Collection 
of porcelain. 

Crossing the small piazza in front of these palaces, we enter 
the Via Cairoli (PL E,D, 4). At the end of this street, No. 13, on 
the left, is the *Palazzo Balbi (by Greg. Petondi, 18th cent.), through 
which a fine view is obtained of the lower-lying Via Lomellina (p. 70). 

— On the height, obliquely opposite, is the Pal. Centurioni, with 
a marble portal, containing several pictures. We then cross the 
Piazza Zecca, with the station of the Cable Tramway to the Via di 
Circonvallazione a Monte and Castellaccio (p. 66), and reach the — 

Piazza dell' Annunziata (PI. D, 3), with the former Capuchin 
church of *Santissima Annunziata del Vastato, erected by Giac. 
della Porta in 1587. The portal is borne by marble columns; brick 
facade otherwise unfinished. It is a well-proportioned basilica with 
a dome; the vaulting rests on twelve fluted and inlaid columns of 
marble. This is the most sumptuous church in Genoa. 

In the nave are frescoes by the Carloni. In the left transept the 
altar-piece is a coloured wooden group of the Communion of St. Pasquale, 
by Maragliano (1723). The sacristy contains a Descent from the Cross, hy 
Maragliano (1726); the colouring is modern. 

Carriage-roads and footpaths ascend from the Piazza Annun- 
ziata to the (5 min.) Albergo dei Poveri on the Via di Circonval- 
lazione a Monte (p. 81). 

In the handsome Via Balbi (PI. D, C, 3, 2), on the right, No. 1, 
is the Palazzo Durazzo-Pallavicini, formerly della Scala, built by 
Bart . Bianco (?), with a handsome facade , fine vestibule , and a 
superb staircase (left) added by Andrea Tagliafico at the end of the 
18th century. On the first floor is the *Galleria Durazzo-Pallavicini 
(adm., see p. 67). 

The Antisala contains busts of the Durazzo-Pallavicini family. — 

11. Room. Left: Quercino, Mucius Scsevola before Porsenna-, Van Dyck, 
Portrait of a man; "Rubens, Silenns with Bacchantes (ca. 1608); Lucas 
van Leyden (or rather School of Memling) , Descent from the Cross ; An. 
Carracci, Magdalen; "Van Dyck (?), James I. of Great Britain with his 

amily. — III. Room. Qiul. Ces. Proeaceini, The Woman taken in adultery; 

Pal. Balbi-Senarega. GENOA. 16. Route. 77 

Bern. Strozzi, Portrait of a bishop; Guercino, The tribute-money; Titian, 
Magdalen (school-piece) ; Zanchi, Jephtha's daughter. — IV. Room. L. Car- 
racci, Scourging of Christ ; School of Andrea del Sarto, Madonna and Child, 
a round picture ; Outdo Reni, Carita Romana ; Paolo Veronese, Marriage of 
St. Catharine; Guido Reni, St. Jerome, * Vestal Virgin, Cleopatra; Rubens, 
Portrait, a round picture ; Ribera, St. James ; Tintoretto, Portrait of Marchese 
Agostino Durazzo; Guido Reni, Porcia Romana. Admirable porcelain vases 
in the centre of the room. — V. Principal Room. Paintings relating to 
the myth of Achilles by unimportant Genoese masters. Beautiful Chinese 
porcelain. — VI. Room. DomenicMno, Risen Christ appearing to his mother; 
* Van Dyck, Boy in white satin ; above it, Van Dyck, Young Tobias ; Domen- 
ichino, Venus mourning the death of Adonis; Van Dyck, Three children 
with a dog; "Rubens, Philip IV. of Spain, full-length; Ribera, Heraclitus 
(weeping philosopher), Democritus (laughing philosopher); Van Dyck, Lady 
with two children; Titian (?), Ceres with Bacchus, nymph, and Cupid. — 
VII. Room. Unimportant. — VIII. Room. To the left, Unknown Dutch 
Master (ca. 1500), Pieta; Gerard David (?), Flight into Egypt; Fr. Pourbus, 
Garden of Flora; Flemish School (ca. 1500), Madonna and Child with St. 
Francis and the donors; Flemish Master (17th cent.), Fete Champetre. — 
— IX. Room. German School (attributed to Lombard Sch.) , Crucifixion, 
with saints; Rubens, Ambrogio Spinola. — The Library contains 7000 vols., 
including many specimens of early printing. 

On the left side, No. 4, is the *Palazzo Balbi-Senarega (PI. D, 3), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and enlarged by Pier 
Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who built it, and after 
whom the street is named. The superb court, with its Doric 
colonnades, affords a glimpse of the orangery. The interesting Pic- 
ture Gallery, on the first floor is shown on introduction only. 

I. Room, adorned like the others with ceiling-paintings by Genoese 
artists. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback; Bern. Strozzi, 
Joseph interpreting the dream. — II. Room, to the left: Titian, Portrait; 
Rubens, Portrait; Van Dyck, Holy Family; Garofalo, Holy Family; Filip- 
pino Lippi (more probably Sandro Bo'ticelli), Communion of St. Jerome ; Dutch 
School, Crucifixion ; Ag. Carracci, Mary Magdalen ; Perino del Vaga, Holy 
Family, four Figures of Children (on different walls). — We return to 
R. I and proceed straight on to the III. Room: "Rubens, Infant Christ and 
John the Baptist ; Guido Reni, Lucretia, Cleopatra. * Titian, Madonna with 
SS. Catharine, Dominic, and donors : 'charming picture (about 1520), thrown 
out of focus by abrasion, washing, and repainting; but still pleasing on ac- 
count of the grace of the attitudes and the beauty of the landscape 1 (Crowe 
& Cavalcaselle). Gaud. Ferrari, Holy Family; Michael Angelo(1), Geth- 
semane ; Van Dyck, Madonna with the pomegranate (della Melagrana); 
A. Carracci, St. Catharine. — IV. Room. Three 'Portraits of the Balbi family 
by Van Dyck (in the equestrian piece the head of Philip IV. is said to have 
been substituted by Velazquez for that of the Balbi, who had been ban- 
ished). — V. Room. Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, trivial in concep- 
tion, but masterly in execution ; portraits by Jac. Tintoretto (?), Bronzino, 
and Allori; then, Lower Rhenish Master of the Death of the Virgin, Holy 
Family and Adoration of the Magi; Guido Reni, St. Jerome. — VI. Room. 
Small pictures by Andrea Schiavone; Jac. Bassano, Market. 

On the right side of the street , No. 5 , is the *Palazzo dell' 
Universita (PI. D, 3), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 
1623, and created a university in 1812. The *Court and stair- 
case are probably the finest at Genoa. The second floor contains a 
library, a natural history museum, and an aula with six allegorical 
bronze statues and reliefs by Giovanni da Bologna. A staircase 
leads hence to the high-lying Botanical Garden of the University 
(ring at the iron gate; side-entrance, Corso Dogali,*p. 81), 

78 Route 16. ixKJNUA. Palazzo Doria. 

On the left, No. 6, Pal. Durazzo, with colonnaded court. Right, 
8. Carlo, with sculptures by Algardi (1650). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Reale (PL C, 3), erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Oiov. Ang. 
Falcone for the Durazzo family , and extended at the beginning of 
the 18th by Carlo Fontana of Rome. It was purchased by the royal 
family in 1815, and restored in 1842. The palace contains handsome 
staircases and balconies (fine views), and is sumptuously furnished 
(adm., see p. 67). The pictures and antiquities are of no great value. 

Ante-Chamber : Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on tbe right : Van 
Dyck, Portrait of Marchesa Durazzo ; good portrait of the Lombard School, 
attributed to Leon, da Vinci ; Perino del Vaga , Holy Family. To the 
right, a handsome gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and 
modern statues : on the right, Apollo and Apollino, on the left, Mercury ; 
at the end, Rape of Proserpine by Schiaffino. On the left, Crucifixion by 
Van Dyck ; Adulteress, Moretto ; Sibyl, Ouercino. In the throne-room, two 
large pictures by Luca Giordano. — *View of town and harbour from the 

The Via Balbi ends at the Piazza Acquaverde (PL 0, 2), the 
large square in front of the railway-station, the terminus of the 
electric tramway along the Via di Oirconvallazione a Monte, and a 
station on the electric line to the Piazza Deferrari (comp. p. 65). 
On the N. side of the Piazza, embosomed in palm-trees, rises the 
marble Statue of Columbus (erected in 1862), who was probably 
born, of Spanish parents, at 37 Vico Dritto Ponticello in 1446. The 
pedestal is adorned with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, 
which leans on an anchor, kneels the figure of America. The sur- 
rounding allegorical figures represent Religion, Science, Strength, 
and Wisdom. Between these are reliefs from the history of Colum- 
bus. — Opposite (S.E.) is the Palazzo Farraggiana, with a marble 
relief in the pediment representing scenes from the life of Columbus. 

To the S.W. of the station is the Piazza del Pbjncipe (PL B, 
2), which commands a good view of part of the old fortifications. 
A large Bronze Monument, 40 ft. high, by Giulio Monteverde, was 
erected here in 1896 in honour of the Duke of Galliera (p. 69). 
It represents Liberality, led by a winged genius and handing to 
Mercury treasures from her cornucopia. On the pedestal is a me- 
dallion of the duke. — No. 4 in the piazza (W. side) is the long Pa- 
lazzo Doria (PL A, 2), presented in 1522 to Andrea Doria, 'padre 
della patria' (d. 1560, at the age of 92). It was remodelled in 1529 
from designs by Giov. Ang. Montorsoli, and adorned with frescoes 
by Perino del Vaga, a pupil of Raphael. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea d'Oria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused tbe 
palace to be rebuilt for himself and his successors. His praises were 
thus sung by Ariosto: 'questo e quel Doria, che fa dai pirati sicuro il 
vostro mar per tutti i lati 1 . — The entrance is by the last door to the 
right, in the court. — The finest of the Frescoes by Perino del Vaga 
(restored in 1845), which often recall the paintings of Raphael, are the 
scenes from Roman history on the ceiling, vaulting, and lunettes of the great 

Villetta di Negro. GENOA. 16. Route. 79 

entrance-hall (with reliefs by Monlortoli); a corridor on the first floor, 
with portraits of the Doria family, charmingly decorated with stucco and 
painted ornaments in the style ofRaphael's loggie in the Vatican*, a saloon 
with a large ceiling - painting, Jupiter overthrowing the Titans (superb 
chimney-piece); and a side-room with a fresco of the Carita Romana. — 
The remaining rooms are let and are quite inaccessible. The elder branch 
of the Doria family, to which the palace belongs, has allied itself with 
the Pamphili family, and generally resides at Rome. 

The court contains a large arcaded loggia, tasteful gardens in 
the Italian style, and a large fountain by the Carloni (1599-1601), 
with a statue of Andrea Doria as Neptune. The gardens on the hill 
opposite, with a statue of Hercules ( l Il Gigante') in a niche, also 
belong to the estate. 

The Via S. Benedetto, beside the palace, and the Via Milano, 
farther on, lead past the Sailors' Best (p. 67) and the large new 
quays (comp. p. 69) to the Piazza Dinegro (omnibus, p. 66). No. 41 
in this piazza is the Palazzo Rosazza (adm. 1 fr.), the charming 
gardens of which, with their rare plants and pretty fountains, de- 
serve a visit. In the upper part of them is a Belvedere, commanding 
a *View similar to that from the lighthouse. — From the Piazza 
Dinegro the Via Milano and Strada della Lanterna lead to the light- 
house and the suburb of S. Pier d'Arena (p. 83). 

On the rocky headland separating Genoa from S. Pier d'Arena 
rises the large Lighthouse {Lanterna; 384 ft.), with its dazzling 
reflectors showing a light visible for 20 miles. Visitors may go by 
the S. Pier d'Arena tramway (p. 66) to the tunnel. The tower 
(353 marble steps) may be ascended and the apparatus inspected 
(fee 1 fr.); but the platform at its foot commands as good a view. 
Best light in the evening. 

The "View embraces the town and extensive harbour of Genoa, with 
the amphitheatre of mountains behind; to the E. the Riviera di Levante 
is visible as far as the picturesque promontory of Portofino; to the W. 
are seen the coast-villages on the Riviera di Ponente from S. Pier d'Arena 
to Savona, the headland of Noli, and the Capo delle Mele, while in the 
distance are the usually snow-capped peaks of the Ligurian Alps. 

d. From the Piazza Deferrari to the Via di Circonvallazione a 
Mare via the Piazza Corvetto, Aequasola, and the Corso Andrea 


The Via Roma (PI. F, 5 ; electric line No. 3, p. 65), already 
mentioned at p. 73, is, with the adjoining Oalleria Mazzini (right), 
the most important focus of traffic after the Piazza Deferrari. It 
ascends to the N.E., passing (left) the Salita S. Caterina (p. 73) 
and cutting off a corner of the interesting old Palazzo Spinola (now 
the Prefettura), to the Piazza Corvetto (PI. F, G, 5), where a large 
bronze equestrian Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. was erected in 
1886, from Barzaghi's designs. From this point we may proceed to 
the left, passing the marble Statue of Mazzini, by Costa, to the — ■ 

*Villetta di Negro (PI. F, 4 ; 240 ft.), the property of the city, 
and open to the public, with a fine garden, fountains, the Museo 

80 Route 16. GENOA. S. Maria di Carignano. 

Civico, with collections of natural history (adm., see p. 67), and 
an incipient Zoological Garden. Winding promenades ascend from 
the entrance, near which are marble husts of Aurelio Saffi (1891) 
and Burlando (1896), to a high bastion which affords a noble survey 
of city, harbour, and environs. 

The direct continuation of the Via Roma is the Via Assa- 
rotti, leading to the high-lying Piazza Manin (p. 81). — From the 
Piazza Corvetto we ascend to the right to the park of Acquasola 
(PL G, 5, 6 ; 138 ft.), laid out in 1837 on part of the old ramparts 
(concerts, see p. 66). — From the S. end of the park we next fol- 
low the electric line along the Corso Andrea Podesta , to the 
chu rch of — 

Santo Stefano (PI. F, G, 6), situated on a terrace near the former 
Porta d'Archi (p. 73). This building preserves a Romanesque tower 
dating from the original church on this site, while the facade and 
the outer columns of the choir date from a Gothic restoration of the 
14th century. The cantoria (choir-gallery) on the entrance-wall 
dates from 1499. Above the high-altar, the *Stoning of Stephen hy 
Giulio Eomano, one of his best works (1523 ; covered). 

In the neighbouring Via Bosco is the church of Santissima Annunziata 
di Portoria or Santa Caterina (PI. G, 6), with a fine portal (1521) and the 
reliquary of St. Catharine of Genoa (d. 1510). Adjoining it is the Ospedak 
di Pammatone, in front of which is a fountain with a bronze statue of the 
boy Balilla (p. 68) by Oiani. 

We now cross the viaduct above the Porta d'Archi (see above) 
and enter the S. part of the Corso Andrea Podesta (PI. F, 7; fine 
views). From the Piazza Galeazzo Alessi (PI. F, 8) we follow the 
Via Galeazzo Alessi to the church of — 

*Santa Maria di Carignano (PI. E, 8; 174 ft. above the sea), 
begun by Galeazzo Alessi in 1552, but not completed till 1603. It is 
a smaller edition of the plan adopted by Michael Angelo and Bra- 
mante for St. Peter's at Rome. Here, however, a square ground- 
plan takes the place of the Greek cross of St. Peter's , and small 
lanterns represent the minor domes. Principal portal, 18th century. 

Interior. Second altar to the right, Maratta, SS. Blasius and Sebastian; 
4th altar. Franc. Vanni, Communion of Mary Magdalen; 1st altar to the 
left, Guercino, St. Francis ; 3rd altar, Cambiaso, Entombment. Baroque 
statues below the dome by Puget (SS. Sebastian and Alessandro Sauli), 
Parodi (St. John), and David (St. Bartholomew). 

The ''View from the highest gallery of the dome (370 ft. above the 
sea-, 119 steps to the first gallery, thence to the top 130; easy and well 
lighted staircase) embraces the city, harbour, and fortifications, the well 
peopled coast (W. the Riviera di Ponente, E. the Riviera di Levante), and 
on the S. the vast, ever-varying expanse of the Mediterranean. (Sacristan 
25 c.; his attendance for the ascent unnecessary; best light in the morning") 

The Ponte Carignano (1718), spanning a street 100 ft. below, 

leads from the N.W. side of the church to the Piazza Sarzano (PI. 

D, 7) and the harbour. — In the opposite direction the Via Nino 

Bixio leads to the Piazza Bixio (PI. F, 8), among the gardens of 

which rises a large bronze statue of General Nino Bixio, by Pazzi 


Forte Castellaccio. GENOA. 16. Route. 81 

f To the E. of the Piazza Bixio, in a commanding situation, is the 
Ospedale Sanf Andrea (PI. G, 9), established in 1888 at the expense of 
the Duke of Galliera (p. 69). 

The broad Via Corsica (PI. F, 8), the prolongation of the Corso 
Andrea Podesta, descends from the Piazza Bixio towards the S.W. 
to the — 

*Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, a fine street, laid out in 1893- 
95 on the site of the outer ramparts, traversed by an electric tram- 
way (No. 4, p. 65), and commanding beautiful views. It begins, as 
the Via Odone, at the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6) and passes the docks 
mentioned at p. 70; then, under the name of Corso Aurelio Saffi, it 
ascends gradually, skirts the sea beneath the hill crowned by the 
church of S. Maria di Oarignano (p. 80), and finally bends round 
sharply to the bridge over the Bisagno (p. 73), whence it is con- 
tinued by the new Via Canevari, leading to the Campo Santo (p. 82). 

e. From the Piazza Corvetto to the Piazza Manin. Via di Cir- 
convallazione a Monte. Castellaccio. Campo Santo. 

The Via Assarotti (p. 80 ; electric line No. 5, p. 65) ascends from 
the Piazza Corvetto to the N.E., passing the new church of Santa 
Maria Immacolata (PI. G, 4), to the Piazza Manin (PI. I, 4; 
330 ft. above the sea). On the W. side of this piazza begins the 
*Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, a magnificent route laid out since 
1876 on the hills at the back of the town (electric line No. 6, see 
p. 66). It skirts the hillside in long windings , under various 
names (Corso Principe Amedeo, Corso Solferino, Corso Magenta, 
Corso Paganini), and leads to the *Spianata Castelletto (PI. E, 3), 
commanding one of the finest views of Genoa. Here it takes the 
name of Corso Firenze and runs to the N. to the church and cable- 
car station (p. 66) of San Nicolb (PI. E, 1). It then sweeps round 
above the poor-house (see below) and the charmingly situated Cas- 
tello d'Albertis (PI. C, D, 1), a villa in the style of a mediaeval 
castle, to the Corso TJgo Bassi, whence it winds down under various 
names to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 78). The electric line avoids 
some of the curves by a tunnel. 

From the Piazza Zecca (PI. D, 3; p. 76) the cable-tramway 
mentioned at p. 66 ascends via S. Nicolo (see above) to the lof- 
tily-situated Forte Castellaccio (1253 ft.). The site of the upper 
terminus of the line (1150 ft.), a little below the fort, commands a 
beautiful *View of Genoa, the valley of the Bisagno, and the coast 
from Savona to the promontory of Portofino. A still finer view is 
obtained a little higher up, at the * Hotel- Restaur ant Righi, with 
its terrace (dej. 3, D. 4 fr., wine included; rooms heated in winter; 

concert on summer-evenings). 

The older line of roads, diverging to the left at the Spianata Castel- 
letto (see above), is known as the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte Jnferiore. 
The first part of it, named the Corso Carbonara, leads to the Albergo dei 
Poveri or poor-house (PI. D, E, 1, 2; 300 ft. above the sea), which has 

82 Route 16. GENOA. 

room for 1300 persons. It then takes the name of Corso Ddgali and re- 
joins the main thoroughfare at the Castello d'Albertis, adjoining the up- 
per entrance to the Botanic Garden (p. 77). 

The *Campo Santo or Cimitero di Staglieno (open daily 9-6, in 
winter 10-5 ; electric line 5, p. 65) is reached from the Piazza Ma- 
nin (p. 81) by a new street, which leaves the city by the Porta San 
Bartolomeo (PI. I, 3, 4) and then descends (views) into the Valley 
of the Bisagno and to the village of Staglieno. About y 2 M. farther 
on (1^2 M. from the town) is the entrance to the cemetery, which 
was laid out by Besasco in 1867 and stretches up the slope on the 
N. bank of the Bisagno. The fine monuments and the general ar- 
rangement of the cemetery are interesting, as also the central 
rotunda, the internal gallery of which is borne by monolithic columns 
of black marble. Above the rotunda, to the N.E., close to the steep 
hillside, is the tomb of Giuseppe Mazzini (d. 1872). On one side 
we observe a conduit and aqueduct belonging to the waterworks of 
the city. — In returning, we may use the electric line (No. 4) along 
the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare (p. 81). 

f. Excursions. 

To the W. to Pegli (*Villa Pallavicini), by railway, see p. 83, or in 
l J /4 hr. by carriage (there and back 10, with two horses 15 fr.); tramway 
every 10 min., comp. p. 66. — To the E. the Nervi Road leads first to S. Fran,' 
cesco cPAlbaro (omn., p. 66), near which are the *Villa Cambiaso (1557), 
the Villa Paradiso, and the house that Byron occupied in 1822-23 (Via 
Albaro 10). Then follow Sturla (near which a small monument marks the 
point of embarkation of 1000 Garibaldians for Marsala in 1860), Quarto, 
and Quinto, stations of the ordinary trains from the E. Station to Pisa 
(comp. pp. 64, 93 ; several sea-bathing resorts on the way). Fine views of 
Nervi and the Rivieras. Nervi (p. 93) is reached in 2V2 hrs. (omn., p. 66). 
— To Euta or to 8. Margherita (by rail), and thence to Portofino, see p. 95. 

17. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. Riviera di Ponente. 

94 M. Railway in 4y 2 -73/ 4 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 17 fr. 70 c. ; ex- 
press 23 fr. 15, 16 fr. 30 c). The 'train de luxe 1 from Vienna to Cannes 
(p. 20) performs the journey in about 4 hrs. (1st class fare 28 fr. 5 c). 
In winter a dining-car (dej. S 1 ^, D. 4 J /2 fr.) is attached to the first ex- 
press from Genoa and the noon express from Ventimiglia. 

The Riviera (p. 63), the narrow sea-border of Liguria, divided by Genoa 
into an eastern {Riviera di Levante ; p. 93) and a larger western half 
(Riviera di Ponente), which belongs to France from Ventimiglia westwards, 
is one of the most picturesque regions of Italy. It affords a delightful 
variety of landscapes, bold and lofty promontories alternating with wooded 
hills, and richly cultivated plains near the coast. At places the road 
passes precipitous and frowning cliffs, washed by the surf of the Mediter- 
ranean, while the summits are crowned with the venerable ruins of 
towers erected in bygone ages for protection against pirates. At other 
places extensive plantations of olives, with their grotesque and gnarled 
stems, bright green pine-forests, and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, 
citrons, oranges, oleanders, myrtles, and aloes meet the view, and even 
palms are occasionally seen. Many of the towns are charmingly situated 
in fertile spots or on picturesque hills 5 others, commanded by ancient 
strongholds, are perched like nests among the rocks. Little churches and 


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PEGLI. 17. Route. 83 

chapels peering from the sombre foliage of cypresses, and gigantic grey 
pinnacles of rock frowning upon the smiling plains, frequently enhance 
the charms of the scenery, while the vast expanse of the Mediterranean, 
with its ever-varying hues, forms one of the chief attractions. At one 
time the sea is bathed in a flood of sunshine, at another its beautiful blue 
colour arrests the eye ; or while the shore immediately below the spectator 
is lashed with wild breakers, the snowy crests of the waves are gradually 
softened to view in the purple distance. On some parts of the route, especi- 
ally between Savona and Finalmarina (p. 85), and between San Remo and 
Bordighera (p. 90), many travellers will prefer to quit the railway with 
its tiresome succession of tunnels in order to enjoy a drive on the pic- 
turesque road. 

During the present century the Riviera has suffered from Earthquakes 
in 1818, 1831, 1854, and 1887. On the last occasion repeated shocks were 
felt between Feb. 23rd and the middle of March in the district between 
Nice and Finalmarina. The increasing intervals between the outbreaks, 
the last being 33 years (1854-1887), render a speedy recurrence of the 
disturbances very unlikely. 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high- 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
"by tunnels. — 2*^ M. S. Pier d' Arena or Sampierdarena, the W. 
suburb of Genoa, projecting far into the sea, has 19,500 inhab., and 
numerous palaces and gardens, including the Pal. Spinola and the 
Pal. Scassi (formerly Imperiali), the latter with a fine garden, both 
probably by Gal. Alessi. The church of S. Maria della Cella con- 
tains frescoes of the Genoese school. Large sugar-refinery. — Tram- 
way to Genoa, see p. 66. 

3 M. Cornigliano-Ligure (Grand Hotel Villa Rachel), with nu- 
merous villas (Villa Raggio, finely situated on the coast), adapted 
for a prolonged visit in April and May (Engl. Ch. Serv.). 

4y 2 M. Sestri-Ponente [Alb. e Ristor. della Grotta, R. from 2, 
pens., incl. wine, from 7fr.), with 11, 000 inhab., also has a number 
of villas (Villa Rossi , with fine garden), a church adorned with 
frescoes, manufactories, and wharves (tramway, see p. 66). 

6 M. Pegli. — Hotels. "Grand Hotel et Pension de la MGditer- 
ranee, in the Palazzo Lomellini, with large and fine garden, R. 2V2-5, L. 3 /i, 
A. 1, B. I 1 /?, dej. 3V2, D. 5, sea-bath 1/2, pens. 9-14 fr. ; Gr. Hotel Pegli, 
pens. 7-11 fr., these two on the coast; Hotel-Restaurant de la Ville, 
opposite the station, R., L., & A. from 2, B. I1/2, de"j. 3, D. 4 x /2, pens. incl. 
wine from 7 fr. (no rooms facing the S.). — Trattoria Colombo, Caffe Mi- 
lano, Ristorante Andrea Doria (rooms) , all unpretending. — Physicians, see 
under Genoa, p. 66 ; also Dr. Wagner, Grand Hotel de la Me'diterrane'e. 
— English Church (St. John), with services in winter. — Tramway to Genoa, 
see p. 66. 

Pegli, with 3700 inhab., a much visited summer sea-bathing 
place, is a pleasant transition-station for travellers on their way to 
or from the warmer wintering-places on the Riviera and is even 
visited as a winter-station itself. Numerous beautiful walks in the 
wooded valleys and on the hill-slopes lend a peculiar charm to 
Pegli, as compared with places on the Riviera, better protected by 
the mountains but more hemmed in. The new Passeggiata dei Vil- 
lini, in the grounds of the former Villa Elena, may be specially men- 
tioned (fine views). Among the villas are the Villa Rostan, with 


84 Route 11. SAVONA. From Genoa 

grounds in the English style, the Villa Pignone, the Villa Doria 
(permessi in the Pal. Doria in Genoa), and the * Villa Pallavicini, 
a favourite ohject for an excursion from Genoa (comp. p. 82; open 
10-3, Sun. 10-2; closed on Sat., Easter, Whitsunday, and Christ- 
mas; fee 1 fr. , for a party 2 fr.). Visitors should insist upon pro- 
ceeding to the highest point for the sake of the view. 

The villa is on our left as we leave the station. The visit takes 
2 hours. The grounds extending along the slopes of the coast display a 
profusion of luxuriant vegetation and afford delightful prospects of Genoa, 
the sea, coast, and mountains. On the highest point stands a castle in 
the mediaeval style with a tower ("View). Around it are indications of 
a simulated siege : mausoleum of the fallen commandant , ruin-strewn 
burial-place of his heroes. Farther on is a stalactite grotto with a sub- 
terranean piece of water; under the bridge a striking glimpse of the 
lighthouse of Genoa and the sea. There are also summer-houses in 
the Pompeian, Turkish, and Chinese styles, an obelisk, fountains, etc. 
The gardens contain fine examples of the coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, pepper, 
and camphor plants, sugar-canes, palms, cedars, magnolias, and azaleas. 

77 2 M. Pra, a ship-building place ; 87 2 M. FoHri (Gallo; Villa), 
a town with 6400 inhab., at the mouth of the Ceruso, near which is 
the Villa Brignole-Sale. 

Numerous tunnels and bridges. 13 M. Arenzano, a retired 
and sheltered spot, with the fine park of Marchesa Pallavicini; 
beautiful retrospect towards Genoa. — 1572 M\ Cogoleto, erroneously 
described as the birthplace of Columbus (p. 78), to whom a mon- 
ument was erected here in 1888. 

20 M. Varazze , with 3600 inhab., is a busy ship - building 
place. The coast on both sides of it is rocky. Numerous cuttings 
and tunnels. — 22 M. Celle. — 2472 M. Albissola, at the mouth of 
the Sansobbia, where pottery is largely manufactured, was the birth- 
place of Popes Sixtus IV. and Julius II. (Giuliano della Rove're). 

27 M. Savona (Rail. Restaurant; Alb. Svizzero, R. 3, A. ^fr-; 
Roma, R. 272) omn. 72 fr-i both well spoken of ; Italia), a town 
with 19,100 inhab., is charmingly situated amidst lemon and orange 
gardens. The busy harbour is commanded by a fort. The Penitenziario 
incorporates some remains of the old cathedral, destroyed in 1542. 
The new Cathedral (of 1604) contains some pictures by Lod. Brea 
and others and handsome Renaissance choir-stalls carved in 1509 
at the expense of Julius II. Opposite is the Ateneo (unfinished), 
built for Julius II. by Giul. da Sangallo. The handsome theatre, 
erected in 1853, is dedicated to the poet Chiabrera (1552-1637), a 
native of the place. The oratory of Santa Maria di Castello has a large 
altar-piece by Foppa (1490), with a portrait of the donor, Giuliano 
della Rovere. There is a small picture-gallery in the Ospedale 
Civico (adm. Sun. and Thurs., 10-4). The church of Madonna degli 
Angeli affords a fine view of the town. A Church Seamen's Institute 
for British sailors was opened here in 1891 (Rev. J. T. Christie of 
Genoa; serv. on Sun. and Tues., concert on Wed.). 

Santuario, see p. 48. From Savona to Turin, see pp. 48, 47 ; to Ales- 
sandria, 6ee p. 46. 

to Venumigua. ai,a»SK). 17. Route. 85 

30V2 M. Vado. On this side of (32 M.) Bergeggi we obtain a 
*Retrospect of the Riviera as far as Genoa. Then a tunnel and gal- 
leries, through the arches of which are seen the sea and the islet 
of Bergeggi. The construction of the line was difficult here ; the 
tunnels become longer. 34 M. Spotorno, with an excellent bathing 
beach. — 36 M. Noli, a small and ancient town, charmingly en- 
sconced among vineyards and olive-groves, has a small Romanesque 
basilica and the ruins of a castle. 

42 M. Finalmarina (Albergo Garibaldi, poor) is the seaport and 
principal part of Finale , which consists of three different villages ; 
it contains a cathedral by Bernini, with double columns of white 
marble , a dome , and rich gilding. To the left lies Finalborgo, 
the oldest part, with a castle; and towards the E. is Finalpia. In 
the neighbourhood are interesting caverns, with prehistoric remains. 

43M. Borgio Verezzi. — 45 M. Pietraligure ; 47^2 M. Loano, 
with a ruined castle. To the right of the line is the suppressed 
monastery of Monte Carmelo, erected by the Dorias in 1609 and 
commanding a fine view. The large twelve-sided church of the 
village was also erected by the Dorias. 

48 M. Borghetto 8. Spirito. Beyond (4972 M.) Ceriale, with its 
market-gardens, the mountains recede. 

52^2 M. Albenga [Albergo d' Italia, Vittoria, both Italian), the Al- 
bingaunum of the Romans, an ancient town (3100 ihhab.) and 
episcopal see, 1 M. to theW. of the station. Between the station and 
the town are extensive remains of a Roman bridge (Ponte Lungo). 
Several chateaux of the old noblesse with lofty towers, and the 
Gothic cathedral with towers and elegant facade, are all of brick. 
The latter contains a ceiling-painting of the Resurrection, by Sante 
Bertelli (1892). — To the left lies the rocky island of Gallinaria, 
crowned with a tower. 

The train quits the coast and traverses olive-groves, vineyards, 
and orchards. It crosses the Centa and skirts the promontory of 
Santa Croce. Several tunnels. 

57 M. Alassio. — Hotels. 'Grand Hotel d'Alassio, on the shore, 
E. 21/2, L. 1/2, A. s/ 4 , b. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4V2, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Hotel Suisse, 
pens. 7-8 fr. ; Hot. de la Mediterban£e, with garden, also on the shore, 
pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hotel dItalie et Pension des Anglais, pens. ca. 7 fr., well 
spoken of. — Banker, House Agent, etc., Walter Congreve. — English Church. 
— English physician, Dr. Boon. 

Alassio, a seaport with 3800 inhab., is frequented in summer as a 
batbing-place, and in winter as a health-resort, especially by Eng- 
lish visitors. A pleasant promenade skirts the beach. 

58 M. Laigueglia. The train penetrates the Capo delle Melt by 
means of a long tunnel. 60!/ 2 M. Andora Marina. Several tunnels. 
63^2 M. Cervo, picturesquely situated on the slope. 64 M. Diano 
Marina (Gr.-H6t. Paradis, with sea-baths), in a fertile plain, was 
the central point of the great earthquake of February, 1887, but 

86 Route 17. on.n jajnuxiu. c'rom Genoa 

has since then "been largely rebuilt (2000 inhab.) and is now a 
winter-resort. To the right, inland, is Diano Castello. — The train 
enters a more extensive plain, in which Oneglia and Porto Maurizio 
are situated. 

68 l / 2 M. Oneglia (Rail. Restaurant; Hot. Victoria; Alb. del 
Vapore), with 7300 inhab. and a shallow harbour, carries on a busy 
trade in olive-oil. The prison near the station resembles a church. 

From Oneglia to Ormea, via, the Col di flava, see p. 48. — Tramway 
to Porto Maurizio. 

The train crosses the broad and stony bed of the Impero, which 
the road crosses to the left by a suspension-bridge. — 70 M. Porto 
Maurizio [Hotel de France, at the station ; Commercio, in the town), 
with 6600 inhab. and a good harbour, is most picturesquely situated 
on a promontory amidst dense olive-groves. Olive-oil is the staple 
commodity , the finest kinds being produced here and at Oneglia. 
Porto Maurizio, with a fine domed church and a charming Giardino 
Pubblico, is visited as a winter-resort and for sea-bathing. 

73 M. San Lorenzo alMare. The low, massive towers which rise 
at intervals along the coast to the right of the line, some of them 
converted into dwelling-houses, were erected for defence against the 
Saracens in the 9th and 10th centuries. — 77 1 / 2 M'. Santo Stefano- 
Rivaligure. To the right on the hill is the fortified S. Stefano, 
beyond which we enter the broad Val Taggia. The train crosses 
the Taggia, beyond which is (79 ^ M.) the station of that name 
(the village lies 3 M. up the valley). Beyond a short tunnel a 
valley on the right affords a charming view of Bussana, romantically 
perched on a rock. The ruins of this village, which was completely 
destroyed by the earthquake of 1887, are worth visiting (key of the 
ruined church at Bussana Nuova, l 1 ^ M. lower down). The village 
opposite is Poggio, which first becomes visible. Then a tunnel 
under the Capo Verde. 

8474 M. San Remo. — The Railway Station (PI. C, 4; Restaurant) 
lies on the W. bay, a few hundred yards beyond the new town. 

Hotels & Pensions. On the W. Side of the Town, near the Corso Mezzo- 
giorno: *West End Hotel (Pl.g; A, 4), Corso Ponente, with lift and pretty 
garden, R. 21/2-8, L. 1, A. 1, B. H/2, dej. 31/2, D. 6, pens. 10-18 fr. ; *Ge. Hot. 
Royal (PI. e; B, 4), Corso delF Imperatrice, with electric light, R. 3-8, L. 
3/4, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens, from 9 fr. •, Ge. Hot. des Anglais 
(PI. b; B, 4), Corso dell' Imperatrice, with lift and electric light; Gk. 
Hot. des Iles Beitanniques (PI. n ; A, 4), close to the sea, R., L., & A. 
43/4-8V2, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 11-15 fr. ; Ge. Hot. de Londres (PI. c; 
A, 4), Corso Ponente; all these of the first class, the last three frequented 
by the English. — Eden Hotel (PI. 1 ; A, 4), Corso Ponente, frequented by 
the English. Less pretentious : "Pension Teapp (PI. h ; A, 4), Corso Ponente, 
pens. 10 fr.; *H6t.-Pens. Pakadis (PI. f; B, 4), Corso Imperatrice, R. 3-31/2, 
D. 3'/2, pens. 7-12 fr. ; Pens. Faulstich (PL d; A, 4), Corso Ponente, pens. 
7-9 fr., well spoken of; Pens. Paula-Roberta, Strada Asquasciati, 6-12 fr. ; 
Hot. -Pens. Bristol (PL i; B, 4), Corso Imperatrice, R., L., & A. 2i/ 2 -5, B. 
I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hot. du Pavillon (PL k; A, 4), Corso 
Ponente, R. 21/2-4, L. 1/2, B. I1/4, dej 2i/ 2 , D. 31/2, pens. 6-8 fr., well spoken 
of, frequented by the English; Hot. -Pens. Qoisisana, above the Corso 
Ponente, with lift and sheltering verandah. - In the Via Berigo, in an elevated 

to Vent 0. 11. Route. 87 

situation: Hot.-Peks. Belvedere (PI. y; C, 3), Pens. Bellavista, Eng- 
lish Pension (PI. m; B, 3), all three English. — Near the Station and in 
the Lower Town: *Hot. d'Europe et de la Paix (PI. a; C, 4), with elec- 
tric light, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. ii/z, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 772-101/2 fr. ; Hot. 
Cosmopolitain, Via Roma, R., L., & A. 3-7, pens. 8-11 fr. ; Hotel Metro- 
pole & Terminus (PI. o •, C, 3), Via Roma, R. from 2, dej. 2 1 /-i, D. 3'/2, 
pens, from 6 fr. ; Hotel du Commerce (PI. co; C, 3), Via Andrea Carli, 
with cafe-restaurant and small garden, R., L., & A. 3, B. 1, dej. incl. 
wine 2 x /2, D. incl. wine 3 l /2 fr. 5 Hot. de la Reine, Corso Imperalrice, 
adjoining the Giardino Pubblico; 'Hotel National, Via Vitt. Emanuele, 
unpretending; Hot. Sanrejio, Via Roma; Hot. Grande Bretagne, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele. these two quite Italian; Hot. -Pens. Riviera, Pens. 
Gastone, bolh Via Roma. — On the E. Side of the Town, in a sheltered 
situation: 'Grand Hotel Bellevue (PI. p; F, 1), adjoining the former 
Villa Zirio, with electric light; *Gr.-H6tel de Nice (PI. t; E, 2), with 
lift, R. 21/2-5, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. 1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; *Gr.-H6t. 
Mediterranee (PI. w; F, 2), pens. 11, omn. J.1/2 fr. ; *Gr. -Hotel Victoria 
(PI. x; F, 2), R. 3-6, L. s/ 4 , A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; 
these four in the Corso Levante, first-class, with large gardens. Plainer: 
Hot.-Pens. Suisse (PI. u; E, 2), Corso Garibaldi, R. 4, dej. 3, D. 41/2 fr.; 
Hot. de Rome (PI. v; F, 2), Corso Levante, small, R. 21/2-4, L. 3 / 4 , A. 3 / 4 , 
B.IV2, dej. 21/2, D.4, pens. 8-10 fr., well spoken of; Pens. Villa Linden- 
hof (PI. r; F, 2), near the sea; Pens. Zahn, Corso Garibaldi 2 (PI. z; 
E, 2), well spoken of; Pens. Helvetia (PI. s; E, 2), Corso Garibaldi. 

Apartments (comp. pp. xx, xxviii). Suites of apartments are to be found 
in the Via Vittorio Emanuele, Corso dell 1 Imperatrice, Via Feraldi, Corso 
Garibaldi, Via Umberto, and Via Roma. Those in other parts of the town 
are less desirable, owing to the coldness of the streets. Villas abound; 
rent for the winter 1500-12,000 fr., including furniture and other requisites 
(distinct bargain necessary). A lower rent than that advertised is some- 
times taken. Situation important where invalids are concerned; a S. aspect 
is essential. Lists of apartments and villas at the Agence Congreve, Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 16, and at the Agence Benecle et Eeywood, in the same street. 

Cafes-Restaurants. Roma, Via Roma (band in the evening) ; 'Commerce, 
see above; 'Europien, Via Vitt. Emanuele; Cosmopolite, at the Giardino 
Pubblico; Cavour, Via Vitt. Emanuele 18, etc. — Confectioner. Thewes, 
facing the Giardino Pubblico. 

Reading Room at the Circolo Internazionale; subscription for the winter 
50, per quarter 30, per month 12 fr. 

Music in the Giar. Pubblico on Sun., Tues., & Thurs. afternoon and 
twice weekly in the Stabilimento dei Bagni (p. 88). — Operas at the Teatro 
Principe Amedeo (PI. D, 3) from 1st Jan. to Easter; operettas and comedies 
at the Politeama, Piazza Colombo. — Music Hall at the Berliner Restaurant, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele 27. 

Carriages. Drive in the lower town 1 fr., with two horses H/2 fr. (at 
night I1/2 or 2 ] / 2 fr.) ; per hour- 2 or 31/2 fr. (at night 3 or 31/2 fr.); drive 
in the upper town, I72, 2, 2, or 3 fr. ; per hour 21/2, 31/2, 3, or 4 fr. If 
luggage over 40 lbs., each box l ji fr. One-horse carr. to the Madonna della 
Costa 3 fr. ; the same, returning by the Via Barragallo, 8 fr. ; to Mentone 
30 fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 3 fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour 
for 1 person 1 fr., for several 2 fr. and fee (bargaining advisable). 

Omnibus through the town every 1/2 hr. (10 c.) ; from Piazza Colombo 
to Taggia hourly from 10 to 5 (1/2 fr.), to Badalucco at 6.30 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
(I1/2 fr.), to Ceriana at 2 p.m. (1 fr.), to Ospedaletti at 7 and 10.30 a.m. 
and 1.30 and 5 p.m. (30 c), to Bordighera at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. (60 c); 
from the Via F. Corradi to Camporosso and Dolceacqua at 3 p.m. (l 1 ^ fr.). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Roma, in the CasaPiccone; 
open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. (till midnight from Dec. 1st to April 30th). 

Bankers. Asquasciati; Rubino; Mombello, Debraud, & Co.; and Agence 
Congreve, all in the Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Tourist Agents. Thos. Cook & Son, at the Agence Beneeke et Heywood; 
Messrs. Gaze & Son, at the Agence Congreve. 

Shops. Oandolfo, bookseller, with lending-library, Via Vitt. Emanuele 

88 Route 17. SAN REMO. From Genoa 

21 ; Pfyffer, books and photographs, same street, No. 28. — Among the 
specialties of the place are inlaid wood (Anfossi, Di Leva, Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele) and the perfumes manufactured by Ajcardi. 

Physicians. English, Drs. Freeman, Foster^ Kay- Shuttleworth, Blackie, 
Smith, Grey, and Sturge; German, Drs. Secchi, Riefh, Watzoldt, Ostrowitz, 
Pohl, Pospisil, Batir, Brasch, Hiinerwadel, Steinberg, and Czirfuoz; Italian, 
Drs. Bobone, Marlinucci, Ameglio, and Ansaldi. — Dentists: Jenkins, Villa 
Brano ; Whiting, Via Vitt. Emanuele 19; Martini, Via Francia; Buss, Via 
Vittorio Emanuele 19. — Chemists. Squire, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17; 
Peinemann & Wiedemann, Via Vitt. Emanuele 10, undertake chemical and 
microscopical analyses ; Jordan, Via Vitt. Emanuele 28. — German Hos- 
pital, in the Villa Maddalena, Via Peirogallo (PI. D K; F, 1). — Baths in 
the Via Privata and in the Stabilimento dei Bagni di Mare, Passeggiata 
Imperatore Federico. 

British Vice-Consul, Lionel E. Kay- Shuttleworth, M. A., Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele 16. — U.S. Consular Agent, Signor Alberto Ameglio, Villa Bracco. 

English Churches. St. John the BaptisVs, Via Roma; chaplain, Rev. 
H. Collings. — All Saints' 1 , Corso deir Imperatrice; chaplain, Rev. C. Daniel, 
— Scottish and American Church (Presbyterian Service), Corso delF Impera- 
trice 4. 

Climate. San Remo is sheltered by an unbroken semicircular hill 
rising from the Capo Nero to the Piano Carparo (3000 ft.), culminating 
in the Monte Caggio (3575 ft.) and Monte Bignone (4260 ft.), and descend- 
ing thence to the Capo Verde, its summit being nowhere more than 4 M. 
distant in a straight line. The N. winds are, therefore, entirely excluded 
from this favoured spot, especially as a double range of Alps rises behind 
the town a little farther back, while the force of the E. and W. winds 
is much broken. Violent E. winds, however, frequently occur at the end 
of February and the beginning of March , and the 'Mistral 1 is also an un- 
welcome visitor at this season. Heavy rains are not uncommon between 
the middle of October and the middle of November, but December and 
January are usually calm and sunny. — To consumptive and bronchial 
patients the E. bay is recommended on account of its sheltered situation 
and humid atmosphere, while sufferers from nervous and liver complaints 
will find the dry and stimulating air of the W. bay more beneficial. An 
aqueduct, completed in 1885, supplies San Remo with good drinking-water. 

San Remo, a town of 19,000 inhab., lies in the middle of a 
beautiful bay, 5^2 M. long, embosomed in olive-groves that cover 
the valleys and lower slopes and give place higher up to pines and 
other coniferse. 

The crowded houses of the old town occupy a steep hill be- 
tween the short valleys of the Torrente del Convento and the Tor- 
rente di San Romolo. A smaller quarter named Castigliuoli lies to 
the W. of the latter stream. These older parts of the town consist 
of a curious labyrinth of narrow but clean lanes , flights of steps, 
archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. The 
arches which connect the houses high above the streets are intended 
to give them stability in case of earthquakes. Vines are frequently 
seen clambering up the houses and putting forth their tendrils 
and leaves on the topmost stories. The houses rising one above 
another receive light and air from the back only. 

The new town, occupying the alluvial land at the foot of the 
hill, contains all the public buildings. The long Via Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, D, 3), with its numerous shops, is the chief centre of 
traffic. To the S.E. is the fort of 8. Tecla (PI. D, 3, 4; now a 
prison), constructed by the Genoese to defend the small harbour, 

to Ventimiglia. SAN BEMO. 17. Route. 89 

which is sheltered by a Breakwater 1300 ft. in length. A survey 
from the parapet of this Molo will convey an idea of the sheltered 
position of San Remo, which renders the climate as genial as that of 
Mentone and has brought it into notice as a health-resort (see p. 88). 

The Via Vitt. Emanuele leads to the small Oiardino Pubblico or 
Qiardino Maria Vittoria (PI. C, 3; concerts, see p. 87), containing 
palms, eucalypti, etc., and to the *Corso dell* Imperatrice (PI. B, 
C/4), on the "W. bay, which is planted with palms and pepper-trees. 
This magnificent promenade, the favourite winter-resort of the vis- 
itor, skirts the railway-tracks and the sea, terminating towards the 
W. in the beautiful GiardinodelV Imperatrice (PI. A, B, 4), named, 
like the Corso itself, after the Empress Maria Alexandrowna of 
Russia (d. 1880). Beyond the garden the promenade is continued 
by the Corso Ponente (PI. A, 4). 

A delightful drive (tariff, see p. 87) is afforded by the *Via 
Berigo (PI. A, B, C, 4-2), which diverges to the ,N.W. from the 
Corso Ponente and ascends the valley of the Torrente della Foce. 
It then turns to the E. and runs in windings along the hillside, 
finally descending in a sharp curve to the Giardino Pubblico (see 
above). About the middle of this road lies the Villa Thiem (PI. A, 
4), built in 1896-97 and containing a valuable ^Picture Gallery, 
transferred from Nieder-Schonweide, near Berlin. The collection 
consists mainly of Netherlandish works and is especially rich in 
portraits and still-life pieces by the great masters of the 17th 
century. It is open to the public on Tues. & Thurs., 11-1; but 
lovers of art will probably obtain admission at other times also. 

The Vestibule contains two fine Persian carpets (16th cent.) and the 
Faun's Secret, a marble group by Ed. Mailer. — The Renaissance Stair- 
case, with treads of carved walnut and stuccoed walls, is adorned with 
a relief by Luca della Robbia, a Persian carpet (16th cent.), and a Florentine 
carpet of mythological design (16th cent.). — A Renaissance door (from 
Bologna), hung with Persian tapestry of the 17th cent., leads into the — 

Picture Gallery, which is lighted from the roof. Among the best pic- 
tures are the following : — Roger van der Weyden, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
*Dirck Bouts, Crucifixion, Woman taken in adultery ; Style of B. van Orley, 
Annunciation, Portrait ; Ercole de' Roberto, St. Jerome; Fr. Clouet, Diana 
of Poitiers ; "'A. van Dyck, Marchesa Spinola (full-lenaith); "Rembrandt, 'The 
Constable' 1 , portrait of an unknown Dutchman (1644); L. Franchoys, Por- 
trait; /. Backer, Porirait; "G. Terburg, Young lady, Young man; Fr. 
Snyders, Cock-fight, Kitchen-table; "Jan Fyt, Fish, Game, Dead birds; 
G. van Horst, Fruit; W. Kalf, Breakfast-table ('a symphony in blue 1 ); 
'■'Claesz Heda, Breakfast pieces; Hondecoeter, Poultry; A. van Beyeren, Fish, 
Breakfast; Rachel Ruysch, Flowers; A. Mignon, Dead birds; J. D. de Heem 
(more probably Mahu?), Breakfast; "P. de hooch, Interior (1658) ; Jan 
Vermeer van Delft, Interior; Jan Steen, After the breakfast; Teniers the 
Younger, Landscape; Isaac van Ostade, Pig-killing, Laughing peasant ; Jan 
van Goyen, Two landscapes; */. van Ruysdael, Oaks by the waterside 
(evening-light; an early work, ca. 1648), Landscape (ca. 1660); Ribera, 
Archimedes; Franc. Guardi, Four views of Venice. 

The Via Borgo, the prolongation of the Via Berigo, runs up one 
side and down the other of the Romolo valley, passing the Madonna 
del Borgo (PI. B, 1). It then runs to the S.E. to the white dome- 
covered church of Madonna della Costa (PI. C, 1, 2), which is 

90 Route 77. USPEDALETTI. From Genoa 

perched on the top of the hill as the keystone of the old town. The 
church is approached hy alleys of cypresses and commands a fine 
view of hay and mountain. In front there is a large hospital. On a 
more prominent point, in the grounds of the Villa Carbone (PL C, 
D, 2), rises a low octagonal tower (fee l / 2 f r 0> 'which affords an ex- 
cellent survey of the environs. 

From the Madonna della Costa the sheltered Via Barragallo 
(PL C, D, 1, 2) descends circuitously to the Viadi Francia(¥\. D, E, 2). 

The main thoroughfare of the quarters on the E. hay is formed 
hy the Corso Garibaldi (PL D, E, 2) and its E. prolongation, the 
Corso di Levante (PL E, F, 2). A little above the latter, next to 
the Bellevue Hotel, is the Villa Villeneuve or Zirio (no admission), 
where the dying Crown Prince Frederick William resided from 
Nov., 1887, to March, 1888. — The chief promenades in this quarter 
are the high-lying Via Peirogallo (PL E, F, 2, 1) and the quiet 
Passeggiata Imperatore Federico (PL E, F, 2), by the sea. 

Excursions. A beautiful and easily reached point of view is the ""Ma- 
donna della Ouardia (370 ft.) on Capo Verde (best view in the morning ; 
carr. with one horse 8, with two horses 10 fr.). Roads lead hence to Bus- 
sana and to Taggia (p. 86; omn., see p. 87), Badalucco, Montalto, and Triora. 
The return from the church may be made by Poggio. — To S. Romolo (2580 ft.), 
a donkey-ride of 3 hrs. (6 fr.). About 2 hrs. higher rises Monte Bignone 
(4260ft. ; panorama of the sea to the S., and the Maritime Alps to the N.). 

— A good road leads to Geriana (omn., see p. 87). — To Coldirodi (830 ft. ; 
see below) by Ospedaletti 2 hrs. ; or direct, by a very ancient road, 1 hr. — 
To the prettily situated Verezzo, with the churches of S. Donato and S.Anto- 
nio, by a new road through the charming valley of S. Martino in 2V2flrs. 

— To S. Pietro, 2 hrs. — Via. Ospedaletti to (2'/2 hrs.) Bordighera (omn., 
see p. 87). — Via, Bordighera to Dolceacqua and Isolabona (p. 92; omn., 
see p. 87); the return may be made by Bajardo and Ceriana (see above). 

The train passes through a tunnel Under Capo Nero, while the 
road winds round the promontory high above the sea. 

871/2 M. Ospedaletti. — Hotels. "Hotel de la Reine, with lift and 
steam-heating, R., L., & A. 4-8, B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 8-16 fr.; *H6t.- 
Pens. Suisse, also with steam-heating, R. 272-4, L. 1/2, A. V21 B - 1 X M dej. 
3, D. 4, pens. 6'/2-9 fr. ; Hot. -Pens. Riviera, pens, from 6V2 fr., Italian; 
*H6t.-Pens. de Rhodes, R. 2-3, dej. 2 J /2, D. 3, pens, from 6 fr., unpretend- 
ing. — Also Private Apartments. — English Church Service in winter. — 
Physician, Dr. Enderlin. — Concerts in the Casino (with restaurant and 
reading-room) on Mon. and Frid. at 2.45 p.m. — Omnibus to San Remo and 
Bordighera, see p. 87. 

Ospedaletti, in a sheltered and most favourable situation, with 
walks free from dust, has recently been converted into a winter 
resort at great expense. This is the station for the loftily-situated 
(1 hr.) Coldirodi (830 ft.), the town-hall of which contains an incon- 
siderable picture-gallery. — A view is now soon obtained of the 
palm-groves of — 

91 M. Bordighera. — Hotels and Pensions (closed during the sum- 
mer). On the Strada Romana (p. 91), named from W. to E. : *Grand 
Hotel Angst (PI. a), in a sheltered situation, with garden and good view, 
R. 2-5, L. 3/4, A. 3 /«, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, 1>. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. ; Hotel Bel- 
vedere (PI. b), well situated, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. 11/4, dej\ 31/2, D. 4, 
pens. 7-12 fr. ; Hotel de Londres (PI. c), these two English resorts; 

i: 50.000 £ 



to Ventimiglia. BORDIGHERA. 17. Route. 91 

*Pens. Constantly (PI. d), pens. 6-IOV2 fr. ; Hotel Bella Vista (PI. e), 
with fine view, R., L., & A. from 3, B. 11/2, dej. 21/2, D. 3</ 2 -4, pens. 
7-iO fr. — Lower down, in the Via Vittorio Emanuele (see below): *H6tkl 
d'Angleterre (PI. f), with garden, R., L., & A. 3y2-6, B. IV2, dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. : *H6t. Luzeron (PI. g), with a large garden, B. iV2, 
dej. 3, D. 4^2, pens. 9-10fr. ; *Gr. Hotel des Iles Britanniques et Victoria 
(PI. h), a little back from the road; Hot. Windsor et Beatjrivage, pens. 
7-11 fr. •, Pens, des Oliviers (PI. i); Pens. Jolie (PL k), pens, from 6 fr., 
unpretending. — List of Private Apartments in the Agence des Etranger.i, 
"Via Vitt. Emannele, and at Mr. Berry's, Casa Balestra, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Restaurants. Gaffe della Slazione; Caffe- Ristorante Ligure. — Cafe: 
Berger, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Physicians : Dr. Danvers, Dr. Hubbard (English), Dr. Agnetti, Dr. Dam- 
bacTier, Dr. Herschel, Dr. Kerez, etc. 

English Church : All Saints", Via Bischoffsheim, services at 8, 10.30, 
and 3; chaplain, Rev. Arthur T. Burnett, M.A. 

Post Office, Via Vittorio Emanuele, open 8-12 and 3.30-8. — Tele- 
graph Office, Via Vitt. Emanuele (open 9-12 and 2-7, Sun. 9-11 and 4-5). 

Bankers: Edward E. Berry, Casa Balestra (Engl. Banker and Agent); 
Banca di Bordighera. 

Theatre: Ru/Jini, Via Margherita (operettas and comedies). 

Cabs (stand in the Strada Romana) : per drive 1, with two horses 
l J /2 fr. i per hour 2, 3 fr. ; to (2-2J/4 hrs.) Mentone, with stay of 1 hr., 
12V2 or 20 fr. 

Omnibus to Ospedaletli and San Remo, see p. 87; to Ventimiglia (40min.) 
every 20 min. (fare 30 c). 

Climate. The strangers' quarter is formed by the Strada Romana, now 
converted into a wide and dust-free promenade running along the slope 
through groves of pine aud olive. It is fairly sheltered, especially towards 
its E. end. The temperature is similar to that of Mentone. The humidity 
is low near the sea , owing to the dry coast-winds, but increases as we 
approach the wooded hills. The number of rainy days is even less than 
at San Remo. The quarter adjoining the sea was strongly affected by the 
earthquake of 1887 and is too exposed for invalids. 

The little town (2600 inhab.), first brought into general notice 
by Ruffini's novel 'Dr. Antonio', consists of a new lower and an 
old upper quarter. The former, with the railway-station, hotels, 
and straight streets , extends along the shore ; the latter stands on 
the higher ground of the Capo di San Ampeglio. In the W. part of 
the Via Vittorio Emanuele, the main street of the lower quarter, in 
the "Windsor Hotel, is a small Museum (founded in 1884), contain- 
ing objects found atNervi (p. 93) and other Ligurian towns, a small 
collection of paintings (mainly Italian works of the 17th cent.), and 
geological and mineralogical specimens. In the E. part of the same 
street, beyond the rail, station, are the Magazzini Winter, with an 
exhibition of plaited palm-branches. 

The cross-streets on the N. side of the Via Vitt. Emanuele 
ascend to the Strada Romana (the ancient Via Aurelia), which runs 
parallel with it and ends on the W. at the Borghetto brook. This 
fine street affords charming views of the palm-gardens of the Hotel 
Angst, the Villa Bischoffsheim, now Etelinda (built by Chas. Gar- 
nier of Paris), and the Casa Moreno. On its S. side, below the 
Hotel de Londres, is the New Museum, or International Free Li- 
brary, founded by Mr. Bicknell and containing a reading-room, a 
concert-hall, about 3500 books, a unique collection of the flora of 

92 Route 11. VENTIMIGLIA. 

the Riviera, and a collection of minerals. A magnificent *View is 
obtained from the stone "benches on the top of the promontory, at 
the E. end of the road, a little to the S. of the Hotel Bella Yista, 
and from the terrace a little higher up : to the left, the bay of Ospe- 
daletti; to the right, Ventimiglia, Mentone, Cap Martin, Monaco, 
the Monts Esterel, and the snow-flecked Alpes Maritimes. 

Bordighera is famous for its floriculture (roses, carnations, ane- 
mones, etc.), which partly supplants olive-growing, and for its 
date-palms (Phoenix dactylifera), of which, however, the fruit seldom 
ripens sufficiently to be edible. Like Elche (see Baedeker's Spain) 
Bordighera does a large business in supplying Roman Catholic 
churches with palm-branches for Palm Sunday. For this purpose 
the leaves are bleached on the trees by being tightly bound up. — 
The finest palms are seen in the above-named gardens, in that of 
the Villa Gamier (to the E. of the town), at Herr Winter's Vallone 
Garden, 3 / 4 M. to the E., near the Sasso bridge (open to the public), 
and in the Madonna Garden at Ruota, % M. beyond the bridge, 
belonging to the same gentleman and containing the celebrated 
Scheffel Palms (open at all hours ; visitors sign their names and 
contribute a trifle for the poors' box). 

From the Vallone Garden we may ascend the Valley of the Sasso 
(in dry weather) to the (2^2 M.) Aqueduct and return thence to 
(1 M.) Bordighera along the conduit. — Another pleasant walk is 
afforded by the Strada dei Colli, to the N. of the old town. At 
Merogli, at the end of the road, a footpath leads to the left to the 
Torre dei Mostaccini, a good view-point (key kept at the Hot. Angst). 

Excursions : from Old Bordighera by foot and bridle paths through 
beautiful olive-groves to ( 3 /i hr.) Sasso; through the Val Nervia to (6 M.) 
Dolceacqua, with the ancestral castle of the Dorias of Genoa, and via 
Isolabona to (6 M.) Pigna; to (2'/2 M.) Vallebona via Borghetto; to the W. 
to the Gima di San Biagio or di Santa Groce (1060 ft.), with extensive view 
(4-4 1 /-2 hrs., there and hack) ; through the Vallecrosia Valley, via, Vallecrosia, 
San Biagio della Gima, and Soldano, to (372-4 hrs.) Perinaldo, a village 
commanding beautiful views. 

To the right of the line we pass the Protestant school of Valle- 
crosia (shown to visitors on Mon., Wed., &Thurs.). Crossing the Ner- 
via, we obtain a glimpse of the Maritime Alps. The line crosses the 
road ; on the left are scanty remains of the Roman theatre of Nervia. 

94 M. Ventimiglia. — Hotels. Hotel de l'Eukope, well spoken 
of; Hot. des Voyagedes, dej. 2 l /2, D. 3 fr., wine included; Hotel Soisse, 
modest. — Railway Restaurant, de"j. 2, D. 4 fr., incl. wine; Cafe"- Restaurant 
Maison-Dorie. — Money Changers at the rail, station. — Omnibus to Dolce- 
acqua (1 fr.) and to Mentone; to Bordighera, see p. 91. — One-horse Car- 
riage to Mentone 5-6 fr. (bargaining necessary; stand at the rail, station). 

Ventimiglia, Fr. Vintimille , an Italian frontier-fortress, with 
4200 inhab., lies picturesquely on a hill beyond the Roja. In the 
Municipio is a small collection of Roman antiquities from Nervia 
(see above). The church of S. Michele is interesting; the columns 
of its vaulted crypt bear Roman inscriptions. Fine view of the Roja 
valley through the Porta Romana. 

NERVI. 18. Route. 93 

A Branch Railway is being made from Ventimiglia to Limone (for Cuneo 
and Turin; see R. 9); and until it is opened a Diligence runs twice 
daily to (41 M.) Limone (comp. p. 41). 

From Ventimiglia to Mentone, Monte Carlo, and Nice, see Baedeker s 
South-Eastern France. 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

102V2 M. Railway in 4-77 2 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 5, 8fr. 40 c; ex- 
press 20 fr. 50, 14 fr. 35 c). The trains start from the Stazione Piazza 
Principe (local trains to Chiavari also from the Stazione Piazza Brignole; 
comp. the time-tables). Tickets to Nervi by the fast express are issued 
only as extensions of tickets to Genoa, on application being made to 
the 'Controllore 1 immediately on the traveller's arrival in Genoa. — Finest 
views on the side of the train opposite to that on which passengers enter 
at Genoa. Between Nervi and Spezia the view is much interrupted by the 
numerous tunnels. It is dangerous to lean out of the carriage-window. — 
If time permit, the traveller should drive from Becco to Chiavari (with 
ascent of the Monte di Portofino, p. 94) and from Sestri to Spezia. Carriage 
and pair from Genoa to Spezia (or vice versa), 90-100 fr. A bargain should be 
made with the driver directly, without the intervention of the hotel-portier. 

Qenoa, p. 64. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza Prin- 
cipe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing through 
a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole. To the left we obtain a view 
of the fortress-crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 67). 

On the *Riviek,a di Levante, or coast to the E. of Genoa, the 
vegetation is less luxuriant than on the Riviera di Ponente (p. 82), 
but the scenery is almost more striking. The line is carried through 
numerous cuttings and more than eighty tunnels, some very long. 
The villages present a town-like appearance , with their narrow 
streets and lofty houses, closely built on the narrow sea-board or in 
confined valleys, and mostly painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the insignificant Bisagno, and passes under 
the village of S. Francesco d'Albaro by means of a tunnel. 4 M. 
Sturla (Hot. Sturla, open in summer only), with good sea-baths. 
To the right, the Mediterranean ; to the left, the olive-clad slopes 
of the Apennines, sprinkled with country-houses. 5 M. Quarto. 
6 M. Quinto (Alb. Quinto, with garden and view-terrace), with 
numerous villas, dense lemon-groves, and fine palm-trees. In the 
foreground rises the promontory of Three tunnels. 

71/2 M. Nervi. — Hotels. *Eden Hotel (proprietor Fanconi), a large 
house on the hill above the town, with lift, steam-heating, and garden 
stretching to the sea, R. 3-8, L. 3/ 4j A. 3/ 4 , B. H/2, dej. 3 l / 2 , D. 41/2, pens. 
8-15 (L. extra), bath 3, omn. I72 fr. ; ''Grand Hotel (formerly Pens. Anglaise), 
in the main street, adjoining the park of the Marchese Gropallo, with lift 
and garden, R. 3-6, L. 1, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-15, omn. 1 fr. ; 
*H6t.-Pens. Victoria, near the station and the sea, with small garden, 
R. 2-5, L. 1/2, A. 3/4, B. 1V4, dej. 2'/2, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. — Hot. Nervi, 
R., L., & A. 3-6, B. IV4, dej. 2V2, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr.; Alb.-Pens. Svizzera, 
with restaurant, R., L., & A. 2V2-3, B. 1, dej. 274, D. 372, pens. &/2-VJ2 fr., 
these two at the corner of the main street and the street leading to the 
station; *H6t.-Pens. Bellevue, in a picturesque situation on the road to 
S. Ilario, R. 272-372, L. 7 2 , B. 1V 4 , dej. 272, I>. 37 2 , pens. 672-8 fr. 

94 Route 18. NERYI. From Genoa 

Pensions. *Bonera, with large garden, to the W. of the town, 8-10 fr. 
Villa Sanitas, next the Villa Gropallo, 7-10 fr. ; Villa Beaurivage, 7-13 fr.; 
Lindenberg, near the Municipio, with garden, 7-8 fr. ; Frisia, 6-7 fr. ; La 
Riviera, 6-8 fr. ; P. duParc; Oamusso, Piccolo Eden, these two Italian. The 
following pensions are under medical superintendence: Beaurivage (see 
above), pens, and treatment, 10-18 fr. ; Villa Rosengarten; Pens. Ortenau; 
Reconvalescentenheim (Dr. Schetelig), for patients of limited means, 6 fr. — 
All the hotels and pensions, except the Albergo- Pension Svizzera, are closed 
in summer. — Furnished Apartments (800-1500 fr. for the season) and villas 
(2500-4000 fr.) are scarce. Agent, Ant. Cernuti, Via del Pozzo 75. A 
doctor should be consulted as to situation. 

Post & Telegraph Office, Via Corvetto 137 (8 a.m. to 9 p.m.). 

Cabs. Per drive in the town 50 c, with two horses 1 fr. ; at night 
1 or V-J2 fr. ; per hour, l l / 2 , 2, 2, and 2*/2 fr. Special tariff for drives 
beyond the town. 

Omnibus to Genoa, see p. 66. 

Physicians. Dr. Freeh -Ti'inius, Dr. Ortenau, Dr. Schetelig, Dr. Alexander, 
Dr. Weissenberg. — Chemists. Oallo, at the post-office; Migone, opposite 
the Palazzo Gropallo. — English Church Service at the Eden Hotel. 

Climate, etc. rTervi, the most important winter-station on the E. 
Riviera, is backed on the N. by Monte Oiugo, and is sheltered on the 
N.W. by a spur of the Monte Fascia and on the W. by the promontory of 
Portofino, while it lies fully exposed to the S.E. wind. Its mean winter 
temperature (52° Fahr.) is almost the same as that of the W. Riviera, 
but the rainfall at Nervi is more copious and the periods of dry weather 
less prolonged. A feature of the place is the dust-free and sunny prom- 
enade, which runs along the shore above the rocky beach, and is pro- 
tected by a lofty wall on the landward side. Pleasantly placed benches 
on the promenade and in the adjoining gardens afford resting-places for 
patients who wish to be much in the open air without taking active 
exercise. The choice of longer walks in the vicinity is limited. 

Nervi, a small town with 2900 inhab., surrounded with groves 
of olives, oranges, and lemons, is much frequented in winter by 
English and Germans, as a health-resort. Among the villas the 
finest are Villa Gropallo (beautiful park, not always open ; entrance 
by No. 55 in the main street; fee), Villa Serra, and Villa Croce (to 
the W., with superb grounds), all noteworthy for their luxuriant 

Besides the above-mentioned Coast Promenade, another charming 
walk may be taken by the picturesque road, which, beginning opposite 
the Villa Gropallo in the main street, ascends in curves to ( 3 /4 hr.) the 
church of Sanf Ilario, halfway up the Monte Oiugo (1594 ft.). On the way, 
and from beside the church, we obtain admirable views as far as Porto- 
fino on the E., and of the Riviera di Ponente and the Ligurian Alps on 
the W. The footpath (short-cut) may be chosen for the descent. — The 
ascent of Monte Fascia (2730 ft.; 2y 2 hrs.) is also worth making. 

The numerous tunnels that now follow sadly interfere with the 
enjoyment of the view. — 9 M. Bogliasco; 9 l / 2 M. Pieve di Sori; 
10y 2 M. Sori, beautifully situated, with a noble survey of sea and 
valley from the viaduct which passes high above the town and ri- 
vulet. — 13 M. Becco (modest inn). 

From Recco to Ruta, 2 1 /- i M. ; omnibus (1/2 fr.) and carriages (21/2-3 fr.) 
at the station. Ruta (950 ft.; Italia, dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 3, pens. 6 fr.), grandly 
situated at the highest point of the highroad (see below), is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of the *DEonte di Portofino (2010 ft.; guide not neces- 
sary). A good footpath, commanding fine views of both the Rivieras, 
gradually ascends in '/« nr - to a finger-post on the top of the N. ridge, 
3 /4 hr. from the summit, with the Semdforo, or signal- station (no inn, 

to Pisa. SANTA MARGHERITA. 18. Route. 95 

provisions should be taken), which affords a magnificent survey of the Gulf 
of Genoa and as far as Spezia (Corsica is sometimes visible to the S.). — 
The descent to (IV2 hr.) Santa Margherita or Portofino (see below) is very 
interesting, though fatiguing. We return to the above-mentioned finger 
post and then descend to the S.E., partly through pine-woods. A steep 
and trying path (guide desirable) descends from the summit to the S. to 
(1 hr.) San Fruttuoso (see below; trattoria, unpretending), whence we take 
a boat (2 fr.) to Portofino or Camogli. 

Ml/2 M. Camogli (7nn, plain), on the coast, to the right, whence 
another ascent to the promontory of Portofino (2^2 hrs.) begins. 
Beyond the long Tunnel of Ruta, penetrating Capo S. Margherita, 
the train reaches the fertile plain of Rapallo, with its numerous villas. 

17^2 M. Santa Margherita Ligure. — Hotels. Grand Hotel, 
closed at present •, Hotel Bellevue, R. 3, B. 172, D. 472, pens. incl. wine 
7-10 fr. ; Pens. Sturm, pens. incl. wine 8-10 fr., well spoken of, these two 
with gardens. — Ristorante Colombo, with view-terrace; Ristorante Roma 
(with bedrooms; pens, from 6 fr.). — Physician, Dr. Schwenke. 

Santa Margherita, a town of 3600 inhab., situated on the coast, 
to the right, below the railway, is frequented as a winter-resort and 
for sea-bathing. In the Piazza Magenta is a fountain with a statue 
of Columbus, by Tabacchi (1892); by the Gaffe Ligure is a marble 
statue of Mazzini (1893), at the harbour is a bronze statue of Victor 
Emmanuel II. (1894), and in the Via Principe Federico G-uglielmo is 
a marble . statue of Cavour (1894), all three by Pietro Capurro. 
Many of the women are engaged in lace-making, while the men go in 
May as coral-fishers to the coasts of Sardinia and N. Africa. 

On the fine road to Rapallo (see below), V2 M. to the E. of S. Margherita, 
is Marchese Spinola's Villa Pagana, with a beautiful garden. — The Monte 
di Portofino (see above) may be ascended from S. Margherita in 2 hrs. — 
The *Excuksion to Portofino (boat 3-4 fr. ; omnibus six times daily, 25 c.) 
is attractive. A good road runs to the S. along the shore, with views of 
the coast as far as the hills of Spezia, to the (72 hr.) suppressed mon- 
astery of Cervara, where, after the battle of Pavia, Francis I. of France, 
when detained here by contrary winds on his way to Madrid as the pris- 
oner of Charles V., was once confined. Thence the road, passing the 
picturesque Castle of Paraggi (Mr. Brown) and the hamlet of the same 
name on a little bay, leads to ( 3 /4 hr.) Portofino ("Piccolo Hotel, 11. 2, B. 7?, 
dej.272, D.372, pens. incl. wine 6 fr. ; ''Alb. Delfino, R. from I72, pens. 
6-7 fr., both unpretending; Osteria della Stella), a small seaport ensconced 
beneath the S.E. extremity of the promontory. The old castle at the ex- 
tremity of the promontory (72 hr. from Portofino; also the property of 
Mr. Brown) commands a splendid prospect. — This excursion may be 
pleasantly prolonged by taking a boat (5-6 fr.) to (I74 hr.) the church 
of San Fruttuoso (see above), prettily situated on a bay between steep 
rocks and containing the tombs of some members of the Doria family 
(13-14th cent.). We then row on to ( 3 /4 hr.) the Punta della Chiuppa, the 
S.W. extremity of the promontory; thence on foot to S. Rocco (72 hr.) 
and Camogli Oh hr. ; see above). 

1872 M. Rapallo. — Hotels. Gr.-H6t. d'Europe, with garden and 
sea-view, R. from 2, L. 3/ 4 , A. 3/ 4 , B. 17 2 , dej. 37 2 , D. 47;, pens. 7-12, omn. 
1 fr. ; Alb. Rapallo e della Posta, with sea-view, R., L., & A. 272-3, 
B. I72, dej. 272, D. 372, pens. 6-9 fr. ; Hot. Beaukivage, new; Alb. 
Rosa Bianca, on the sea, R. 2, pens. 6-7 fr., with trattoria (good cook- 
ing)- *Alb. Mont'' Allegro, unpretending; Pens. Suisse, pens. 6-9 fr., incl. 
wine', well spoken of; Pens. Metropole, pens. incl. wine 6fr., well spoken 
of; Pens. Brabilla. — Physician, Dr. Bruck. — Lace at Gaet. Vassallo's. — 
Omnibus to S. Margherita. — Engl. Church Service at the Hot. Rapallo. 

96 Route 18 . CHIAVARI. From Genoa 

Climate. Rapallo is surrounded on the K. Iby a semicircle of moun- 
tains, which unite with the promontory ofPortofino on theW., to forma 
tolerable shelter against the wind. Rapallo is cooler, moister, and rainier 
than Nervi, but far excels it in the number of its attractive walks. 

Rapallo, a small seaport with 2900 inhab., who make lace and 
do a brisk trade in olive-oil, has recently become a frequented winter 
resort, owing to its agreeable climate and beautiful situation. 

Excursions. By boat (l 1 /^ hr. •, 3-4 fr.) or by road (6 M.) via, San Michele 
and Santa Margherita to Povtofino (p. 95). — Via Ruta to (2V2 hrs.) Recco, 
p. 94. — To the valley of San? Anna, V2 hr. to the N.W. — To the N.E. 
is the pilgrimage- church of ""Madonna di Montallegro (2015 ft. 5 inn, R. 
2-3, pens. 5-6 fr.), reached by several routes in 2*/2 hrs. (guide unneces- 
sary), which commands a superb view to the N. and S. A path at the 
back of the inn ascends to the top of the hill, where the view is still 
more extensive. 

The district between Rapallo and Chiavari is one of the most 
beautiful in Italy, and should if possible be traversed by car- 
riage (one-horse 8, two-horse 12 fr., in about l 3 / 4 hr.). — The next 
station after Rapallo is (21 V2 M.) Zoagli, a prettily situated little 
place, with a bronze statue of Conte Canevaro, founder of the hospi- 
tal, and an interesting churchyard. The manufacture of satin is a 
house-industry here. 

241/2 M. Chiavari (Trattoria e Alb. delNegrino, R. & A.2-2y 2 fr.; 
Fenice ; boat to Portoflno 5 fr. ; omn. to Sestri, see below), a town 
with 7700 inhab., near the mouth of the Lavagna, where the moun- 
tains recede in a wide semicircle, manufactures lace, light chairs 
(sedie di Chiavari), and silk (Vacarezzo, Via Yitt. Emanuele 75), 
and builds ships. It contains a handsome new Town Hall and statues 
of Garibaldi and Mazzini, by Rivalta. Pretty gardens beside the 
station. Sea-bathing. 

Chiavari is the starting-point for the ascent of the Monte Penna 
(5690 ft. 5 9-10 hrs.). The route leads via Borzonasca (carriage-road; omni- 
bus 80 c.) and Sopra la Croce (Locanda Pittaluga), whence a steep foot- 
path ascends to the summit (fine view of the Apennines and the sea). 

25^2 M- Lavagna, a ship-building place, ancestral seat of the 
Counts Fieschi, and birthplace of Sinibaldo de' Fieschi, professor of 
law at Bologna, afterwards Pope Innocent IV. (1243-54). — 27 M. 
Cavi. Then a long tunnel. 

28y 2 M. Sestri Levante (* Grand Hotel Jensch, with electric light 
and baths, R. 2-5, L. i/ 2 , B. li/ 2 , de'j. 3, D. 4, pens.77 2 -10 fr.; Hot. 
d'Europe, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Hot. Victoria; *Pens. Suisse, 5 fr., unpre- 
tending; Trattoria Ghio ; omn. to Chiavari every 2 hrs. , 40 c), 
a town with 2500 inhab., picturesquely situated on a bay and shut 
in by a promontory, has of late been visited as a health-resort 
(physicians, Dr. Sarnow, Dr. StriiK) and bathing-place. The Villa 
Piuma, at the extremity of the cape, has a fine pine-wood. 

The Highroad fkom Sestri to Spezia, far superior to the railway in 
point of scenery (carriage 25, with two horses 45 fr. ; about 13 hrs.' walk), 
turns inland and after 1/2 hr. diverges to the right from the road to Bor- 
gotaro (p. 97). It then winds up the scantily wooded mountains (short- 
uts for walkers) , affording a fine retrospect of Sestri and the Monte 
Castello. To the right appears Riva. Below, to the left, are Casarza (p. 97) 

mmJ-j.:: ■■ m 

to Pisa. SPEZIA. 18. Route. 97 

and Massa. A little higher up Moneglia (see below) is seen on the coast (to 
the right). We now traverse a pass (footpath shorter) to the Osteria Barac- 
china, situated in a bleak district, and to the Osteria Baracca (2235 ft.), 
where the sea disappears from view. The road now descends past Mat- 
tarana into a pleasant valley, in which lies the village of Carroddno. 
Beyond this village it crosses the Malgua and ascends through wood to a 
chapel. Arother descent is made via Lago and Pogliasca to Borghetto (Caffe 
Conti, clean, with rooms) and the valley of the impetuous Vara, an affluent 
of the Magra. The road skirts the broad, gravelly bed of the river, turns 
to the right at Pudivarna, and runs up and down to Riccb and La Foce 
(p. 98), on the last height before Spezia, whence we enjoy a magnificent 
prospect of the bay and the precipitous Alpi Apuane (p. 100). We then 
descend by numerous windings to Spezia, which we enter by the Porta 

Fkom Sestei to Boegotaeo (p. 328; carr. in 8-9 hrs. ; omn. to Varese 
twice daily, 2 fr.). The picturesque road, part of the old highroad to 
Parma, leads across the Apennines, passing Casarza (p. 96), Varese Ligure 
(Alb. degli Amici; Trattoria Venezia, with beds), and the Pass of Cen- 
tocroci (3415 ft.). 

Beyond Sestri the mountains recede, and the train also leaves 
the coast for a time. Many tunnels. Several fine views of the sea 
and the rocky coast to the right. 31 l /% M. Riva Trigoso; 34^ M. 
Moneglia, close to the sea; 37 ^ M. Deiva, at the entrance to a 
side-valley; 39 M. Framura; 41 M. Bonassola; 43 M. Levanto 
(Alb. Nazionale; Alb. Levanto ; Stella d'ltalia), a smalltown of 1600 
inhab., with old fortifications, a small Giardino Pubblico, and good 
sea-baths. — 46 M. Monterosso, famous for its wine ; 48 M. Ver- 
nazza; 50 M. Comiglia; 51^4 M. Manarola; 52 M. Riomaggiore. Be- 
fore reaching Spezia, four more tunnels, the last very long (7 min.). 

56^2 M. Spezia. — Hotels. 'Grand Hotel e Ckoce di Malta, Via 
Mazzini, in an open situation near the sea, B. 3-10, A. 1, L. 3 /4 , B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, omn. 1, pens. 8-12fr. ; Italia, Via Chiodo, with view, B,., L., 
& A. 3V2, omn. 3 /4 fr. ; Alb. Boma, Via Mazzini, with sea-view, R. 2-2 l /2, 
L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B - I5 d< ^ • 2 > D - 3 Vz, pens. 6-7 fr., tolerable; *Gean Bketagna, 
adjoining the Roma, with good trattoria, R., L., & A. from 2 J /2, B. 1, dej. 
incl. wine 3, D. 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Giappone, with trattoria, E. 2'/2 fr- ; Posta, 
these two in the Corso Cavour, unpretending. 

G&fe.^Caffe del Corso, near the Giardino Pubblico. 

Baths. Warm baths at the Croce di Malta and the Hotel Italia. — 
Sea Baths at the Stabilimento Selene, on the N. side of the gulf, and at 
S. Terenzo (p. 99). 

Post & Telegraph Office, Corso Cavour. — Chemist. Farmacia Pratt, 
Via Chiodo 12. 

Theatre. Politeama Duca di Genova. — Music on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. 
in the Giardino Pubblico. 

Cabs. Per drive 80 c, at night 1 fr. ; with two horses 1 and I1/4 fr. 
Circular drive via, La Foce and Sarbia, with one horse 7, two horses 10 fr. ; 
to Porto Venere, 8 nnd 12 fr. ; to S. Terenzo and Lend, 10 and 14 fr. ; 
carr. and pair to the top of the Monte di Castellana 20, to Sestri Levante 50, 
to Genoa '120 fr. (carriages at L. CecchVs, Via Fazio, etc.). — Omnibus to or 
from the'station 20 c, at night 30 c. ; also to Porto Venere (twice daily ; 70 c). 

Boat with one rower, l J /2 fr. the first hr., 1 fr. each additional hr. ; 
for 2 pers. 2 fr., and 1 fr. 20 c. each additional hr. ; 3 pers. 2V2 fr. and 1 fr. 
AO c • 4 Tiers 3 fr. and 1 fr. 60 c. ; 5 pers. 372 and 2 fr. ; to the Stabilimento 
%1pm90c. (or 50, 60, 70, and 80 c); to Le Grazie U/2 fr. (or 1 fr. 80, 2 fr., 
2 fr 30 2 fr. 50 c.) ; to S. Terenzo 2 fr. (or 2 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80, 3 fr. 20, 3 fr. 80 c.) ; 
to Porto Venere or to Lerici, 1 pers. 2^2 fr., to PaVmaria 3 fr. (each ad- 
ditional pers. V» **• ££&__, 

98 Route 18. SPEZIA. From Genoa 

Steamboats (starting at the Giardino Pubblico). Via Le Grazie to Porto 
Venere, thrice daily in 1 hr., fare 30 c; to S. Terenzo and Lerici, hourly 
in summer, in ^-s^hr., fare 30 c, there and hack 50 c, at other seasons 
thrice daily, return-fare 60 c. — Sea-going Steamers to Genoa and Leghorn, 
see p. 66. 

English Church Service in the Hotel Croce di Malta. — English Vice 
Consul: M. V. Gurney, Esq. 

N.B. Visitors must not approach within 300 yds. of the forts. 

Spezia, an industrial town with 45,500 inhab., lies at the N.W. 
angle of the Qolfo della Spezia, at the foot of beautiful hills fringed 
by picturesque villages and crowned with forts. The climate is very 
mild, resembling that of Pisa (p. 383), so that Spezia is frequented 
as a winter-residence by the English and for sea-bathing in summer 
by the Italians. The chief centres of traffic are the Corso Cavour, 
the Via Mazzini, on the coast, the neighbouring Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, in which is the attractive Giardino Pubblico, and the Via 
Chiodo, leading to the S.W. to the arsenal (see below). The harbour, 
one of the largest, safest, and most convenient in Europe, an- 
ciently praised by Ennius as the Lunai Portus, was surveyed by Na- 
poleon I. as a war-harbour, and since 1861 has been the chief naval 
harbour of Italy. The entrance to the gulf is protected not only by 
several hill-forts, but also by the Diga Subacquea, an embankment 
nearly 2 M. long, constructed in 1874. Beside the latter, on the 
shore, are the two forts of Santa Maria (W.) and Santa Teresa (E.). 
The Royal Dockyard on the S.E. side of the town, constructed t>y 
General Ghiodo (d. 1870), whose statue rises at the entrance, is a 
large establishment, 150 acres in extent (no admission). The marine 
artillery magazines in the bay of S. Vito cover an area of 100 acres. 
The Cantiere di San Bartolomeo, on the N.E. side of the gulf, serve 
as a torpedo station. The commercial harbour, to the S.E. of the 
town, constructed in 1890 et seq., is mainly used, like that of 
Avenza (p. 99), for the export of Carrara marble. 

Excursions. An admirable survey of the town and harbour is afforded 
by the Giro della Foce (carr., see p. 97$ 2 hrs.' walk), a circular route 
leading to the hill of La Foce (790 ft.), on the road to Sestri Levante (p. 96), 
and returning via Sarbia, on the ridge to the N. of Spezia. — To the 
S.W. of La Foce, reached by a good road, is the Monte Parodi (2200 ft.), 
commanding fine views. A stalactite cavern was discovered on the S. 
slope of this mountain in 1896. The road goes on to the fortified Monte 
Bramapane (2190 ft.), and returns thence to the town through the valley 
of the Biassa. — A charming '''Excursion may be made to Porto Venere, 
either by steamer (see above) or via. the highroad (7 M.), constructed by 
Napoleon in 1808-12 (carr. and omnibus, see p. 97), which describes a 
wide curve round the bay of S. Vito, with the arsenal, and then skirts the 
S. shore of the gulf, via Marola. Fezzano, Panigaglia, and Le Grazie (steam- 
boat-station, see above). Porto Venere (Ristorante Belvedere), on the site of 
the ancient Portus Veneris , with the remains of fortifications built by 
the Genoese in 1113, is celebrated, like the fortified island of Palmaria 
(613 ft.) immediately opposite, for a yellow-veined black marble, known 
as 'Portoro 1 . Charming prospect from the ruined church of San Pietro, ris- 
ing high above the sea, and supposed to occupy the site of the temple of 
Venus. Between two rocks beneath the church is the Grotla Arpaja 
(seldom accessible), or 'Byron's Grotto 1 (inscription), where the poet is 
said to have written much of his 'Corsair 1 . — The ascent of the fortified 

to Pisa. SARZANA. 18. Route. 99 

*Monte di Oastellana (1670 ft.) is made from Le Grazie (p. 98) in 2 hrs. 
by means of a picturesque winding road (carriages require a permesso from 
the Direzione Territorial e del Genio in Spezia). Fine view of the sea, the 
Apennines, and the Rivieras from the top and during the ascent. — Several 
pleasant excursions may also be made on the N. side of the gulf by 
steamer (p. 98) or by carriage, the best being to San Terenzo (sea-baths, 
30 c), where Shelley passed his last days, and Lerici (Alb. Croce di Malta), 
both on the Bay of Lerici. A little to the E. of S. Terenzo, on the road 
to Lerici, is the Gasa Maccarani., formerly the Casa Magni, where Lord 
Byron lived in 1822. Lerici, with a small harbour, a Garibaldi monument 
by Al. Biggi, and an old castle, was the capital of the Gulf of Spezia in the 
Middle Ages. A road leads from Lerici to (4i/ 2 M.) Sarzana (see below). 
Railway from Spezia to Parma (Milan), see R. 47. 

Soon after quitting Spezia we enjoy a beautiful view of the Gulf 
of Spezia to the right, and, to the left, of the jagged Alpi Apuane 
(p. 100). — Beyond several tunnels we reach (61 M.) Vezzano 
Ligure (p. 328), whence the line to Parma diverges to the N. — 
62^2 M. Areola, with a conspicuous campanile. The train passes 
through a tunnel, and crosses the broad Magra, the ancient boundary 
between Italy and Liguria. 

65^2 M. Sarzana (Alb. di Londra), with 14,300 inhab., Rom. 
Sergiana , or Luna Nova , from its having succeeded the ancient 
Luna, with the picturesque fortification of Sarzanello, constructed 
by Castruccio Castracani (d. 1328), was taken by the Florentines in 
1467 under Lorenzo Magnifico, from whom it was wrested by 
Charles VIII. of France. It subsequently belonged to Genoa, and 
then to Sardinia. Sarzana was the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. 
(Tommaso Parentucelli , 1447-55). The handsome Cathedral of 
white marble, in the Italian Gothic style, begun in 1355, contains 
an ancient painted crucifix from Luni. In S. Francesco is the tomb 
of Castruccio Castracani (d. 1328), by Giov. di Balduccio, of Pisa. 

Railway from Sarzana to Parma (Milan), see R. 47. 

The environs are fertile. Near (70 M.) Luni are the ruins of 
Luna. This Etruscan town fell to decay under the Roman emperors; 
in the middle ages it was destroyed by the Arabs (1016); and its 
episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana in 1204. The ruins of an 
amphitheatre and a circus are still traceable. From Luna the district 
derives its name of La Lunigiana. — Among the mountains to the 
left the quarries of white marble are visible. 

72 M. Avenza, a small town on the brook of that name, above 
which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani, of 1322, with 
bold round towers and pinnacles, was once the frontier-town of the 
Duchy of Massa. On the coast to the right is a small harbour for the 
shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Beanch Railway in 16 min. (fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to (3 M.) — 

Carrara (Alb. della Posla, R. & A. 272, omn. 72 ft"-, well spoken of; 
one-horse carr. to Massa, 3-4 fr. ; omn., see p. 100), a pleasant little town 
with 11,900 inhab., most of whom gain their livelihood by working the 
marble. Some of the studios of the numerous sculptors are interesting. — 
From the rail, station we turn to the right into an avenue of plane-trees, 
cross the Carrione (right), and then follow the Via Vittorio Emanuele, the 


1 00 Route 18. CARRARA. From Genoa 

main street of the town, to the left. This passes a marble statue of 
Garibaldi, by Nicoli (1889), and the Theatre, and leads to the Piazza 
Alberica, which is embellished with a statue of the Grand Duchess Maria 
Beatrice (1861). — The Via Alberica runs hence to the right to the Piazza 
dell' Accademia, with a marble statue of Mazzini (by Al. Biggi; 1892) and 
the Accademia delle Belle Aeti, containing works by sculptors of Carrara 
and several Roman antiquities found in the quarries of Fantiscritti (see 
below; e.g. a bas-relief of Jupiter with Bacchus). — Not far off is the 
church of San Andrea, a Gothic structure of the 13th cent., with a fine 
facade and good sculptures. The church of the Madonna delle Geazie has 
sumptuous decorations in marble. 

The Marble Quarries (Cave) of Carrara enjoy a world-wide fame. 
The deposits of marble occur throughout almost the whole of the Apuan 
Alps (see below), from the little river Aulella on the N. to Pietrasanta 
(p. 101) on the S. and Castelnuovo di Garfagnana on the E. The quarries 
in the valleys of Fantiscritti , Colonnata , and Torano (see below) were 
worked by the Romans, but after the downfall of the West Roman Empire 
the 'marmor Lunense' (so named from the seaport of Luna, p. 99) was 
almost entirely forgotten. The building of the cathedral of Pisa and the 
churches of Lucca, Pistoja, and other neighbouring towns again created 
a demand for Carrara marble; and the artistic activity of the 15-16th cent, 
gave a renewed impulse to its use. The industry now grows steadily; in 
1895 no less than 109,000 tons were exported from Carrara alone. About 
1000 quarries in all are in operation; of these 400, with 4500 workmen, 
are at Carrara, 200 (600 men) at Massa (see below), 100 (2000 men) at Sera- 
vezza, and the rest at Pietrasanta, Montignoso, Stazzema, and Fivizzano. The 
best and largest blocks yield the marmo statuario; the coarser variety is 
known as marmo ordinario. — The quarrymen, who receive a wage of 1-2 fr. 
per day, quit work at 3 or 4 p.m. A visit to the quarries (2-3 hrs. ; guide, 
not indispensable, 2-3 fr.) should, therefore, be made not later than mid- 
day. From the above-mentioned Piazza dell 1 Accademia we follow the 
Via S. Maria to the end of the town and ascend the valley along the left 
bank of the Carrione. At O/4 M.) a group of houses a path diverges to 
the right to large quarries of inferior marble, but we continue to follow 
the road, passing numerous marble cutting and polishing works. At the 
entrance to the (1 M.) village of Torano we turn to the right and climb the 
steep lanes to the marble railway (see below), the metals of which we 
follow in the narrow shadeless upland valley, passing numerous quarries, 
to (1 M.) the station of Fiastra. We may push on to the highest station 
(small restaurant) , but the ascent is fatiguing, and should be attempted 
only when time is abundant. A horn is blown as a signal when the rock 
is about to be blasted. The blocks of marble are carried away partly by 
means of ox-waggons, partly by means of a railway (Ferrovia Marmifera), 
which sends branches into several of the lateral valleys. 

76^2 M. Massa (*H6tel Massa, with garden; Alb. Qiappone, 
fair; omn. to Carrara), formerly the capital of the Duchy of Massa- 
Carrara, which was united with Modena in 1829, with 9000 inhab., 
is pleasantly situated amidst hills, and enjoys a mild climate. The 
handsome rococo Chateau (17th cent. ; now the prefecture) was a 
summer-residence of Napoleon's sister Elisa Bacciocchi, Duchess of 
Massa-Carrara. The loftily situated Castello, now a prison, commands 
a splendid view (permesso at the prefecture). The marble-quarries 
rival those of Carrara. 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Montignoso occupies an abrupt hill to the left. — 80^2 M. 
Seravezza, with marble-quarries, lies 2 M. to the N.E. of the station. 

Serravezza is the starting-point for the exploration of the S. portion 
of the Alpi Apuane, the S.W. chain of the Central Apennines, remarkable 

to Pisa. VIAREGGIO. 18. Route. 101 

for the bold shapes of its peaks. Near the centre of the mountains lie 
the Albergo Alpino (2295 ft.), on the S.W. slope of the Monte Pania (6100 ft.), 
the Alb. del Matanna , in Palagnana, and a dependance of the latter on 
the Prali di Plan d^Orsina (3412 ft.), all three much frequented in summer, 
especially for ascents of the Pania, Mte. Forato, the Procinto (3860 ft.), and 
Mte. Matanna (4320 ft.). These hotels may be reached from Seravezza in 
about 472-5 hrs., and in about the same time from Bagni di Lucca (p. 400) 
or from the station of Ponte a Moriano (p. 400). 

83 M. Pietrasanta (Unione; Europe/,), a small town (4000 inhab.) 

with ancient walls, beautifully situated, was besieged and taken by 

Lorenzo de' Medici in 1482. The church of S. Martino (II Duomo), 

begun in the 13th cent., with additions extending down to the 16th 

cent., contains a pulpit and sculptures by Stagio Stagi. Ancient 

font and bronzes by Donatello in the Battistero. Campanile of 1380. 

S. Agostino, an unfinished Gothic church of the 14th cent., contains 

a painting by Taddeo Zacchia, of 1519. In the Piazza is the pinnacled 

Town Hall. Near Pietrasanta are quicksilver -mines and marble 


89^2 M. Viareggio. — Hotels. On the beach: *H6t. de Russie, 
R. 21/2, L. 3/4, A. 3/4, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 4, pens. 9 fr.; Hot. d'Italie, R. 3-5, 
L. 1/2, A. 3 /4, B. 3 / 4 dej., incl. wine, 2 J /2, D., incl. wine, 4, pens. 5-7 fr. ; 
Hot. de Paris; Hot. Gran Bretagna; *H6t. de Florence, pens, from 
7 fr., incl. wine; Hot. de Nice, well spoken of; Hot. de la Paix; Hot. 
Togni; Hot. Roma. — 'In the town : Vittoria, Sole, both unpretending. — 
Pensions: Hayden, closed in winter; Pini, Piazza Paolina, pens. incl. wine 
6 fr., well spoken of. — Apartments moderate. — Sea Bathing at the Stabili- 
tnento Nettuno, Balena, etc. 

Viareggio, a regularly built town on the coast (ca. 16,000 inhab.), 
and a sea-bathing place, has lately come into favour as a winter- 
resort. The climate resembles that of Pisa. The celebrated pine- 
wood (Pineta), which forms a half-circle round the place from N.E. 
to S.W., shelters it from the wind. 

A monument to Shelley (p. 393), by Urban Lucchesi, was erected 
in the Piazza Paolina in 1894. 

On the aide of the pedestal, encircled by intertwined branches of oak 
and olive, is a book bearing on its cover the word 'Prometeo\ Above 
tbis is the following inscription: — '1894 to P. B. Shelley, heart of hearts, 
in 1822 drowned in this sea, consumed by fire on this shore, where he 
meditated the addition to 'Prometheus Unbound' of a posthumous pago in 
which every generation would have a token of its struggles , its tears, 
and its redemption'. 

Walks in the somewhat neglected grounds of the Piazza Azeglio 
on the shore , or on the long Molo , with its lighthouse (view). 
The S. portion of the Pineta, which extends along the coast for 
31/2 M., belonged to the Duchess of Madrid (d. 1893), first wife of 
Don Carlos, whose fine villa is about 3 M. from Yiareggio. In the 
smaller and. inferior part of the wood which belongs to the town are 
the ruins of a hippodrome. — Longer excursions to the beautifully 
situated Camajore (2 hrs.), and to the Lake of Massaciuccoli, near 
Torre del Lago (p. 102). 

From Viareggio to Lucca, 14 M., a branch-railway in 3 /4-l hr. via 
(5 M.) Massarosa and (8 '/a M.) Nozzano. From Nozzano we may visit the 

102 Route 18. PISA. 

so-called Bagni di Nerone, a beautifully situated Roman ruin on the road 
Irom Viareggio to Lucca, not far from the above-mentioned Lake of Mann 
cwccoli. From Lucca (p. 394) to Florence via Pistoia, see p. 401- to 
Bologna, see pp. 362, 361. * ' 

The line enters the marshy plain of the Serchio. 92i/ 2 M. Torre 
del Lago. At (971/2 M.) Migliarino we cross the Serchio. 

102V2 M. Pisa (p. 382). To the left, hefore we enter the station 
rise the cathedral, baptistery, and campanile. We then cross the 

IV. Lombardy. 

19. Milan 105 

a. From the Piazza del Duomo to the Central Station. 
Northern Quarters of the City. The Brera, 111. — b. From 
the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza de 1 Mercanti to the 
Castello and the Arco dell a Pac3, 122. — c. West Quar- 
ters of the City. Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Santa Maria 
delle Grazie. San Ambrogio, 124. — d. Along the Via 
Torino to the Southern Quarters of the City (S. Lorenzo, 
S. Eustorgio, Ospedale Maggiore), 129. — e. East Quarters 
of the City. Corso Vittorio Emanuele and its Side 
Streets. Giardini Pubblici, 132. — f. The Cemeteries, 133. 
Excursion to the Certosa di Pavia , . 134 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco (Colico) 136 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 142 

22. Lake of Como 143 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio 151 

23. From Menaggio, on the Lake of Como, to Lugano and 

to Luino, on the Lago Maggiore 152 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio, on the Lake of Lugano, via 
Gallarate and Varese 155 

25. From Milan to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, via Sa- 
ronno and Varese 157 

26. From Milan to Gallarate and to Arona, on the Lago 
Maggiore 158 

27. From Bellinzona to Genoa 159 

From Milan to Mortara (Genoa) via Vigevano .... 160 

28. Lago Maggiore 161 

29. From Domodossola to NovaTa. Lake of Orta. From Orta 

to Varallo 170 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera . . . .174 

From Pavia to Alessandria via Torre-Berretti and Valenza. 
From Pavia to Brescia via, Cremona, 176. 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 177 

From Cremona to Piacenza 180 

32. From Milan to Bergamo 180 

From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva, 184. — From Lecco 
to Brescia via, Bergamo, 185. 

33. From Milan to Verona 185 

34. Brescia 187 

35. The Brescian Alps 193 

1. Lago d'Iseo and Val Camonica, 193. — 2. Val Trompia, 
195. — 3. Val Sabbia and Lago d'Idro, 196. 
38. The Lago di Garda. Riva. Atco 197 



The name of the Germanic trihe that invaded Italy in 568 is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino, and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Ber- 
gamo, Cremona, Brescia, and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. M., 
and containing 3,713,331 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 1703 
Val Sesia, in 1706 Alessandria, in 1736 Tortona and Novara, and in 1743 
Domodossola. The heart of the country, if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the District of Milan, or the tract lying between 
the Tieino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 
of the vine , fruit-trees , and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 
country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat, maize, 
and meadows in the plains , the yield of these last being , however , far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The summers are hot and dry, rain 
being rare beyond the lower Alps , and falling more frequently when 
the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the moisture of the latter 
is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The land, however, 
is more thoroughly irrigated than that of any other district in Europe, 
and the servitude of aquae ductus, or right to conduct water across the 
property of others, has been very prevalent here for centuries. A failure 
of the crops indeed is hardly possible , except when the summer is 
unusually cold. Meadows yield as many as twelve crops in the year, 
their growth being unretarded by the winter. The so-called Parmesan 
cheese is one of the well-known products of Lombardy. In the middle 
ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, but sheep- 
breeding has in modern times been largely superseded by the silk-culture, 
an industry which has so materially increased the wealth of the country, 
that it used to be said during the Austrian regime that the army and the 
officers lived on mulberry leaves, as their produce alone sufficed to pay 
the land taxes. Under these circumstances the population is unusually 
dense, being about 380 persons to the sq. mile, exclusive of the capital. 
The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us it was occupied by the Etruscans, an Italian 
race, which about the 6th cent. B.C. was subjugated or expelled by 
Celts from the W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), and 
traces of their language still survive in the modern dialect of the coun- 
try. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or assimilated these 
foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 220 that the Romans extended their 
supremacy to the banks of the Po. In the following century they consti- 
tuted Gallia Cisalpina a province , on which Csesar conferred the rights 
of citizenship in B.C. 46. Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch 
these regions of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of 
Rome. From the 4th cent, on Milan surpassed Rome in extent, and, 
in many respects, in importance also. It became an imperial residence, 
and the church founded here by St. Ambrosius (who became bishop in 
374), long maintained its independence of the popes. The Lombards 
made Pavia their capital, but their domination, after lasting for two 
centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard dia- 
lect also contains a good many words derived from the German (thus, 
bron, gast, grh, pib, smessor, stora, and stosa, from the German Brun- 
nen, Gast, Greis, Pflug, Messer, storen, and stossen). The crown of 
Lombardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the German 
Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos , did much to promote 
the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the emperor 
and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and Ghibelline 
camp, Milan lormed the headquarters of the former, and Cremona those 
of the latter party, and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to be no 
match for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the 

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MILAN. 19. Route. 105 

nobles and the townspeople, however, led to the creation of several new 
principalities. In 1287 Matteo degli Visconti of Milan (whose family 
was so called from their former office of 'vicecomites 1 , or archiepiscopal 
judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo'', and in 1294 appointed gov- 
ernor of Lombardy by the German king. Although banished for a time 
by the Guelph family Delia Torre, both he and his sons and their poster- 
ity contrived to assert their right to the Signoria. The greatest of this 
family was Giovanni Galeazzo, who wrested the reins of government from 
his uncle in 1385, and extended his duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and evea 
as far as Perugia and Spoleto. Just, however, as he was preparing at 
Florence to be crowned king of Italy , he died of the plague in 1402, 
in the 55th year of his age. On the extinction of the Visconti family in 
1447 the condottiere Francesco Sforza ascended the throne, and under his 
descendants was developed to the utmost that despotism which Leo de- 
scribes as 'a state in which the noblest institutions prosper when the 
prince is a good man-, in which the greatest horrors are possible when 
the prince cannot govern himself; a state which has everywhere thriven 
in Mohammedan countries, but rarely in the middle aiges in other Christian 
countries besides this 1 . In 1494 when Lodovico il Moro induced Charles 
VIII. of France to undertake a campaign against Naples , he inaugurated 
a new period in the history of Italy. Since that time Italy has at once 
been the battlefield and the prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodo- 
vico himself, after having revolted against France and been defeated at 
Novara in 1500, terminated his career in a French dungeon. In 1525 the 
battle of Pavia constituted Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 
1535, after the death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip II. of 
Spain , with the duchy of Milan. In 1713 the Spanish supremacy was 
followed by the Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On 
four occasions (1733, 1745, 1796, and 1800) the French took possession of 
Milan, and the Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of 
its mediaeval institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of 
Piedmont, Genoa, Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of 
Italian territory) to France, the erection of a kingdom of Italy contri- 
buted materially to arouse a national spirit of patriotism. This kingdom 
embraced Lombardy, Venice, S. Tyrol, Istria, the greater part of the 
Emilia, and the Marches (about 32,000 sq. M.). Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king , but was represented by his stepson Eugene 
Beauharnais. The Austrian Supremacy , which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. By the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov., 1859) Lombardy, with the exception of the district 
of Mantua, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 

19. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Railway Stations. 1. The Central Station (PI. F, G, 1; restaurant, with 
prices displayed), a handsome and well-arranged structure, is decorated 
with frescoes by Pagliano, Induno, and Casnedi, and with sculptures by 
Vela, Strazza, Magni, and Tabacchi. It is used by all the lines of the 
Rete Adriatica and the Rete Mediterranea. Omnibuses from most of the 
hotels are in waiting (fare 3 /t-i l /2 fr.). Fiacre from the station 50 c. for 
1 pers. (within 20 minutes' drive), 1 fr. for more than 1 pers.; each large 
article of luggage 25 c, small articles taken inside the cab free. Electric 
tramway into the town 10 c. (hand-baggage only allowed). — 2. The Stazione 
Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4), for the lines of the N. Railway to Saronno and 
Como (p. 136), to Erba (R. 21), and to Varese and Laveno (R. 25), is con- 
nected with the Piazza del Duomo, the Stazione di Porta Genova, and the 
Central Station by an electric tramway (10 c). — 3. The Stazione di Porta 
Genova or di Porta Ticinese (PI. B, 8), a secondary station for the trains to 
Mortara and Genoa (p. 160), is of little significance to strangers. — Porterage 
to tLo town for luggage under 100 lbs. 50 c, according to tariff (from any 

106 Route 19. MILAN. Hotels. 

station). — Railway-tickets for the Rete Adriatica and the Rete Mediter- 
ranea may also be procured at the Agenzia Internationale di Viaggi (Fratelli 
Gondrand), Galleria Vittorio Bmanuele 24, or from Thos. Cook & Son. Via 
Alessandro Manzoni 7; for the N. Railways at the Agenzia Ferrovie Ford, 
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 26. — For the stations of the Steam Tram- 
ways, see pp. 108, 134 

Hotels (all those of the first class have lifts). In the Town: *Grand 
Hotel de la Ville (PL a; F, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, wilh electric 
light, a winter-garden, and post and railway-ticket offices, R 3-15, L. 1, 

A. 1, B. I1/2, D. 5, pens. 15, omn. I1/2 fr. (prices placarded in the bed- 
rooms); *Grand Hotel Milan (PL c; F, 3, 4), Via Alessandro Manzoni 29, 
with ticket and luggage office, R. 3i/ 2 -7, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2. D. 5, 
pens, from 10, omn. 1, electric light 1, heating 1 fr. 5 *H6t. Cavour (PLb; 

F, 3), Piazza Cavour, pleasantly situated opposite the Giardini Pubblici, 
R. 472, L. 1, A. 1, B. IV2 fr. •, Continental (PL e; E, 4), Via Alessandro 
Manzoni, also with electric lighting, R., L., & A. 4-8, B. l x /2, d6j. 3, D. 5, 
pens, from 10, omn. I1/2 fr. The following are also first-class but some- 
what less expensive : *Grande Bretagne et Reichmann (PL d ; D, E, 6), 
Via Torino 45, R., L., & A. 31/2-51/2, B. li/ 2 . dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 9, omn. lfr. ; 
*Hotel Metropole (PL q; E, 5), Piazza del Duomo, with electric light and 
steam heat, R., L., & A. 3i/ 2 -5i/ 2 , B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12, omn. 
I1/4 fr. ; Rebecchino (PL p; E, 5), Via S. Margherita 16. with electric light 
and frequented restaurant, R., L., & A. 3-51/2, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 4^2, 
pens. 8-10, omn. I1/4 fr. — *Europa (PL f; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 9, 
with electric lighting, R., L., & A. from 3*/2, B. IV2, dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 4, omn. 1, 
pens. 8-12 fr. ; *Manin (PL k; F, 2), Via Manin, near the Giardini Pubblici, 
in a quiet and pleasant situation, R. from 3, L. 3 /4, A. 3 /4, B. IV2, dej. 3, 

D. 41/2, pens, from 10, omn. 1 fr. ; *Roma (PL g; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele 7, with restaurant, R., L, & A. 3-3i/ 2 , B. U/ 2 , de"j. 3, D. 4, pens. 9-11, 
omn. 1 fr. •, Nazionale (PL s; E, 4), Piazza della Scala 4, with electric 
lighting, R., L., & A. 3-4, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-10, omn. i/ 2 fr., 
well spoken of. — The following are all good Italian houses of the second 
class: *Pozzo (PL 1; E, 6), Via Torino, R. 2i/ 2 fr., L. 60. A. 60 c, B. li/ 4 , 
dej. 3, D. 4i/ 2 , pens. 9, omn. 1 fr. •, *Francia (PL m; F, 5), R. 2-2i/ 2 fr., 
L. 60, A. 60 c, B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. incl. wine 41/2, pens. 8-10, omn. 1 fr. ; 
Central St. Marc (PL h; E, 6), Via del Pesce, R., L., & A. from 2% 

B. I1/4, dej. 2i/ 2 , D 4. pens, from 7, omn. »/ 4 fr. ; Bella Venezia (PI. i; 

E, F, 5), Piazza S. Fedele, R. 2y 2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, D. 4, omn. lfr.; 
"Ancora e Ginevra (PL n; F, 5), Via Agnello and Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 
R. 2-21/2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, B. l'A, omn. 3/ 4 fr. ; "Angioli, Via S Protaso, 
R., L., & A. 21/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 3/ 4 f r . . Victoria et Lion (PI. 0; 

G, 4, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, at the corner of the Via Durini, with 
electric light, R. iy 2 -2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 3'/ 2 , pens. 7, 
omn. 3 A fr. ; *Biscione e Bellevde, Piazza Fontana (PL F, 5), R., L., & A. 
2V2-31/2, B. I1/4, dej 3, D. 31/2, pens. 8, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Agnello et du Dome, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele 2, with lift, R., L., & A. 2-4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 
7-9 fr — Unpretending Italian hotels, with trattorie : Popolo (Pl.r;E, 5), 
Via San Protasio, cor. of Via Santa Margherita, with lift, R., L., & A. 2V2, 
dej. 21/2, D. 31/2 fr. ; *H6t -Pension Suisse, Via Visconti 15, R., L., & A. 2-3, 
B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. with wine 4, pens. 7fr.; Falcone, Via del Falcone, 
well spoken of; *Passarella, Via Passarella. R., L., & A. 21/2, B. 1, d^j. 2, 
D. 3!/2, pens. 71/2, omn. 3 /i fr. •, Commercio, Piazza Fontana, R., L., fa A. 
2-2 l /2 fr., all these near the Piazza del Duomo. 

Near the Central Station : Hot. do Nord (PL u ; F, 1), with lift, electric 
light, and garden, R., L., & A. 2i/ 2 -4, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-12 fr.; 
*H6t. Terminus (PL v; G, 1), R. 3 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, B. l»/ 4 , dej. 21/2, 
D. 4 fr. ; Alb. Como (PL w; G, 1), with small garden; Italia; San Got- 
tardo, German, unpretending. 

Pensions (comp. p. xix). Bonini, Piazza della Scala 5, well spoken of' 
Viviani, Via Giulini 4. pen?. 6-7 fr. ; Live", Via Gabrio Casati 1. cor. of the 
Via Danle, with lift and steam heat, 6 fr. — Furnished Rooms. E6t. 
Via Carlo Alberto 16, near the Piazza del Duomo, R. from iy 2 fr. 

Tramways. MILAN. 19. Route. 107 

Restaurants (RistoranU, Tratlorie; comp. p. xx). *Cova, Via S. Giuseppe, 
near the Scala, with a garden (evening-concerts in summer; 10 c. added 
on each order); Bi/ti, Gambrinus-Halle, "Savini, all three in the Galleria 
Vitt. Emanuele; "Accademia, Piazza della Scala; "Orolouio, on the K side of 
the Piazza del Duomo. charges reasonable; Arigoni, Via Tom. Grossi, cor. 
of Via Santa Margherita (concert in the evening); Stella d" Italia, Via Orefici; 
Garini Piazza del Duomo ; "Savini, at the Arco della Pace (p 124), a large 
and handsome establishment, with a concert-room and garden. The above 
mentioned second-class hotels are also restaurants. — Fiaschetteria Toscana, 
behind the E. branch of the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele ; good Tuscan wine. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxii). Cova, Via S. Giuseppe (see above); "Biffi (concerts 
in the evening; see above), Campari, both in the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele; 
Gaffe Anlille, Via Alessandro Man/.oni, opposite the Hotel de Milan; Mar- 
tini, Accademia (see above), both in the Piazza della Scala: Carini, Piazza 
del Duomo ; Eden, Via Cairoli (see p. 108); the cafe's in the Giardini Pubblici 
(p. 133) and the New Park (p. 124). Beer in glasses may be procured at 
most of the cafes. — Panetone is a favourite kind of cake, chiefly used 
during the continuance of the Carnival. Milk and Biscuits may be obtained 
at the shops of the Latteria Lombarda (Corso Vitt. Emanuele, etc.). 

Beer Houses (Birrerie: comp. p. xxii; 'tazza 1 or "mail glass 35 c , 'tazza 
grande' or half-litre 55 c). * Gambrinus-Halle, see above (Munich beer, con- 
cert in the evening); "Birreria Milanese, Via Dante, cor. of Via Cordusio 
(Bavarian and Bohemian beer; luncheons served); Birreria Nazionale, a 
large establishment in the Via Carlo Alberto, on the W. side of the Piazza 
del Duomo (Bav. and Bohem. beer) ; Orologio, see above (Munich beer) ; 
Birreria Svizzera, Via Cappellari, next dour to the Hotel Metropole; 
Borghetti, Via Principe Umberto 29; Culmb ac her Bier halle. Via Mercanti 5; 
Birreria della Scala, Piazza della Scala; "Spatenbrdu, Via Ugo Foscolo, near 
the Cathedral Square (also luncheon-rooms). 

Baths. "Terme di Milano, Foro Bon;«p?rte P8, built in 1895, with elec- 
tric light and swimming, Turkish, and medicinal baths ; Bagni delV Annun- 
ziata, Via Annunziata 11; Bagni Dufour, Via S. Vittore; Tre Re, Via Tre 
Alberghi 24 (PI. E, 6); also, Corso Vittorio Emanuele IT, clean and not 
expensive ; Via Pasquirolo 11, etc. — Swimming Baths : ^Bagno di Diana 
(PI. H, 2), outside the Porta Venezia (1 fr.). 

Cabs {^GUtadine' or ' Broughams'' ; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive 
by day or night 1 fr. ; per hour l 1 ^ fr., each 1 /z hr. addit. 1 fr. ; each large 
article of luggage 25 c. 

Electric Tramways. 1. From the Piazza del Duomo (PI. E, 5) by the 
Via Al. Manzoni and Via Principe Umberto to ihe Central Station (PI. F, 
G, 1). — 2. From the Piazza del Duomo by the Porta Venezia (PI H, 2) to 
the Central Station — 3. From the Piazza del Duomo by the Via Dante to 
the Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4) and thence by the Via Vincenzo Monti, 
the Porta Sempione (PL B, 2), and the Corso Sempione to the Cimitero di 
Musocco. — 4 From the Piazza del Duomo by 'he Porta Tenaglia (PI. C, 2) 
and the Via Bramante to the Cimitero Monumentale. The cars on this route 
return by the Porta Volta and the Via Garibaldi. — 5. From the Central 
Station by the Porta Nuova (PI. E, F, 1) to the Stazione Ferrovie Nord 
(PI. C, 4) and the Staz. di Porta Genova or Ticinese (PI. B, 8). — Lines also 
run from the Piazza del Duomo to most of the other City Gates. The tare 
to the rail, stations is 10 c, to the gates and the Cimitero Monumentale 
10 c. by day and 20 c at night. The cars on the chief lines are often 
overcrowded, and passengers should be on their guard against pickpockets. 

Electric Tramway round the whole town (Tramvia di Circonvallazione ; 
from one gate to either of the next two 10 c). 

Local Railways (generally operated by steam) connect Milan with a 
large part of Lombardy (comp. the Map, p. 137). Ihe following are the 
only lines likely to have much interest for the s f ranger: — 1. Railway 
from Milan (Central Station) to Monza (p. 137) in , /4- 1 /2 br. (20 trains daily); 
thence Steam Tramway (6 trains daily) to (I74 hr.) Trezzo (p. 138) and 

108 Route 19. MILAN. Theatres. 

(1 hr.) Bergamo (p. 180). This is a very enjoyable trip. — 2. Steam Tram- 
way from Milan to Monza (p. 137) in 1 hr. (9-12 trains daily; fares 60, 
30 c). starting at the Porta Volta and Porta Venezia (PL H, 2). — 3. To 
the Torre di Mangano and Pavia (Certosa), see p. 134. 

Post Office (PL E, 6), Via Rastrelli 20, near the cathedral, at the back 
of the Palazzo Reale, open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m.; branch-offices at the 
Central Station, etc. — Telegraph Office (PL E, 5), in the Borsa, Piazza 
Mercanti 19, groundfloor. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxiii). The "Teatro alia Scala (PL E, 4), the largest 
in Italy after the S. Carlo Theatre at Naples, was built by Pietro Marino 
in 1778, and holds 3600 spectators. The performances (operas, ballets, 
spectacular pieces) take place during winter only, and of late years it has 
been little used. The interior is worthy of inspection (open 9-4 ; 1/2 fr.). — 
"Teatro Lirico Internazionale (PL F, 6), built by Sfondrini in 1894 (on the 
site of the old T. Canobbiana), at the corner of the Via Larga and the 
Via Rastrelli ; "Teatro Manzoni (PL E, 5), Piazza S. Fedele, elegantly fitted 
up, good performances of comedy; Teatro Dal Verme (PL D,4), Foro Bona- 
parte (operas and ballets, sometimes used as a circus); Teatro Filodram- 
tnalici (PL E, 4), Via S. Dalmazio, operas; Teatro Milanese, Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, plays in the local dialect. — Eden Theatre of Varieties, Via 
Cairoli (PL D, 4); Follia, Via dei Ratti (PL E, 5). 

Bankers. Mylius & Co., Via Clerici 4 (PL E, 4); Weill, Schott Figli, 
& Co., Via S. Andrea 6 (PL F, G, 4); Zacc. Pisa, Via S. Giuseppe 4; Von- 
wilier & Co., Via Broletto 37; Roesti & Co., Via Andegari 14. — Money 
Changers : Minoletfi, Piazza Mercanti (PL E, 5) ; Strada, Via Al. Manzoni. 

Booksellers. Hoepli, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 37; F. Sacchi & Figli, Via 
S. Margherita; Galli, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 17; Libreria Treves, Gall. 
Vitt. Emanuele. — Newspapers. Perseveranza (10 c); Corriere della Sera 
(p. xxii ; 5 c); La Sera, etc. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Cittd d 1 Italia (Fratelli Bocconi), Piazza del Duomo, is an establishment 
in the style of the large Magasins at Paris (fixed prices). — The Silk Industry 
of Milan, in which upwards of 200 considerable firms are engaged, is very 
important. The following are noted retail-dealers: Cogliati & Co., Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele, adjoining the Hotel de la Ville; Osnago, Via S. Rade- 
gonda 5, to the N. of the cathedral; Besozzi, Monghisoni, & Co., Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 23. — Marbles: Baccerini, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 77. — 
Photographs : Genevresi, Via Rastrelli 2 ; Orell FiissWs Photocromes, in the 
show-rooms in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and the Via Al. Manzoni. — 
Optician : Dvroni, Gall. Vitt. Emanuele 9. — Fancy Goods : Guglianetti, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of the Via S. Paolo. 

Cigars. Genuine havanas may be obtained at Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 90. 

Physicians. Dr. John Hill, Via Principe Umberto 17; Dr. Herzen, Via 
Ugo Foscolo 1 (consultation 2-3.30 p m.) ; Dr. Francis Cozzi, Via Mon- 
forte 6 ; Dr. Lindner, Via Senato 8a (2-4) ; Dr. Fornoni, Corso Vitt. Eman- 
uele 26; Dr. Schulte, Via Cernaja 1; Dr. A. Tilger, Via Napoleone 16. — 
Private Hospitals: Casa di Salute Parapini, Via Alf Lamarmora (PL G, 
H, 7) ; Asilo Evangelico, Via Monte Rosa 12, outside the Porta Magenta. — 
Chemists: Valcamonica & Inlrozzi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 4; Zambelletti, 
Piazza S. Carlo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele (PL F, 4, 5); Talini, Via Alessandro 
Manzoni, opposite the Hot. de Milan. 

Goods Agents. Fratelli Gondrand, Via Tre Alberghi 3 (PL E, 6). 

United States Consul, William Jarvis; vice-consul, Signor Lorenzo Frette. 
British Consul, F. Armstrong, Via Solferino24; pro-consul, Wm. M. Tweedie. 

English Church Service: AH Saints Church, Via Solferino 15, opposite 
the British Consulate (PL E, 1), at 11 and 3.30. — Waldentian Church, 
Piazza S. Giovanni in Conca, at 11 and 7. 

Collections and Objects of Interest. [Artists receive free admission 
to Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, the Salone, and the Certosa di Pavia 

Collections. MILAN. 19. Route. 109 

on application at the office on the groundfloor of the Brera, while per- 
mission for the Brera itself and the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli is granted on 
the first floor. For a list of the national holidays, see p. xxiii.J 

Ambro&iana. Library shown daily , 10-3, Sun. and holidays 1-3, fee 
1 /i fr. ; open to students from Nov. 12th to Aug. 3ist, daily, 10-3, except 
Wed., Sun., and festivals. Pinacoteca, Sun. and festivals 1-3, other days 
10-3, V^ fr -i from May 1st to Sept. 30th, Wed., 10-3, free; p. 125. 

Brera. Archaeological Museum, daily, 12-3, 1/2 fr., free on Sun. and festi- 
vals. Library, daily, 9-4 and 7-10, Sun. 10-2, closed on holidays. Picture 
Gallery, daily, 9-4 (Nov.-Feb. 9-3), 1 fr.; on Sun. and holidays, 12-3, free; 
p. Ii6 

Exhibition of the Societa per le Belle Arti, daily, 10-6 (winter 10-4); adm. 
50 c, on Sun. and holidays 25 c. ; p. 116. 

Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci, daily, 9-4, 1 fr.; Sun., 12-3, free; p. 127. 

Museo Borromeo, Tues. & Frid., 1-4, fee C/2-l fr.); p. 126. 

Museo Civico, daily (except Mon.), 10-4, 7* fr - i Sun. & holidays, 20 c. ; 
p. 133. 

Museo Poldi-Pezzoli, daily, 9-4, Sun. & holidays, 11-3, 1 fr. ; p. 115. 

Museo del Risorgimento Nazionale, daily, 12-4, 50 c. ; Sun. & holidays, 
10 c; p. 124. 

Palazzo Reale, daily, 10-4, fee (1 fr.); p. 114. 

Principal Attractions (2 days). 1st day, in the morning: ^Cathedral, 
ascend to the "Roof; Galleria Vittorio Emanuele; "Brera (picture-gallery); 
in the afternoon: Piazza de" 1 Mercanti ; Castello ; in the evening: walk in 
the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and Piazza del Duomo, or in summer in the 
Giardini Pubblici. — 2nd day, in the morning: S. Maria delle Grazie and 
"Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio ; *S. Lorenzo; S. Satiro; 
Ospedale Maggiore (p. 131); in the afternoon: Cimitero Monumentale. — 
Excursion to the *Certosa di Pavia (p. 134); to Monza (p. 137; comp. 
p. 107). 

Milan (390 ft.), Ital. Milano, surnamed l la grande 1 , the Medio- 
lanum of the Romans, which was rebuilt after its total destruction 
in 1162 by the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Loin- 
bardy, the seat of an archbishop, the headquarters of an army 
corps, the chief financial centre of Italy, and one of the wealthiest 
manufacturing and commercial towns in the country, silk and 
woollen goods, gloves, carriages, machinery, and art-furniture being 
the staple commodities. It also exports a considerable amount of 
cheese, butter, eggs, poultry, and other country produce. The town 
is situated on the small but navigable river Olona, which is 
connected by means of the Naviglio Grande (p. 62) with the Ticino 
and Lugo Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia with the Ticino 
and the Po, and by the Naviglio delta Martesana with the Adda, 
the Lake of Como, and the Po. Milan is 7 M. in circumference and 
ranks next to Naples and Rome in point of population, containing, 
with the suburbs and a garrison of 5000 men, 425,800 inhabitants. 
There are numerous German and Swiss residents. — For the cli- 
mate, comp. pp. xxv, 104. 

History. The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy, 
near the beginning of several of the great Alpine passes, has always secured 
for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans, who conquered it 
in B.C. 222, it was one of the largest cities in Italy (p. 104), but owing 
to its repeated destruction hardly a trace of that period has been left. 
After the decay of the Lombard sovereignty the power of the archbishops 
(p. lOi) increased enormously, especially under Aribert (1018-45), against 
whom the smaller vassals were forced to form a league, known as the 

110 Route 19. MILAN. History. 

Motta. At a later date the people, grouped round the Carroccio, fought 
for the Archbishops against Conrad II. and the noblesse, expelling the 
latter from the city in I'M. At this time Milan is sail to have contained 
300,00(1 (?) inhab., and its trade and industry, especially the weaving of 
woollen goods and the making of arms and objects in gold, had become 
very important. The Roman walls had long since become too cramped, 
and in 1157 an almost circular moat, still preserved in the inner canal 
(Naviglio) , was constructed round the town. Neither this fortification, 
however, nor the heroic courage of the Milanese could resist the Emp. 
Frederick Barbarossa, who, with the help of the Ghibelline towns of Lom- 
bardy, totally destroyed the city in 1162, with the exception of a few 
churches. The emperors severe rule, however, soon roused the whole of 
Lombardy against him ; five years later (1167) Milan was rebuilt by the 
allied cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Verona, while the battle 
of Legnano (p. 155; 1176) finally shattered Barbarossa's hopes of re-estab- 
lishing the empire of Charlemagne (comp. p. 104). 

The Visconti (p. 1U5), who became 'Signori 1 of Milan in 1277 and 
furnished several occupants to the archiepiscopal chair, made an end of 
the city's constitutional independence, but contributed to its well-being by 
the introduction of the silk-industry (ca 1340) and by the wide extension 
of their sway. A new outer rampart (the Eefosso or Redefosso) was con- 
structed in this period to protect the suburbs. The Sforzas (1447-1535) 
endeavoured to reconcile the Milanese to their loss of liberty by the bril- 
liancy of their court and their patronage of art. 

The wars of the early part of the 16th cent, and the heavy taxes of 
the Spanish Period did not prevent the growth of the city, which in 1590 
numbered 246 000 inhabitants. In 1527 city- walls were erected on the 
site of the outer ramparts, and in 1549 a new series of fortified and bastioned 
walls were begun. In 1714 Milan, with the rest of Lombardy, passed into 
the hands of Austria. In 1796 it became the capital of the 'Cisalpine Re- 
public", and then (down to 1815) that of the Kingdom of Italy. The bloody 
insurrection of the Cinque Giornate (May 17th-22nd, 1848) compelled the 
Austrians to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations which ensued 
were happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom of Italy 
in 1859. No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as 
Milan since this date. 

Art History. The only buildings of the early-Christian and Romanesque 
periods that survived the destruction of 1162 were the churches of S. Lo- 
renzo (the oldest church in Milan), S. Ambrogio (the quaintest church in 
Milan), S. Simpliciano, S. Sepolcro, S. Celso, and S. Babila. The Gothic 
churches are more of decorative than constructive value; some, like the 
cathedral, represent a not very successful compromise between the styles 
of the N. and of Italy, while others follow Venetian models (the Frari). 

It was not till after 1450 that Filarete (tower-gate of the Castello, Ospe- 
dale Maggiore) and Michelozzo (Pal. Medici, Cappella Portinari in S. Eustor- 
gio) succeeded in introducing the Tuscan early-Renaiss;mce style, and this 
only after protracted struggles with the Lombard masters, who clung ob- 
stinately to the pointed arch. Their influence, along with traces of that 
of N. art, is mirrored in the Lombardic school of sculpture, which grew 
up about 1460 and gradually extended its activity to Venice, Genoa, and 
even S. Italy. Its principal masters, the brothers Mantegazza, Giov. Ant. 
Amadeo (1447-1522), Cristofano Solari (d. 1540), and Tom. Rodari (d. 1526) 
may best be studied in the Certosa in Pavia, the Cappella Colleoni in 
Bergamo, and the Cathedral of Como. The decline of the style is shown 
in the late works of Agostino Busti, surnamed Bambaja (ca. 1480-1548). A 
more serious and realistic conception is revealed by the versatile Cristo- 
foro Foppa, surnamed Caradosso (ca. 1445-1527), who is also famous as a 
medal -engraver and goldsmith. — The earlier painters of this penod, 
such as Vincenzo Foppa (d. 1492), who seems to have been trained in Padua, 
and his pupil Ambrogio Borgognone (d. 1523), remained faithful to the local 

Milanese art reached the zenith of its reputation as the residence of 
Bramante (1472-1500), to whom are due the choir and dome of S. Maria 

Cathedral. MILAN. 19. Route. Ill 

delle Grazie and the sacristy of S. Satiro, and of Leonardo da Vinci (1485- 
1500 and 15U6-16). The latter here executed his masterpieces : the Last 
Supper and the clay model of the equestrian monument of Francesco 
Sforza, destroyed by the French in 149(1. Among the pupils of Leonardo 
were the painters Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, Marco da Oggiono, Andrea 
Salaino, Cesare da Sesto, and Giovanni Pedrini; and his influence is also mani- 
fest in the works of Bernardino Luini, Andrea Solavio, Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and Giov. Ant. Bazzi (il Sddoma). 

We recognize Bramante's style in many buildings of Lombardy, such 
as S. Maria in Busto Arsizio, the church of Abbiategrasso, 8. Maria delle 
Croce at Crema, the Cathedral and S. Maria de Canepanova at Pavia, the 
Incoronata at Lodi. Milan itself owes its present architectural phy- 
siognomy rather to the masters of the late- Renaissance: — Galeazzo Alessi 
(p. 114; Pal. Marino), Vine. Seregni (1509-94; Pal. dei Giureconsulti, Pal. 
di Giustizia), and Pellegrino Tibaldi of Bologna (1532-96; court of the Archi- 
episcopal Palace). The churches by these architects (S. Paolo, S. Vittore, 
S. Fedele, lower part of the cathedral facade) show the transition to the 
baroque style. The most important architect of the 17th cent, was Eicchini 
(Brera, parts of the Ospedale Maggiore). 

The three earlier Procaccini , the chief painters after 1550, betray the 
mannerism of the Carracci, while Ercole Procaccini the Younger (1596-1676), 
Giov. Batt. Crespi, sur named 11 Cerano (1557-1683), Daniele Crespi (ca. 1590- 
1630), and Nuvolone (1608-61) are vigorous disciples of the same eclectic 
masters (p. 344). — The sculpture of this period is insignificant. 

In recent times Milan has raised itself to the highest artistic rank in 
the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such an extent as to have 
become almost a special industry. The Milanese Sculptors take great 
pride in their technical skill, and in effective imitations of nature. 
Among the best known are Barzaghi, Argenti, Calvi, and Barcaglia. — 
Painting is represented by Bianchi, Pagliano, Bouvier, Sleffani, Didioni, 
and others, but most of these artists seem to cultivate the modern Pari- 
sian style, and to be entirely oblivious of their glorious old national 

a. From the Piazza del Duomo to the Central Station. Northern 
Quarters of the City. The Srera. 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Duomo (PI. E, 5), which has recently been much ex- 
tended, and is now enclosed by imposing edifices designed by Men- 
goni (p. 114). It is a centre for omnibuses and electric tramways. 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PI. E, F, 5) , dedicated l Mariae 
Nascent?, as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the 
gilded statue on the tower over the dome also indicates, is regarded 
by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world, and is, next to 
St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Seville, the largest church 
in Europe. This huge structure covers an area of 14,000 sq. yds. (of 
which about 2400 sq. yds. are taken up by the walls and pillars), and 
holds about 40,000 people. The interior is 162 yds. in length, the 
transept 96 yds. in breadth, the facade 73 yds. in breadth ; nave 
157 ft. in height, 18 yds. in breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height, 
the tower 360 ft. above the pavement. The roof, marble like the rest 
of the building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the exterior with 
upwards of 2000 statues in marble. The stained-glass windows in 
the choir are said to be the largest in the world. The structure, 
which was founded by the splendour-loving Gian Galeazzo Vis- 

112 Route 19. MILAN. Cathedral. 

conti in 1386, occupies the site of the early-Christian hasilica of 
S. Maria Maggiore. The general style of the building is Gothic, but 
shows many peculiarities. The author of the original design is un- 
known. Marco da Campione and Simone da Orsenigo have been 
named, but without any positive proof. The latter superintended 
the building-operations after 1387. The building progressed but 
slowly, owing to the dissensions between the Italian architects and 
the German and French masters (Heinrich von Gmund, Vlrich von 
Fussingen, Jean Mignot, and others), who were frequently called to 
their aid. About the year 1500 Francesco di Giorgio of Siena and 
Giov. Ant. Amadeo appear to have been associated in the super- 
intendence of the building, and after them the work was conducted 
by Dolcebuono, Cristofano Solari, etc. The crypt and the baptistery, 
the style of which is quite out of harmony with the general design 
of the building, were added in the second half of the 16th cent, by 
Pellegrino Tibaldi, who also laid down the marble pavement and 
designed a baroque facade. The church was consecrated by S. Carlo 
Borromeo on Oct. 20th, 1577. The dome was begun in 1759 by the 
architects Croce and Merula, and was finished in 1775. The facade 
remained uncompleted, until in 1805 Napoleon (whose marble 
statue, in antique costume, is among those on the roof) caused the 
works to be resumed, according to Tibaldi's plan, with modifications 
by Amati. The facade is about to be restored according to the plan 
of the young architect Giuseppe Brentano (d. 1889), whose design 
won the first prize in an open competition in 1888. The new main 
entrance was designed by Lod. Pogliaghi. 

The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a tran- 
sept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported 
by fifty-two pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the summits of which 
are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of cap- 
itals. The pavement consists of mosaic in marble of different colours. 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 167). The band of 
brass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. Eight Aisle : Sarcophagus of Archbishop Aribert (1018-45), 
above which is a gilded crucifix of the 11th century. Monument of Otto 
Visconti (d. 1295) and Johannes Visconti (d. 1354) , both archbishops of 
Milan. Gothic monument of Marco Carelli (d. 1394). Tomb of Canon 
Vimercati, by Bambaja. — Right Transept (W. wall) : Monument of the 
brothers Giacomo and Gabriele de 1 Medici, both of Milan, erected by their 
brother Pope Pius IV. (1564), the three bronze statues by Leone Leoni 
(Aretino). [Tickets for the roof (25 c, see p. 113) are obtained near this 
monument; the staircase leading to the dome is in the corner of the side 
wall.] The altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall of S. transept) is adorned 
with fine reliefs by Bambaja, with a relief of the nativity of the Virgin 
by Tantardini at the foot. Adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by 
Marco Agrate (end of 16th cent.), anatomically remarkable, as the saint 
is represented flayed, with his skin on his shoulder, and bearing the 
modest inscription 'non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrates 1 . 

The door of the S. Sacristy (to the right, in the choir) is remarkable 
for its richly sculptured Gothic decorations (14th cent.). The "Treasury here 
(adm. 1 fr.) contains silver statues and candelabra of the 17th cent.; the 

Cathedral. MILAN. 19. Route. 113 

enamelled Evangelium of Abp. Aribert ; a diptych of the 6th cent. ; book- 
covers adorned with Italian and Byzantine carving of the early middle 
ages ; ivory vessel belonging to Bishop Godfrey; a golden Pax by Caradosso; 
and lastly a statue of Christ by Cristofano Solari. 

In the ambulatory, a little farther on, is a sitting figure of Martin V. 
by Jacopino da Tradate (1421). Then the black marble Monument of 
Cardinal Marino Carracciolo (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was 
crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520, by Barribaja. The fourth of the 
handsome new Gothic confessionals is for the German, French, and English 
languages. The high-altar is adorned with a crucifix and six bronze 
candelabra by Lod. Pogliaghi (1898). The stained glass in the three vast 
choir-windows, comprising 350 representations of scriptural subjects, were 
executed by Alois and Giov. Bertini of Guastalla during the present cen- 
tury; most of them are copies from old pictures. Before the N. Sacristy 
is reached the Statue of Pius IV. is seen above , in a sitting posture, by 
Angelo Siciliano. The door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculp- 
tures in marble. 

In the centre of the N. Transept is a valuable bronze ^Candelabrum, 
in the form of a tree with seven branches, executed in the 13th cent., and 
decorated with jewels, presented by Giov. Batt. Trivulzio, in 1562. 

Left Aisle : Altar-piece, painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, represent- 
ing S. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penalties. 
Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. Zuc- 
caro. The following chapel contains the old wooden Crucifix which S. 
Carlo Borromeo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted, in his missions 
of mercy during the plague. Adjacent, the Monument of Abp. Arcimboldi 
(ca. 1550), and by the wall, the statues of eight Apostles (13th cent.). Not 
far from the N. side-door is the Font, consisting of a sarcophagus of St. 
Dionysius (?) ; canopy by Pellegrino Tibaldi. 

In front of the choir, below the dome, is the subterranean ^Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo (p. 159), with the tomb of the saint; entrance opposite 
the doors to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open till 10 a.m. ; 
at other times 1 fr.; for showing the relics of the saint 5fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Roop and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; open till an hour before sunset, in 
summer from 5 a.m.), where an excellent panorama of the Alps by 
F. Bozzoli may be bought (also at Pirola's, Piazza della Scala 6 ; 
1 fr.). As single visitors are not now admitted, except when other 
visitors are already at the top, a party of two or more must be 
made up. The well-informed guide demands 1 fr. per person for 
his services. The visitor should mount at once to the highest gallery 
of the tower (by 194 steps inside and 300 outside the edifice). A 
watchman, generally stationed at the top, possesses a good telescope. 

View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 2); between these two, lower down, the Superga (p. 38) near Turin; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all; 
to the left of the last, the prominent Matterhorn ; then, the Cima di Jazzi, 
Strahlhorn, and Mischabel; N.W. the Monte Leone near the Simplon ; 
the Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard and Spliigen, and 
E. in the distance the Ortler. To the S. the Certosa di Pavia (p. 134) is 
visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, in the background 
the Apennines. Perfectly clear weather is necessary to see all these points. 

In front of the cathedral rises the colossal bronze Equestrian 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., completed in 1896 from the model 
by Ercole Rosa (d. 1893). The well-executed reliefs on the pedestal 
represent the Allies entering Milan after the battle of Magenta. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 11th Edit. 8 

114 Route 19. MILAN. Galleria Vitt. Eman. 

To the S-. stands the Palazzo Re ale (PI. E, F, 5, 6; adm., see 
p. 109), built in 1772 on the site of the Palazzo di Corte, the man- 
sion of the Visconti and the Sforza. It is adorned with frescoes by 
Appiani, Luini, and Hayez, and contains several handsome saloons. 
In the street to the left, beyond the palace, are visible the tower 
(1336) and apse of the fine half-Romanesque church of San Qottardo, 
formerly the chapel of the Visconti. — Adjacent, on the E., is the 
large Archiepiscopal Palace [Palazzo Arcivescovile ; PI. F, 5), by 
Pellegrino Tibaldi (1565), containing a fine court with a double 
colonnade and marble statues (Moses and Aaron) by Tantardini and 
Strazza. The second court, on the side next the Piazza Fontana, 
is embellished with Corinthian columns of the 15th century. — 
The W. side of the Piazza del Duomo is skirted by the Via Carlo 
Alberto (see p. 122), beyond which, to the N.W., lies the Piazza 
de' Mercanti (p. 122). 

On the N. side is the imposing palatial facade (finished in 
1878) which forms the entrance to the *Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(PL E, 5), connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della 
Scala. This is the most spacious and attractive structure of the 
kind in Europe. It was built in 1865-67 by the architect Gius. 
Mengoni, one of the most gifted of modern Italian architects, 
who unfortunately lost his life by falling from the portal in 1877. 
The gallery, which is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320,000L), 
is 320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. 
The form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, 
over which rises a cupola 180 ft. in height. The arcade contains 
handsome shops, and is fitted with electric light. 

The Piazza della Scala (PI. E, 4) is embellished with the 
Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) by Magni, erected 
in 1872. The statue of the master in Carrara marble, over lifesize, 
stands on a lofty pedestal, surrounded by Marco da Oggiono, Cesare 
da Sesto, Salaino, and Boltraffio, four of his pupils. — In the piazza, 
to the N.W., is the Teatro alia Scala (p. 108). To the S.E. is the 
large Palazzo Marino (PI. E, 4), in which the Municipio has been 
established since 1861, erected by Galeazzo Alessi in 1555 et seq. 
for Tom. Marini of Genoa. The main facade, towards the Piazza 
della Scala, was completed in 1890 from the designs of Luca Bel- 
trami. The *Court is handsome. 

Behind the Pal. Marino is the Piazza S. Fedele, with a monument 
to Al. Manzoni (p. 141) and, to the N., the Jesuit church of S. Fe- 
dele(Pl. E,F,4), erected by S. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 from designs 
by Pellegrino Tibaldi and containing a sumptuous high-altar. The 
adjoining Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, 
contains part of the government archives. — To the N. of this point 
is the Via degli Omenoni, with the palace of the same name (No. 1), 
erected by Leone Leoni and adorned with Caryatides. The Via 

Museo Poldi-Pezzoli. MILAN. 19. Route. 115 

degli Omenoni ends in the Piazza Belgiojoso, which contains the 
Palazzo Belgiojoso (No. 2) and ManzonVs House (No. 3), with fres- 
coes by Giac. Campi (1894). 

Adjacent, Via Morone 10 (PI. F, 4), is the * Museo Poldi- 
PezzoTi, bequeathed to the town by Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli in 1879 and 
exhibited in the tastefully-furnished house formerly occupied by 
the founder. The collections include valuable pictures , arms and 
armour, and small objects of antiquity (adm., see p. 109; cata- 
logue 1 fr.). 

First Floor. In the library (to the left) is a portrait of an ecclesias- 
tic, by Ribera. — The next two rooms contain nothing of importance. — 
Sala Doeata (to the right). Fine carved furniture; carpets; porcelain 
from Dresden, China, Sevres, and elsewhere. In the cases at the window 
to the left, antique gold ornaments and silver plate, goldsmith's work of 
the 16-iSth cent. ; in the centre-cases, Romanesque crosses and reliquaries, 
valuable vessels embellished with gems and enamelling; in the last case, 
Roman and Oriental bronzes, antique glass, etc.; below the mirror, cloi- 
sonne" enamel from China, Persian weapons. Among the pictures the 
following are most noteworthy : *21. Piero della Francesca, Portrait of a 
woman; 22. Bart. Vivarini, Pieta, in a Gothic frame; 19. Vine. Foppa 
(Ambrogio de Predisf), Portrait; 20. Crivelli, Christ and St. Francis; 17. Botti- 
celli. Madonna; 18. Oirolamo da Santa Croce, Portrait; no number, Pintu- 
ricchio (Raffaelino del Garbof), Madonna; Boltraffio, Madonna; 16. Luini, 
Betrothal of St. Catharine. — Sala Neea. Pictures: 23. Early Flemish 
Master, Annunciation; 24. Signorelli, St. Barbara; 25. Borgognone, St. Catha- 
rine ; Andrea Solario, 26. John the Baptist (1499), 29. St. Catharine; 
31. V. Foppa, Madonna. Also a marble statue by Bartolini, representing 
Reliance upon God. — Stanza da Letto. Pictures: 33. Bertini, Portrait 
of Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli; no number, Bern. Luini, Crucifixion; 35. Imitator of 
Botticelli, Descent from the Cross. Venetian glass. — To the left. I. Stanza 
a Q.uadei : 62. Marco Palmezzano, Portrait; 56. Domenichino, Cardinal; 
57. Elsheimer, Landscape with Diana. — II. Stanza a Quadei : 83. Ant. 
da Murano, Madonna enthroned, with angels; Luini, 84. Tobias, 85. St. Je- 
rome; no number, Gaud. Ferrari Madonna with angels; Bart. Montagna, 
98. St. Jerome, 100. St. Paul; "106. A. Solario, EcceHomo; above, Solario, 
SS. Jerome and Anthony; 108bis. Andrea Cordegliaghi, Portrait of a man; 
108 ter. Cosimo Tura, A canonized bishop; 109. Boltraffio, Madonna; above, 
'Cima da Conegliano, Angel's head; 111. Lor. Costa, Saint. — III. Stanza 
a Qdadei : above the door, *127. Carpaccio, Venetian senator; 121. Borgog- 
none, Madonna with angels; 122. Mantegna, Madonna; 125. B Luini. Christ 
bearing the Cross and the Virgin Mary; *130. A. Solario. Flight, into 
Egypt (1515); 138. School of Leonardo da Vinci, M;i donna; *139. Fra Bar- 
tolommeo, Small altar-piece, with the Madonna and saints within and the 
Annunciation without. (1500); 142. Romanino (not Moretto), Madonna en- 
throned, with saints and angels, in an attractive landscape; 150. Pietro 
Perugino, Madonna with angels; 146. Carpaccio, Samson and Delilah; 
149. Venetian School (signature Giov. Bellini is forged), Pieta. — We now 
return and enter the Aemouet to the right. 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni (PI. E, F, 4, 3 ; electric car to 

the Central Station, see p. 107), one of the chief thoroughfares of 

the city, begins at the Piazza della Scala (p. 114). In the Via Bigli, 

the first cross-street beyond the Via Morone, stands the Casa Ta- 

verna or Ponti (No. 11), with a line portal and an admirably restored 

court of the 16th century. — From the Via Monte Napoleone, the 

next cross-street, we turn to the left into the Via S. Spirito (PI. F, 

4, 3), with the Palazzi Bagatti-Vahecchi (No. 10 on the right, No. 7 

on the left), built in 1882 and 1895 in the style of the 15th cent. 


116 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

and adorned with old portals, frescoes, marble sculptures, and wood- 
carvings (visitors admitted; fee 1 fr.). 

The Via Al. Manzoni ends at the Piazza Cavour (PI. F, 3), in 
which, opposite the S.W. entrance of the GiardiniPubblici(p. 133), 
rises a Bronze Statue of Cavour, by Tabacchi, with a figure of Clio 
by Tantardini, on the pedestal. 

Farther on, in the Via Principe Umberto, to the left, is a statue 
of Agostino Bertano (1812-86), physician and statesman. To the 
right are the show-rooms of the Societa per le Belle Arti (PI. F, 2; 
adm., see p. 109). This street ends at the Porta Principe Umberto 
(PI. F, 1) and the large open space in front of the Central Station 
(P. 105). 

At the N.W. angle of the Piazza della Scala begins the Via 
San Giuseppe (PI. E, 4), which is traversed by the electric tramway 
to the Porta Garibaldi. To the right is the former Casino d€ Nolili 
(Nos. 2 & 4), with a Renaissance court by Bramante. — In the Via 
del Monte di Pieta, the second side-street on the right, is the hand- 
some Cassa di Risparmio, or savings-bank, by Balzaretti. — The 
Via di Brera, forming a prolongation of the Via S. Giuseppe, leads 
to the — 

*Palazzo di Brera (PI. E, 3; No. 28), built for a Jesuit college 
by Ricchini in 1651 et seq., and now styled Palazzo di Scienze, 
Lettere ed Arti. It contains the Picture Gallery described below, 
the Library founded in 1170 (300,000 vols.; adm., see p. 109), a 
Collection of Coins (50,000), the Observatory, a collection of Casts 
from the Antique, and an Archaeological Museum (p. 121). 

In the centre of the handsome Court is a bronze statue of 
Napoleon /., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered one of 
his finest works. By the staircase, to the left, the statue of the cel- 
ebrated jurist Cesare Beccaria (d. 1794), who was the first scientific 
questioner of the wisdom of capital punishment. The court is also 
adorned with several other statues. 

The staircase ascends to the first floor, on which is the *Picture 
Gallery or Pinacoteca, founded in 1798 by the Cisalpine Republic 
(adm., see p. 109 ; catalogue H/2 fr.). — The gem of the collection 
is Raphael's Sposalizio (No. 270), the chief work of his first or 
Umbrian period. The numerous pictures of the Lombard school, 
and particularly the frescoes sawn out of churches, are also very 
valuable. The authenticity of the Head of Christ (No. 267) ascribed 
to Leonardo is open to considerable doubt. No. 265 is fhe best of 
the oil-paintings by Bernardino Luini, and Nos. 47 and 52 are 
the best of his frescoes. The most interesting works of the early 
Italian school are Nos. 264, 273, and 282, all by Mantegna. The 
collection also affords an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo 
Crivelli (who flourished in 1468-93; 2nd room), a master who con- 
nects the Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 117 

works of the latter school are No. 168 by Gentile Bellini, Nos. 284 
and 261 by Giovanni Bellini, and Nos. 19 and 300 by Cima da 
Conegliano ; and of a later period No. 209 by Bonifazio I., Nos. 248 
and 288bis by Titian, and Nos. 253, 254, 255 (7th room) by Lorenzo 
Lotto, rivalled by Giov. Batt. Moroni (No. 214) of Bergamo. Of Cor- 
reggio the collection now possesses an admirable early work (5th room, 
no number). No. 456 by Domenichino, and No. 331 by Guercino, 
represent the Italian masters of the 17th century. The most im- 
portant works of foreign schools are No. 447 by Rubens, No. 446 by 
Van Dyck, and No. 449 by Rembrandt. — Each picture bears the 
name of the painter. 

I. and II. Ante-Chambers : 69. Frescoes by Bernardino Luini, 
some of them approaching the genre style (Nos. 2, 11, 13), scenes 
from the life of Mary (5, 19, 42, 43, 51, J33, 69, 70), *Ma- 
donna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (47), God the Father 
(48), Angels (14, 26, 45, 49,54,68), and*St. Catharine placed in her 
sarcophagus by angels (52; with the inscription K. V. S. Ch., i.e. 
'Katharina Virgo Sponsa Christi'); Bramantino (4); Marco da 
Oggiono (15, 20, 33); Foppa, St. Sebastian (71); Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari, Adoration of the Magi (25). — To the left of this room is the 
Appendice al Vestibolo, containing a continuation of the fres- 
coes. To the right, 19. Borgognone, Madonna and angels ; 15. Vine. 
Foppa, Same subject; on the exit-wall, 13. Bern. Luini, Madonna 
with saints and the donor. — Adjacent is the Gaelebia Oggioni. 
On the entrance-wall, 1. Coronation of the Virgin ; above, Pieta, 
(1493), both by Carlo Crivelli ; to the right, 16. Venetian School 
(Lor. Lotto?), Assumption; 24. Bern. Luini, Madonna. — We 
return to the II. Ante-Chamber and enter — 

Room I. On the entrance-wall are a specimen of Nuvolone (139. 
The artist's family) and other Italian works of the 17-18th centuries. 
— On the back-wall are works of the Lombard school of the 15- 
16th cent.: to the right, 91 bis. Vine. Civerchio , Adoration of the 
Holy Child; 87bis. Ambr. Borgognone, SS. Jerome, Ambrosius, and 
Catharine, with a Pieta. above; 87. Bernardino de' Conti, Madonna, 
with the four great church-fathers, SS. Jerome, Gregory, Augustine, 
and Ambrose, and the donors, Lodovico Moro, his wife Beatrice, 
and their two children; 75. Borgognone, Assumption and Corona- 
tion of the Virgin (1522); 81. Vine. Foppa, Madonna enthroned, 
with angels; 96. Marco da Oggiono, Fall of Lucifer; no number, 
Giov. Pedrini, Magdalen ; Bramantino, Holy Family ; 105. Pedrini, 
Madonna (unfinished); 98. B. Luini, Madonna with saints; left 
wall, 107. G.Ferrari, Martyrdom of St. Catharine ; 109. Bern. La- 
nini , Madonna with saints; 109bis. Borgognone, St. Rochus. — 
To the left is — 

Room II, devoted to the N. Italian and Umbrian schools of the 
15th century. To the right of the entrance, 159. Gentile daFabriano, 
Coronation of the Virgin; 162. Ant. Vivarini and Giov. Alemanno, 

118 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

Madonna with saints; 167. Bart. Montagna, Madonna enthroned, 
with angels and saints, one of the artist's masterpieces (1499). 

*168. Gentile Bellini, Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we 'perceive that the art of Gentile (brother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his death was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparted, 
and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — '■History of Paint- 
ing in North Italy', by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

172. Palma Vecchio, Adoration of the Magi (completed by Ca- 
riani?') ; — 178. Marco Palmezzano, Coronation of the Yirgin ; 176. 
Niccolb Rondinelli, Madonna enthroned, with four saints and angelic 
musicians; 315. Liberale da Verona, St. Sebastian; *179. Ercole 
de 1 Roberti, Madonna enthroned, with St. Augustine and Pietro 
degli Onesti, brought from S. Maria in Porto Fuori at Ravenna; 
177. Rondinelli, John the Evangelist appearing to Galla Placidia 
(p. 369) ; — 185. Palmezzano, Madonna enthroned, with saints ; 186. 
Garofalo, Pieta; 187. Piero della Francesca, Madonna with saints 
and Duke Federigo da Montefeltro; 188. Giov. Santi (Raphael's 
father), Annunciation; 189. C. Crivelli, Christ on the Cross; *191. 
Cima da Conegliano, SS. Peter Martyr, Augustine, and Nicholas 
of Bari; *193. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child; 195. TimoteoViti, 
Annunciation, with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian; 197bis. 
Luca Signorelli, Madonna enthroned, with four saints (spoiled by 
restoration) ; — 202. Girol. Genga, Madonna and saints. 

Room III (and IYth Ante-Chamber). Venetian, Brescian, and 
Bergamasque masters of the 16th century. To the left, 206. Moretto, 
Madonna on clouds, with SS. Jerome, Anthony Abbas, and Francis 
(the Madonna injured); — 212. Paris Bordone, Baptism of Christ; 
*209. Bonifazio I. (d. 1540), Finding of Moses in the ark of bul- 
rushes, in the style of Giorgione ; 213. Paolo Veronese, Christ at the 
house of Simon the Pharisee; 215 .Bonifazio II '. , Christ atEmmaus; 
216. Paris Bordone, Descent of the Holy Ghost; — 217. Jac. Tinto- 
retto, Pieta ; Moroni, *214. Navagiero, Podesta of Bergamo (1565), 
218. Assumption of the Yirgin ; Paolo Veronese, *219, 220, 221. 
Adoration of the Magi, with SS. Gregory and Jerome to the left and 
SS. Ambrose and Augustine to the right; — 230. Jac. Tintoretto, 
SS. Helena, Macarius, Andrew, and Barbara; *227. Paolo Veronese, 
SS. Anthony Abbas, Cornelius, and Cyprian, a monk, and a page, 
the finest 'conversazione' piece (see p. 251) by this master; 234bis. 
Jac. Tintoretto, Finding of the body of St. Mark ; — 234. Girol. Sa- 
voldo, Madonna and saints ; no number, Paris Bordone, Holy Family, 
with a canonized bishop and the pious donor. 

Room IY. To the left, Moretto, 235. St. Francis of Assisi, 
239. Assumption of the Yirgin; 244. Lor. Lotto, Pieta; *248. 
Titian, St. Jerome, a characteristic example of his later style 
(about 1560). — In the adjoining Ante-Room: 10. Timoteo Viti, 
Madonna and saints ; 272. Giotto, Madonna (original in Bologna, 
see p. 358). — We now turn to the left into — 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 119 

Room V, which contains the chief treasures of the collection. 
To the left, *288bis. Titian, Portrait of Count Porzia (of the master's 
middle period) ; 288. Vitt. Carpaccio, St. Stephen and the Scribes ; 
261. Qiov. Bellini, Madonna (an early work, with Greek inscrip- 
tions); 100. Giov. Pedrini, Mary Magdalen ; no number, *Correggio, 
Adoration of the Magi, an early work, in the master's Ferrarese style; 
264. Mantegna, Large altar-piece in twelve sections, at the top 
Madonna and St. John weeping over the dead body of Christ, below 
St. Luke and other saints, painted in 1454, and a proof of the 
early maturity of the artist, then 23 years old; 265. Luini, Ma- 
donna in an arbour of roses ; 263. Cesare da Sesto , Madonna ; 
263bis. Franc. Nap oletano (a little-known pupil of Leon, da Vinci), 
Madonna; *267. Leonardo da Vinci (?), Head of Christ. 

**270. Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio, or the Nuptials of the 
Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of S. Francesco in Citta di 
Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante's buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high-priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair ; Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 
observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist'. — '■Raffael und Michelangelo'', by Prof. An- 
ton Springer. 

281. Luca Signorelli, Madonna (an early work); 262bis. Borgo- 
gnone, Madonna with a Carthusian and St. Clara; 262. Luca Sig- 
norelli, Scourging of Christ (an early work). 

*273. Mantegna, Pieta, painted about 1474. 

'It is a picture in which Mantegna's grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, and imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Diirer; dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — G. & C. 

280. Andrea Solario, Portrait; 182. Fil. Mazzdla, Portrait; *282. 
Mantegna, Madonna in a nimbus of angels' heads, a work of sur- 
passing beauty; 282bis. Sodoma, Madonna with the Lamb, painted 
under the influence of Leonardo da Vinci; 106bis. Gaud. Ferrari, 
Madonna ; no number, Franc. Cossa, St. Peter and John the Baptist ; 
328. Lor. Costa, Adoration of the Magi (1499); 106. A. Solario, 
Madonna with SS. Joseph and Jerome (1495; restored). 

Room VI. Venetian and Veronese Masters of the 15-16th cen- 
turies. Over the door, 406bis. Girol. da Treviso, Pieta; *283. C. Cri- 
velli, Madonna and saints (1482) ; *284. Giov. Bellini, Pieta, an 

120 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

early and genuinely impassioned work; 286, 289. Cima da Coneg- 
liano, Saints; 287. Stefano da Zevio, Adoration of the Magi (signed, 
1435); 290. Palma Vecchio, SS. Helena and Constantine, Rochus 
and Sebastian; 296. Franc. Morone (not Moroni), Madonna en- 
throned; *297. Giov. Bellini, Madonna (a late work; 1510); Cima, 
*300. SS. Peter, Paul, and John the Baptist, 302(?). St. Jerome. 

Room VII. Venetian and Veronese Masters of the 16th century. 
199bis. Torbido, Portrait; 306bis. Paris Bordone, Love-scene; 
Vitt. Carpaccio, 307, 309. Purification and Marriage of the Virgin. 

Lorenzo Lotto, *253. Portrait of a woman, *254, *255. Portraits 

of men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of No. 253), extremely pure in drawing, 
charm by their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collection represents a man of lean and bony 
make with a swallow-tailed beard , a grey eye , close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, offers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bare-headed and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
reflections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. & G. 

Room VIII. Chiefly Bolognese paintings of the 16-17th cen- 
turies. 324. Ouido Reni, SS. Paul and Peter; 326. Franc. Albani, 
Dance of Cupids; 331. Ouercino, Abraham and Hagar; 333. Dosso 
Dossi, St. Sebastian; 334. Fr. Francia, Annunciation (retouched). 

Room IX. Italian and Netherlandish works of the 17-18th cen- 
turies. 346. Jan van der Meer of Haarlem (not Hobbema), Forest 
landscape; 352, 353. Bernardino Belotto (Canaletto), Landscapes 
(from the environs of Varese) ; 367. Jan Brueghel, Village street 
(1607); 370, 381. J. Fyt, Game; *449. Rembrandt, The artist's 
sister (an early work; 1632); *446. A. van Dyck, Portrait. 

Room X. Various schools. Over the door: 395. Luca Oiordano, 
Madonna with saints; 390. Velazquez (?), Dead monk; 391. Salvator 
Rosa, St. Paul the Hermit; — 447. Rubens, Last Supper; 384. Sny- 
ders, Stag-hunt; 442. A. van Dyck, Madonna and Child, with St. 
Anthony of Padua; 443. Jacob Jordaens, Abraham's sacrifice; 435. 
Dutch School (15th cent.), Adoration of the Magi; — 428bis. Giulio 
Campi, The Virgin enthroned, between two saints and the donor 
(1530); 424. L. Cambiaso, Adoration of the Shepherds; 423. Castig- 
lioni, Exodus of the Israelites; — no number, Ferrari Genovese, 
Scourging of Christ; 432. Raphael Mengs, Annibali, the musician 
(1752) ; no number, Ribera, St. Jerome; 415. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 
— farther on, 402. Pietro da Cortona, Madonna and saints ; 401. 
Gasp. Poussin, Forest-landscape, with the young Baptist. 

Room XL Chiefly Bolognese works of the 17th century. To the 
right, 479. Luca Longhi, Madonna with St. Paul and St. Anthony 
of Padua (1538); 463. Ann. Carracci, Christ and the Woman of 

Museo Archeologico. MILAN. 19. Route. 121 

Samaria; 456. Domenichino, Madonna with St. John the Evangelist 
and St. Petronius. 

Room XII : By the window, Busts of Manzoni by Strazza and 
Hayez by Argenti; by the opposite wall, bust of Longhi by Pacetti. 

To the left, farther on, are several rooms (open in summer only) 
containing modern pictures, sketches of academicians, casts from the an- 
tique, Renaissance, and modern sculptures. — Room XX: by the rear 
wall, Canova, Vestal Virgin ; Thorwaldsen, The Graces and Cupid. — The 
last but one of the rooms (XXIII) with modern pictures contains portraits, 
the best of which are those of Niceolini by Ussi, Cavour and Manzoni by 
Hayez, and D'Azeglio by Bala. 

The Museo Archeologico on the groundfloor (adm., see p. 109; 
entrance in the small Piazza di Brera, or through a passage to the 
right on the groundtloor) contains a rich collection of antique, 
mediaeval, and modern works of art, including some fine Renais- 
sance sculptures. It is intended to remove these to the Corte Du- 
cale of the Castello (p. 123). 

I. Room. Wall of the door (right) : Sculptures from Porta Tosa 
(12th cent.) below a terracotta arch; by the last pillar, late-Greek tomb 
relief; adjoining it, a Renaissance 'putto\ Window-wall: Mediaeval sculp- 
ture from the tympanum of a church; in the middle, four ancient porphyry 
columns from S. Cristoforo. Next wall: Roman and mediseval architectural 
fragments. Fourth wall: Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix 
(who fell at the battle of Ravenna in 1512 , see p. 373) , from the mon- 
astery of S. Marta, the most important being a recumbent '-Figure of the 
hero by Bambaja. Monument of Lancino Curzio (d. 1513), by the same master. 
Marble frame-work of a door from the Palazzo Medici, with the arms and 
portraits of Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti , attributed to 
Michelozzo , the builder of the palace. In the corner , Monument of 
Bishop Bagaroto by And. Fusina (1517). — By the pillars to the right, and 
between them : Ancient Roman sarcophagus ; Roman cippus. Last pillar : 
Fragment of a stele, a youth leaning on a staff (Greek) ; to the left, Head 
of Zeus (nose modern). Monument of Regina della Scala, wife of Ber- 
nabo Visconti; bust of a lady (15th cent.). In the centre: Large mon- 
ument of Bernabo Visconti, erected by himself during his lifetime (1354), 
resting on twelve columns, and richly gilded; on the sarcophagus are 
reliefs, in front the four Evangelists, at the back the coronation of Mary ; 
at the sides the Crucifixion and a Pieta; above, the equestrian statue of 
Visconti. — II. Room. Above the door, Statuettes from the Porta Orien- 
tale; in the corner to the right of the entrance, a mediseval bell (1352); 
on the right , suits of armour and bronze implements from the graves 
of Gauls discovered near Sesto Calende in 1867; in the cabinets, relics 
from tombs excavated in the Giardino Pubblico, terracottas, crystal, ivory 
carvings; in the corner, bronzes, including an admirable portrait-head by 
Michael Angelo; sculptures in marble and ivory; majolica; mediaeval gold- 
smith's work; Egyptian antiquities. 

Adjacent, at the junction of the Martesana (p. 138) with the 
Naviglio, is the church of San Marco (PI. E, 3), originally a Gothic 
building of the 13-14th cent., but entirely modernised in 1690. The 
transept contains the tombs of Beato Lanfranco-Settala (d. 1243) 
and the jurist Salvarinus de Aliprandis (d. 1344). 

A little to the S.W. of the Brera, in the Piazza del Carmine, 
is the Gothic church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. D, 3, 4) of the 
15th cent., now modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by 
Luini. In the adjacent Via Clerici (PI. E, 4) is the Palazzo Cleriei, 

122 Route 19. MILAN. Piazza de' Mercanti. 

now a law-court (Tribunale), with the fine rococo Sala del Tiepolo 
(always open). — To the N.W. of the Brera is the church of 
S. Simpliciano (PI. D, 3), a fine Romanesque structure, repeatedly 
altered at a later date ; it contains a triumphal arch adorned with 
'putti' by Luini, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Borgognone (in 
the apse). — Farther to the N., in the Corso Garibaldi (r.), not far 
from the Porta Garibaldi, is the church of S. Maria Incoronata 
(PI. D, 1), built by Francesco and Bianca Sforza. The Cappella 
Bossi contains the tombs of Giov. Tolentino (1517) and Archbishop 
Gabr. Sforza. — In this vicinity, at the corner of the Via Al. Volta, 
which leads to the Cimitero Monumentale (p. 133), is a seated bronze 
figure of the engineer Q. B. Piatti (1812-67), by Salv. Pisani (1894). 

b. From the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza de' Mercanti 
to the Castello and the Arco della Pace. 

To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo 
Alberto (p. 114), lies the *Fiazza de' Mercanti (PI. E, 5), the 
central point of the mediaeval city, and formerly provided with 
five gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo della Ragione , a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podesta (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian relief was placed on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit' (the Cathari were the "Wal- 
densians). The groundfloor is now the Corn Exchange, above which 
is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza is the Palazzo 
dei Oiureconsulti, with a tower, erected by Vine. Seregni (1564; 
exchange and telegraph-office on the groundfloor); on the S. side 
are the Loggia degli Osii, erected in 1316, and the Collegio dei 
Nobili, also by Vine. Seregni (1564). — Through the Via de'Ratti to 
the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, see p. 125. 

From the Piazza de' Mercanti a new series of streets leads in a 
direct line to the Castello. The first part of this thoroughfare is the 
wide and handsome Via Dante (PI. D, 5, 4; electric tramway, see 
p. 107), which is continued, beyond the Foro Bonaparte, by the Via 
Cairoli (PI. D, 4). In the Foro Bonaparte is a colossal Equestrian 
Statue of Garibaldi, in bronze, by Ettore Ximenes (1895). The 
allegorical female figures on the pedestal represent Revolution and 

The *CastelIo di Porta Giovia (PI. C, 3, 4), the castle of Milan 
and formerly, like the Palazzo di Corte, the seat of the Visconti and 
the Sforza, was originally built by Qaleazzo II. Visconti in 1368, 
on the city-wall, adjoining the old Porta Giovia. It was destroyed 
by the Ambrosian Republic (p. 105) in 1447, but was rebuilt and 
enlarged by the Sforza after 1450. In 1893 et seq. it was restored 
in the 15th cent, style from the plans of Luca Beltrami, and it has 
been fitted up for the reception of the municipal collections. The 

■ Castello di Porta Oiovia. MILAN. 19. Route. 1 23 

rectangular building, defended by four corner-turrets and a curtain 
wall , comprises a large Court and two castles or palares : the 
Rocchetta, built by Franc. Sforza on the foundations of the Viscon- 
ti castle, and the Corte Ducale. Each of these, in turn, encloses a 
smaller court. 

The old Visconti castle seems to have been built by Galeazzo II., not 
only as a bulwark against external foes but to protect the W. quarters 
of the town against Bernabo Visconti, who had begun to erect a new 
castle on the site of the present Ospedale Maggiore (p. 131). Under Filippo 
Maria its main function was to hold the citizens in check. Francesco 
Sforza (1450) persuaded the people to rebuild the stronghold that they 
had but a few years before razed to the ground amid universal jubilation. 
The forbidding character of the structure was somewhat modified by the 
elegant tower-gateway erected by Filarete in 1452-54 on the side next the 
town. This however, was destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder in 
1521. Behind the Castello lay an extensive deer-park. Galeazz ■ II. began 
to fit up both the palaces with great luxury, and summoned the principal 
contemporary painters and sculptors of Lombardy to his aid. Bona di 
Savoja erec'ed the tower named after her at the E. angle of the Rocchetta. 
Lodovico il Moro emulated the artistic zeal of his brother, and Bramante 
and Leonardo da Vinci cooperated with him in beautifying the Castello, 
though the latter's design for the rebuilding of the main facade waa 
never executed. 

An abrupt end was put to this brilliant period by the French invasion. 
In 1552-70 the castle was surrounded with six basiions and separated from 
the new town-walls (p. 110) by a broad moat. Throughout the Spanish 
and Austrian domination it formed the focus of all the struggles tor the 
possession of Lombardy. The republican movement of 1796 incited the 
Milanese to a repetition of the events of 1447, but it was not till 1800 
that Napoleon ordered the destruction of the fortifications. The ca e tle was 
converted into barracks, the pleasure-garden became a drill-ground (Piazza 
d'Armi) ; on the site of the Spanish bastions and rampart arose the spa- 
cious Foro Bonaparte, now partly built over. In 1886 it was resolved to 
rebuild the castle, which was evacuated by the troops and handed over 
to the city in 1893. 

Main Facade. The circular E. Tower (Torrione Est), which is 
faced with cut stone, has been rebuilt in its original height (100 ft.) 
and is now used as a reservoir for drinking-water (serbatojo). The 
S. Tower or Gateway of Filarete, most of which was also removed 
in 1800 and 1848, has not yet been rebuilt, and the curtain be- 
tween the towers also awaits restoration. 

Interior. To the left of the court is the unpretending Rocchetta, 
with the Torre di Bona di Savoja (165 ft. high); to the right is the 
Corte Ducale, the new palace of the Sforza, with Gothic windows 
(restored) and an imposing gallery of defence. — In the passage 
leading to the Corte Ducale, to the left, is a fresco representing the 
Crucifixion, with saints and the pious donors; farther on, to the 
right, is another and ruder fresco, representing the Madonna of Mt. 
Carmel (ca. 1470). 

In the S. angle of the courtof the Corte Ducale is the Loggetta, 
a graceful Renaissance structure, from the time of Galeazzo Maria; on 
the N.E. side is a Baroque Gateway, of the time of Philip III., sur- 
mounted by the arms of the Visconti and the Sforza. — Most of the 
rooms on the Ground Floor, which is to be devoted to the Archaeo- 

124 Route 19. MILAN. Arena. 

logical Museum (p. 121), contain decorations dating from the days of 
the Sforza. The two ant: els discovered in the Saletta Negra in 1893 
are frescoes of the school of Leonardo da Vinci. In the Chapel, long 
used as a stable, are remains of frescoes by Stefano de' Fedeli and 
Giov. di Montorfano (Angels, Saints, Annunciation; 1473). In the 
Sala de' Ducali are coats-of-arms on a blue background. The large 
Sala di Trono has a charming Gothic window, opening on the Cor- 
tile della Fontana. — The Sala degli Elefanti and other rooms on 
the First Floor are designed for the Museo Artistico, which will 
contain the pictures formerly kept in the Salone (p. 133) and the 
collections bequeathed to the city by Franc. Ponti in 1895. 

The Rocchetta has lost almost the whole of its artistic decora- 
tion. The Sala del Tesoro on the groundfloor, long used as a grain 
magazine, contains the remnants of a fresco of Mercury (head miss- 
ing), probably of the school of Leonardo da Vinci. The other rooms 
contain the Museo Numismatico (coins) and the archives of the So- 
cieth Storica Lombarda. — On the S.W. side of the court is the 
staircase to the Museo del Risorgimento Nazionale (adm., see p. 109), 
with a collection of patriotic objects from the time of the Cisalpine 
Eepublic down to the present day. 

The former Piazza d'Armi , the open space at the back of the 
Castello, originally the pleasance of the Visconti and Sforza, was 
converted in 1893-97 into the still somewhat shadeless Nuovo Parco 
(PI. B, C, 2-4), which is lighted at night by electricity. In the N. 
part of the grounds is the Montagnola, a low hill with a cafe-restau- 
rant. Hard by is the Torre Stigler, an iron belvedere, erected for 
the Exhibition of 1894 and commanding an extensive *Panorama 
of Milan, the plains of Lombardy, and the Alps (adm. 25 c. ; ascent 
advisable only in clear weather, in summer even in the evening). 

On the N. side of the park lies the Arena (Pi. C, 2), a kind of cir- 
cus for races, skating, and so forth, erected in 1805. The N. W. side 
of the park is bounded by the Porta Sempione (electric tramway, 
see p. 107), the name of which refers to the construction of the 
Simplon route (p. 3), and the Arco della Pace (PI. B, 2; adm. 
50 c), a triumphal arch of white marble, begun by L. Cagnola for 
the Foro Bonaparte in 1806 and completed under the Austrians in 
1838. Most of its sculptures are by Pompeo Marchesi. 

To the S.W. of the Castello lies the Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. 
C, 4; p. 105), passing which and following the Via Boccaccio and 
the Via Caradosso (PI. B, 5), we reach the church of Santa Maria delle 
Grazie and Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 127). 

c. West Quarters of the City. Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Santa 
Maria delle Grazie. Sant' Ambrogio. 

The archway in the S.W. corner of the Piazza de' Mercanti 
(p. 122) and the Via dei Ratti lead to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. 

Bibl. Ambrosiana. MILAN. 19. Route. 125 

No. 2 in the latter is the celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PI. D, 
E, 5), which contains 160,000 vols, of printed books, and 15,000 
MSS., some of them of great importance, and also a valuable collec- 
tion of objects of art (adm., see p. 109; entrance from the reading 
room, to the right, in the court). The director of the library is Cav. 
Sacerdote Ceriani, the Orientalist. 

In the Biblioteca. which is on the groundfloor, many of the most in- 
teresting MSS. are exhibited to the public. Among the chief treasures are 
fragments of an illuminated MS. of Homer, of the end of the 4th cent. ; 
a copy of Virgil, with marginalia by Petrarch; a palimpsest of the 5th 
cent, with the Pauline epistles and other parts of LMfila's Gothic trans- 
lation of the Bible, along with a fragment of a Gothic calendar (from 
Bobbio , p. 318) ; Dante's Divine Comedy, a MS. of the first half of the 
14th cent. ; the celebrated -Codex Atlanticus, being a collection of original 
drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; a number of miniatures; letters 
of Lucretia Borgia, S. Carlo Borromeo, Ariosto, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori, 
etc. — The side-rooms contain a few sculptures in marble: parts of the 
tomb of Gaston de Foix (p. 373) ; Cupid in marble, by E. Schadow ; bust of 
Byron and several reliefs by Thorwaldsen. Also a Roman mosaic and a 
fresco of Christ crowned with thorns by Bern. Luini. 

First Floor. The second door on the left leads to the Cabinet of 
Bronzes, containing busts of Canova and Thorwaldsen, the latter by the 
master himself, and pictures of no great value: 46. Raphael Mengs, Pope 
Clement XIII.-, 41. Venetian School (16th cent.), St. Sebastian; 30. Marco 
Basaiti, Eisen Christ ; 24. Lorenzo Lotto (?), Madonna. — A short staircase 
leads to the — 

*Pinacoteca. I. and II. Rooms : Engravings. — III. Room. Opposite the 
windows : 52. Savoldo, Transfiguration (copy ; original in the Palazzo degli 
Uffizi, p. 435); *54. Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna enthroned, with saints 
and singing angels; 72. S. Botticelli, Madonna and angels; above, 70. Baroc- 
cio, Nativity; on the end-wall, 96. Cariani, Bearing of the Cross. — To the 
right is Room IV : 312. Giov. Batt. Moroni, Portrait (1554) ; also landscapes 
by J. Brueghel and Brill. — V. Room : Paintings of the 17th century. — 
We return through the III. Room to the VI. Room. To the right and left 
of the entrance, 260, 261. Boltrafflo, Large portrait-heads of a man and a 
woman, in chalk; 262. O. Ferrari., Marriage of the Virgin; 236. 237. Titian 
(copies), Adoration of the Magi, Deposition in the Tomb; s 23 1 . Bonifazio J., 
Holy Family, with Tobias and the angel (injured by restoration); 230. Jac. 
Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds. On the window-wall are drawings 
of the School of Leonardo, and a few specimens from his own hand, 
including some of his celebrated caricatures. Opposite is **RaphaeVs 
Cartoon of the 'School of Athens', which should be carefully studied. 
The dilapidated condition of the fresco in the Vatican makes this cartoon 
of great interest and value, since here only we gain the full key to the 
artistic motives of the painter. The deviations of the fresco from the 
cartoon, with the exception of the additions of the sitting figure at the 
foot of the staircase, the temple-colonnade, and the portrait of Raphael 
himself, are unimportant. — On the exit-wall : Bramantino, 272. Madonna 
with saints, 273. Adoration of the Holy Child (an early work); 277. Giov. 
Pedrini, and 274. Marco da Oggiono, Madonnas; 279. Boltraffio, Portrait; 
281. B. Luini, Holy Family (after Da Vinci's cartoon in London); *282. 
Leonardo da Vinci (?), Portrait (unfinished); Luini, 283. Youthful Christ 
in an attitude of benediction, 284. John the Baptist; **285. Leonardo da 
Vinci (attributed by Morelli to Ambrogio de Predis), Portrait of a girl, 
formerly described, but wrongly, as Beatrice d'Este. — VII. Room : Draw- 
ings of the Lombard School , including some by Leon, da Vinci (the por- 
trait of himself is a forgery, comp. p. 28); also several by Diirer. 

At the back of the library is the venerable church of San Sepolcro 
(PI. D, 5), dating from the 11th century, with a few pictures by 

126 Route 19. MILAN. Pal. Borromeo. 

Giov. Pedrini in the sacristy. The Via del Bollo leads hence to the 
W. to the Piazza S. Borromeo, in which are situated the small 
church of S. Maria Podone, a statue of S. Carlo Borromeo, and also 
the Palazzo Borromeo (No. 7). On the first story of the palace is a 
fPiCTURE Gallery (Pinacoteca) containing some important paint- 
ings and a few sculptures, chiefly of the Lombard School (adm., 
see p. 109 ; lists of the pictures provided). 

I. Boom. Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian, an alto- 
relief by Marco da S. Michele (1525). 62. Givlio Cesare Procaccmi, Madonna 
and a saint; copies of ancient paintings (56 Cavalry engagement, by Er- 
cole de Roberti), etc. — II. Room. Lombard School, Madonna with the donor 
(King Francis I.?), alto-relief of the 16th cent. ; Desiderio da Settigvano (?), 
Bust of a girl ; 155. B. Luini (?), Head of the Virgin (fragment of a fresco) ; 
156. Venetian School (15th cent.), Portrait; 209, 214. Zuccarelli, Pastel por- 
traits of girls. This room also contains some beautiful miniatures upon 
copper. — III. Room. Paintings of ihe German and Netherlandish schools, 
drawings, autographs, etc. — IV. Room, containing the chief works of the 
collection. 4. Marco da Oggiono (?), Michael the Archangel ; Giov. Pedrini, 
6. St. Catharine, 9. Feitility; Gaud Ferrari, 10. St. Seha^tian, 12. Madonna 
with SS. Joseph and Anthony Abbas-, 13. School of Mantegna, Bearing of 
the Cross; Gaud Ferrari, 14. St. Rochus, 16. Two Amoretti; *68. Bern. 
Luini, Susanna (half length) ; 69. Fil. Mazzola, Portrait; 34. Luini Holy 
Family; 35. Borgognone (?), Portrait of Andrea de' Novelli, Bishop of. 
Alba; 36. Pinturicdno, Bearing of the Cross (1513); 37. Cesare da Sesto, 
Adoration of the Kings (early work); 43. Lorenzo Lotto, Crucifixion; 40. 
Bart, leneto, St. Catharine; *41, *45. Borgognone, iiadonnas; Luini, 44. 
Mad.mna and saints, 47. Daughter of Herodias wilh the head of John the 
Baptist; Borgognone, 48. Christ blessing, 49. Madonna, 50, 52. Annuncia- 
tion ; 51. Lombard School (not Leon, da Yin i), Madonna ; *72. Boltraffio, 
Madonna; Bernardino de'' Conti, 56. Portrait of Camillo Trivulzio (d. 1525), 
58. Madonna. 

The Via S. Borromeo and the Via S. Maria alia Porta lead to 

the N.W. to the Corso Magenta (electric tramway to the Porta 

Magenta, see p. 107), in which, to the right, is the Palazzo Litta 

(PI. C, 5), with an imposing rococo facade and a handsome court, 

now occupied by the Amministrazione delle Ferrovie dell' Alta Italia. 

Opposite, on the left, rises the small cburch of S. Maurizio, or 

Chiesa del Monastero Maggiore (PL C, 5) , erected in 1503-19 by 

Giov. Dolcebuono, a pupil of Bramante. 

The Interior contains numerous frescoes. Second-last ? Chapel on the 
right: Scourging of Christ and scenes from the martyrdom of S. Cathar- 
ine, painted by Luini about 1525. The high-altar-piece, with the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, is by Antonio Campi. The *Frescoes at the sides are by 
Luini: above, in the centre, the Assumption of the Virgin; below, to the 
left, SS. Cecilia and Ursula at the sides of the tabernacle, with a beauti- 
ful figure of an angel. In the lunette above is a kneeling figure of the 
donor, Alessandro Bentivoglio (d. 1532 ; expelled from Bologna and buried 
here), with SS. Benedict, John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist. 
Above, martyrdom of St. Maurice. Below, to the right, SS. Apollonia and 
Lucia at the sides of the tabernacle, with a pieta; in the lunette, Ippolita 
Sforza, wife of Bentivoglio, with SS. Scholastica, Agnes, and Catharine. 
Above, King Sigismund presents a model of the church to St. Maurice. 
The frescoes in the chapels at the sides of the entrance-door are by 
Aurelio Luini and his pupils. — Behind the high -altar lies the Nuns' 
Choir, of the same size as the church itself. At the high-altar is a 
series of 9 Frescoes of the Passion; below, the lifesize figures of SS. 
Apollonia, Lucia, Catharine, Agatha, Sebastian, and Rochus, all by Luini. 

S. Maria delle Grazie. MILAN. 19. Route. 127 

Inside between the arches are 20 medallions of saints, by Borgognone. In 
the arches of the gallery above are 26 medallions of holy women, by 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, on the right, is situated the 
church of *Santa Maria delle Grazie (PI. B, 5), an abbey-church of 
the 15th cent., the Gothic nave of which alone belongs to the original 
structure. The choir, transept, and dome are attributed to Bramante. 

Right Aisle. In the 2nd chapel, John the Baptist, an altar-piece by 
Bugiardini. 4th chapel, frescoes by Gavdenzio Ferrari, the Crucifixion, 
Christ crowned with thorns, Christ scourged (1542), angels with the in- 
struments of the Passion (on the vaulting) ; an altar-piece (Descent from 
the Cross) by Caravaggio. In the 6th chapel, frescoes by Fiammingo. — To 
the right of the choir, on the organ above, a Madonna enthroned with 
saints and a donor, fresco by Lvini. In the Choir are good stalls of the Re- 
naissance. — To the left of the choir are the Cloisters, beyond which is 
the Sacristy, with charming w od paintings on 1he cabinets. — In the Left 
Aisle is the fine Cappella del Rosario . with the mural tablet of Branda 
Castiglione (d. 1495 ^ to the right), by Bambaja (Giov Ant. Amadeof), and 
the family-tomb of the Delia Torre, by Amadeo (1483; restored). 

A large door marked 'Cenacolo Vinciano', to the W. of this 
church, is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery 
of Sta. Maria delle Orazie (now a cavalry-barrack), containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci (adm., see p. 109). 
The picture is unfortunately in bad preservation, chiefly from hav- 
ing been painted on the wall in oils (before 1499). In the same 
room are exhibited contemporaneous copies by Andrea Solmo, Ce- 
sare Magnis, Marco da Oggiono, and Ant. de Glaxiate, an inspection 
of which much facilitates the study of the original. There are 
also numerous photographs, including reproductions of the drawings 
at Weimar, falsely ascribed to Da Vinci. The large fresco by Giov. 
Donato Montorfano (Crucifixion) of 1495, opposite the Last Supper, 
is in much better condition. The kneeling figures of Duke Lodovico 
il Moro (p. 105) and his wife Bianca Maria with their children are 
by Leonardo da Vinci, the trace of whose hand is still distinctly 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Supper, the chief work 
executed by Leonardo during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 
hibits to its full extent the emotions which the master intended to ex- 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Goethe: "The artist represents the 
peaceful little band round the sacred table as thunder-struck by the Master's 
words, One of you shall betray me. They have been pronounced; the whole 
company is in dismay, while he himself bows his head with downcast 
eyes. His whole attitude, the motion of his arms and hands, all seem to 
repeat with heavenly resignation, and his silence to confirm, the mournful 
words — 'It cannot be otherwise. One of you shall betray me! 1 Comp. 
also p. liv. 

The Via Caradosso and the Via Boccaccio lead hence to the 
Castello (p. 122). — From Santa Maria delle Grazie the Via delle 

Oche and the Via S. Vittore lead to the S.E. to the church of San 
Vittore (Pi. B, 6), a baroque building by Galeazzo Alessi (1560), 
interesting for its elaborate internal decoration. A little farther on 

is the large Piazza Sant' Ambeogio (PI. C, 5 6 j passed by the 

128 Route 19. MILAN. S. Ambrogio. 

omnibus from the Piazza del Duomo to S. Yittore), with the 
church of — 

*Sant' Ambrogio (PL C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent, on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus, and dating in its present 
Romanesque basilica form , with its peculiar galleries and an oc- 
tagonal cupola over the high-altar, from the 12th century. The fine 
atrium in front of the church , containing ancient tombstones, in- 
scriptions, and half-obliterated frescoes, seems, like the facade, to 
have preserved the architectural forms of the original building and 
may, perhaps, have been built under Archbishop Anspert (868-881). 
St. Ambrosius baptized St. Augustine here in 387, and in 389 he 
closed the doors of this church against the Emp. Theodosius after 
the cruel massacre of Thessalonica(389). There is a portrait of the 
saint on the left side of the principal entrance. The Lombard kings 
and German emperors formerly caused themselves to be crowned 
here with the iron crown, which since the time of Frederick Barba- 
rossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 137). The ancient pillar at 
which they took the coronation-oath before being crowned is still 
preserved under the lime-trees in the piazza. 

Interior. To the right of the entrance, a marble statue of Pius IX. 
(1880). In the 1st chapel of the left aisle, an *Ecce Homo, fresco by B. Luini. 
— On the right and left of the side-entrance in the right aisle: frescoes 
by Oaudenzio Ferrari, representing the Bearing of the Cross, the three 
Maries , and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the right (Cap- 
pella delle Dame) : a fine kneeling Statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetti (1812). 
5th Chapel on the right : 'Legend of St. George, frescoes by Bernardino La- 
nini. The second door to the left in the large 6th chapel leads to the 
Cappella S. Satiro with mosaics of the 5th cent, (restored). In the dark 
chapel to the right of the choir is an altar-piece by B. Luini, Madonna and 
saints. — The **High Altar still retains its original decoration intact, con- 
sisting of reliefs on silver and gold ground (in front), enriched with enamel 
and gems, executed in the first half of the 9th cent, by Volfoinus, a Ger- 
man (covered, shown only on payment of 5 fr.). The *Canopy over the 
high-altar, which is adorned with reliefs of the 9th cent., recently gilded, 
is borne by four columns of porphyry. The choir contains an ancient 
episcopal throne. In the Tribuna 'Mosaics of the 9th cent., earlier than 
those of St. Mark's at Venice: Christ in the centre, at the sides the history 
of St. Ambrose. — To the left of the choir, in the aisle, is an inscription 
from the tomb of Emp. Louis II. (destroyed; formerly in the vestibule); 
farther on is the tombstone of Pepin, son of Charlemagne, above which 
is an altar-piece of the Lombard School (Madonna and two saints). Oppo- 
site, at the N. entrance to the Crypt, is a fresco by Borgognone (Christ 
among the Scribes). The modernised crypt contains the tombs of SS. Ambrose, 
Protasius, and Gervasius. — By the pulpit are a bronze eagle, a figure of 
St. Ambrose (10th cent. ?) , and an early Christian sarcophagus of the 6th 
century. — Adjacent to the left aisle is an unfinished cloister, designed by 
Bramante (1492), and afterwards rebuilt. 

The Via Lanzone (PL C, 6 ; with the Palazzo Visconti on the 
left) leads hence to the S.E. to the Via Torino and San Lorenzo 
(p. 129). 

8. Lorenzo. MILAN. 19. Route. 129 

d. Along the Via Torino to the Southern Quarters of the City 
(S. Lorenzo, S. Eustorgio, Ospedale Maggiore). 

The busy Via Torino (PI. E, D, 5, 6; electric lines to Porta 
Genova and Porta Ticinese, see p. 107) begins at the S.W. corner of 
the Piazza del Duomo. To the left is the small church of S. Satiro 
(PL E, 5, 6), founded in the 9th cent., and re-erected by Bramante 
and his pupil Bramantino in the 15th century. The apparent choir 
is only painted in perspective. The octagonal *Sacristy (off the right 
transept) is also by Bramante, and has a beautiful frieze by Cara- 
dosso, putti, and heads in medallions. At the end of the left tran- 
sept is a curious little building with a cupola, belonging, like the 
belfry, to the original structure; it contains a Pieta, in painted ter- 
racotta, by Caradosso (covered). 

The church of S. Giorgio al Palazzo (PL D, 6), farther on, to 
the right, contains in the 1st chapel on the right a St. Jerome by 
Gaud. Ferrari; in the 3rd chapel on the right, *Frescoes by Luini: 
above the altar, Entombment and Crowning with thorns ; at the 
sides, Scourging and Ecce Homo ; in the dome, Crucifixion. — 
Farther to the N.W., in the Piazza Mentana (PL D, 6), is a Mon- 
ument by Luigi Belli, erected in 1880 in memory of the Italians who 
fell at Mentana. 

To the S. the Via Torino is continued by the Conso di Po&ta Ti- 
cinese (PI. D, 7, 8), in which, on the left, is a large ancient *Colon- 
nade (PL D, 7) of sixteen Corinthian columns, the most important 
relic of the Roman Mediolanum. Adjacent is the entrance to — 

*S. Lorenzo (PI. D, 7), the most ancient church in Milan. Whether 
the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of the thermae, 
or of a palace of Maximian(4th cent.), to which the above-mentioned 
colonnade belonged, or a very ancient Christian place of worship, 
like S. Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was subsequently altered 
at least three times , the last time by Martino Bassi in the 16th 
century. It is octagonal in form, and covered with a dome. On 
the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in two stories, 
each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round. At the 
back of the high-altar is the Cappella S. Ippolito, containing the tomb 
of Giov. Maria Visconti. — To the right of the church is the Chaptl 
of St. Aquilinus, containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent. (Christ 
and the Apostles and Annunciation to the Shepherds, the latter 
freely restored), and an ancient Christian sarcophagus supposed to 
be that of the founder, the Gothic king Athaulph (411-16). The 
entrance to the chapel is adorned with an antique marble coping. 

Farther to the S., beyond the Naviglio, rises the ancient church 
of Sant' Eustorgio (PL D, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected 
in the Gothic style in 1278, renewed in the bad taste of the 17th 
cent, by Ricchini, and recently again restored. The modern facade 
is by Giov. Brocca (1862). 

Baedekek. Italy I. 11th Edit. 9 

130 Route 19. MILAN. 8. Maria p. S. Celso. 

1st Chapel to the right, Mural monument of Giac. Stefano Brivio 
(d. 1484), by Tommaso da Cazzaniga and Bened. Briosco; 4th Chapel to the 
right, Gothic monument of Stefano Visconti (ca. 1337); 6th Chapel, Mon- 
uments of Gaspare Visconti and his wife Agnes (d. 1417). Farther on, on 
the same side, the Cappella de' Magi, containing a relief of 1347 and a late- 
Romanesque sarcophagus, in which the 'bones of the Magi' were preserved 
until they were presented to the city of Cologne by Frederick Barbarossa 
after the conquest of Milan in 1162. By the high-altar are reliefs of the 
Passion, dating from the 14th century. At the back of the choir is the 
'■'Cappella Portinari, with a fine cupola and a charming frieze of angels, 
built in 1462-66 by Michelozzo of Florence (p. 420). It contains the magni- 
ficent Gothic tomb of St. Peter Martyr by 0. Balduccio of Pisa (1339) ; the 
walls are adorned with frescoes of the four Fathers of the Church, scenes 
from the life of St. Peter Martyr, the Annunciation, and the Assumption, 
probably by Vine. Foppa. — In the sacristy is a Penitent St. Jerome, by 
Borgognone. — The adjacent convent is now a barrack. 

We follow the street to the Porta Ticinese (PI. D, 8), originally 
intended to commemorate the Battle of Marengo, but inscribed in 
1815 'Paci Populorum Sospitae*. We then turn to the E. and skirt 
the city-walls to the Porta Lodovica (PI. E, 8), whence we follow 
the Corso San Celso (PI. E, 8, 7), to the left, to the church of 
Santa Maria presso San Celso (PI. E, 8), built in the Renaissance 
style by Giov. Dolcebuono after 1490. It possesses a handsome 
atrium, groundlessly attributed to Bramante, and a rich facade by 
Galeazzo Alessi. On the right and left of the portal are Adam and 
Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

The Interior is in the form of a basilica with barrel-vaulting over 
the nave, a dodecagonal cupola, and an ambulatory. By the 2nd altar to 
the right, Holy Family and St. Jerome, by Paris Bordone; Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari, Baptism of Christ (behind the high-altar) ; at the beginning of the 
left aisle, Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, surrounded by John the 
Baptist, St. Rochus, and the donors of the picture ; above it, Sassoferrato, 
Madonna. The 2nd chapel on the left contains a sarcophagus with the 
relics of St. Celsus. The cupola is decorated with frescoes by Appiani 
(1795). — In the sacristy are some fine specimens of goldsmith's work. 

Adjacent is the Romanesque church of S. Celso, partly removed 
in 1826 and now possessing few remains of the original structure. 

At the N. end of the Corso S. Celso is the Piazza SanV Eufernia, 
in which, to the right, stands the church of that name (PI. E, 7), 
dating from the 5th cent., but entirely modernised. In the third 
chapel on the left is a Madonna with saints and angels, by Marco 
da Oggiono. — A little to the S. is the church of San Paolo, a richly 
ornamented and characteristic building of the middle of the 16th 
century. The architectural decorations of the facade already il- 
lustrate the principles of the later baroque style, and this is seen 
even more strongly in the interior, which, is adorned with frescoes 
by the brothers Giulio, Antonio, and Vincenzo Campi of Cremona. 

The Via Amedei leads hence towards the N. to Sant' Alessandro 
(PI. E, 6), erected in 1602, a reduced and in the interior success- 
ful copy of St. Peter's at Rome, with two W. towers. It is the 
most sumptuously decorated church in Milan, but destitute of works 
of art. High-altar adorned with precious stones. — > Adjacent is 
the Palazzo Trivulzio, containing a fine art- collection, in which 

Ospedale Maggiore. MILAN. 19. Route. 131 

the most noteworthy objects are a portrait by Antonello da Mes- 
sina, a Madonna by Mantegna (1497), a relief-portrait by Cristo- 
fano Solari, and tbe tomb of Azzo Viscoriti (d. 1329) from S. Got- 
tardo. The extensive library contains a Dante codex of 1337 and 
a MS. of Leonardo da Vinci. 

The Via Carlo Alberto (PI. E, 5, 6), mentioned at p. 122, passes 
a few paces to the E. of S. Alessandro. From it we turn to the S.E. 
into the Conso di Pokta Romana (electric car, see p. 107) and fol- 
low it to the church of San Nazaro (PI. F, 6, 7), with a large fresco 
by Bernardino Lanini (1546), *Martyrdom of St. Catharine, painted 
in imitation of the similar picture in the Brera by Lanini's master 
Gaud. Ferrari (No. 107) ; a handsome carved altar ; and ancient 
Swiss stained-glass windows to the right of the main entrance. A 
side-passage leads to the octagonal sepulchral chapel of the Trivulzi, 
built by Girolamo della Porta (1519). — To the N.E., in the Via 
dell' Ospedale, is the — 

*Ospedale Maggiore (PI. F, 6), a vast and remarkably fine brick 
structure, half Gothic and half Renaissance in style, begun in 1456 
by Antonio Filarete of Florence, continued in the Gothic style by 
Ouiniforte Solari and other Lombard architects , and not com- 
pleted by Bicchini till after 1624. It is one of the largest hos- 
pitals in existence , and contains no fewer than nine courts. The 
extensive principal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Bicchini 
(17th cent.) ; the court to the right of it is ascribed to Bramante. 
The edifice is entirely covered externally with terracotta, in a style 
frequently observed in other Milanese buildings, but its facade, 
with its rich window-mouldings , is superior to any other structure 
of the kind at Milan. In the chapel are two paintings by Francesco 
de Vico, containing portraits of Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, 

the founders of the hospital. 

From the back of the hospital the Via S. Barnaba leads to the Rotonda 
(PL H, 6; open on Thurs. & Sun., 10-4-, adm. 50 c), built by Arrigone 
and dedicated by the Viceroy Eugene Beauharnais in 1809 as a Pantheon 
Nazionale. It now contains a large collection of portraits of benefactors of 
the Ospedale Maggiore, from the 16th cent, to the present day. — In the 
Via Guastalla, the first cross-street of the Via S. Barnaba, is the Synagogue 
(PI. G, 6), by Luca Beltrami (1892). 

A little to the N. of the Ospedale Maggiore is the Piazza Santo 
Stefano, with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. F, 6). 
The Via dell' Ospedale leads S.W. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 
— Hard by is the Piazza del Verziere, used as a vegetable-market. 
We may now return to the W. by the Via Tenaglie and the Piazza 
Fontana (PI. F, 5) to the Piazza del Duomo, or we may follow the 
Via Cesare Beccaria to the N. to the Palazzo di Giustizia (PI. F, 5), 
a baroque structure by Seregni; on the portal is a tablet commemor- 
ating the Italian patriots committed by the Austrians to the fortress 
of Spielberg in 1821. Adjacent is the Piazza Beccaria with a statue 
of Beccaria (d. 1794 ; comp. p. 116) by Grandi, erected in 1871. — 
The Via Ces. Beccaria ends on the N. at the Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 


132 Route 19. MILAN. 8. Maria d. Passione. 

e. East Quarters of the City. Corso Vittorio Emanuele and its 
Side Streets. Giardini Pubblici. 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the broad and bustling 
*Corso Vittoeio Emanuele (PI. F, G, 4, 5; electric tramway, see 
p. 107), which, with its prolongation, the Corso Yenezia (PL G, 
H, 4, 3), leads to the Giardini Pubblici. This is the principal business 
street in Milan, containing the best shops. At No. 22 is an antique 
statue, known as Tuomo di pietra'. Farther on is the church of San 
Carlo Borromeo (PL F, 4), a rotunda in the style of the Pantheon 
at Rome, consecrated in 1847. The adjacent Oalleria de Crist6foris, 
now occupied with shops, was erected by Pizzala in 1830-32. 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Conso Venezia (PI. 
G, H, 2-4) and the Via Monforte, is the small Romanesque church 
of Santa Bdbila (PL G, 4), supposed to occupy the site of an ancient 
temple of the sun. Adjacent is an old Column with a lion, the 
cognizance of this quarter of the town. 

In Yia Monforte, to the left, is situated the Palazzo di Prefet- 
tura (PI. G, H, 4), with a modern facade. — To the S. of this point, 
in the Via del Conservatorio, is the church of SantaMaria della 
Passione (PI. H, 5), with a spacious dome by Crist. Solari (1530), 
and a facade of the 17th century. 

It contains a Last Supper by Gaud. Ferrari (left transept), a *Pieta 
by Luini (bebind tbe high-altar; witb a predella, representing scenes 
from tbe life of Constantine and Helena, the earliest known work of 
this master, in the style of Bramantino), and tbe tomb of Abp. Birago 
by Andrea Fusina (1495 ; right transept). Tbe 14 pilasters are adorned with 
figures of saints by Daniele Crespi. The ceiling of the sacristy was painted 
by Arribrogio Borgognone. 

The Conservatory of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 

In the vicinity is the Gothic church of S. Pietro in Gessate (PI. G, 5), 
reconstructed in the 15th cent., and containing frescoes by Bern. Buttinone 
and Bern. Zenale, and the monument of Senator Grifo (d. 1493). — To the 
E., near the Porta Vittoria (PL H, 5; electric tramway, see p. 107), is a 
Monument commemorating the Cinque Giornate (p. 110), designed by Gins. 
Grandi (d. 1894) and unveiled in 1895. 

We now return to the Corso Venezia. On the left, on this 
side of the canal, is the Arehiepiscopal Seminary (PI. F, G, 4), with 
a fine court by Qius. Meda (16th cent.). In the Via del Senato, which 
diverges to the left by the Naviglio, is (No. 10, to the right) the Pa- 
lazzo del Senato (PI. G, 3), containing the provincial archives, with 
a colossal equestrian statue of Napoleon III. (bronze), by Barzaghi, 
in the court. Adjacent, at the beginning of the avenue (Boschetti) 
leading to the Giardini Pubblici, is a marble statue of General Qiac. 
Medici, the Garibaldian. 

Farther on in the Corso Venezia, to the left, Nos. 59-61, the 
Pal. Ciam (PI. G, 3), completed in 1861, with rich ornamentation 
in terracotta. On the right is the Pal. Saporiti (PL G, 3), another 
modern building, with Ionic columns, and reliefs by March esi. — 
A little farther on, to the left, stands the — 

Cemeteries. MILAN. 19. Route. 133 

Museo Civico (PI. G, 3), a tasteful Renaissance building, erected 
in 1892-94 and containing the natural history collections of the 
city. Adm., see p. 109. Director, Prof. Tito Vignoli. 

Ground Floor. Room I. Collection of stones; by the exit-wall, miner- 
als from Elba. — Room II. Fossils of Lombardy, including a cave-bear 
(Ursus spelaeus). — Room III. Fossils from the Pampas of S. America 
(Megatherium, Glyptodon, etc.), from New Zealand (Dinornis Maximus or 
Moa, an extinct bird of gigantic size) and elsewhere. — Rooms IV-VI. 
Mammalia (skeletons, stuffed beasts, etc.). 

First Floor. Rooms I-V. Ornithological collection (Raccolta Turati; 
about 25,000 specimens). — Room VI. Collection of reptiles, founded by 
Jan (d. 1866). 

The*GiardiniPubbIici(Pl.F,G,2, 3), between the Porta Yenezia 
and the Yia Manin, are probably the most beautiful public park in 
Italy, with their tasteful flower-beds, their ponds, and their pictur- 
esque groups of venerable trees. In the older part of the park 
(1785), near the new Museo Civico and the Salone (formerly the 
Museo Artistico; comp. p. 124), is a bronze statue of Gen. Oius. 
Sirtori. On a small island in the middle is a statue of the Milanese 
poet Carlo Porta, by Puttinati. On the "W. side, in front of the 
former Museo Civico, is a bronze statue of Ant. Bosmini (p. 169), 
by Franc. Confalonieri (1895). — The high-lying N. portion of the 
gardens, known as the Montemerlo, has a Cafe-Restaurant and a 
bronze-statue of the patriot Luciano Manara (d. 1859), by Bar- 
zaghi (1894). It is skirted by the chestnut avenue of the Bastione 
di Porta Venezia, a favourite promenade of the Milanese, which ex- 
tends to the Porta Nuova (corso late in the afternoon). It is lighted 
by electricity. 

On the S. side of the park, Tin the Via Palestro, is the Villa Reale 
(PI. G, 3), erected by L. Pollack for Gen. Belgiojoso in 1790 and con- 
taining a few works of art. — In the Via Manin stands the Palazzo 
Melzi, containing paintings by Cesare da Sesto, etc. — Piazza Ca- 
voitr, see p. 116. 

f. The Cemeteries. 

To the N.W. of the city, outside the Porta Volta (PI. C, D, 1) 
and at the terminus of the electric tramway mentioned at p. 107, 
lies the *Cimitero Monumentale (closed 12-2), designed by C. 
Maciachini, 50 acres in area, enclosed by colonnades, and one of the 
finest 'campi santi' in Italy. (The guide, who speaks French, de- 
mands a fee of l l /. 2 fr. for each person.) Fine view of the Alps. The 
numerous and handsome monuments, among which those of the Son- 
zogno, Turati, Bramhilla, Verazzi, Nasoni, Pagnoni, and Cicogna 
families deserve special mention, form a veritable museum of modern 
Milanese sculpture. In the last section is situated the 'Tempio di 
Cremazione\ for the burning of dead bodies, presented to the town 
in 1876 by a Swiss resident and greatly enlarged in 1896 (inspection 
permitted). The process of cremation occupies less than 1 hr. and 
the cost is 40 fr. Paupers are cremated without charge. 

134 Route 19. CERTOSA DI PAVIA. 

The Cimitero di Musocco, on the road to Saronno, 2 M. to the 
N.W. of the Porta del Sempione (p. 124), was laid out by Brotti 
in 1895 and is twice the size of the Cimitero Monumentale. It is 
reached either by the Corso del Sempione (PI. B, A, 1), 115 ft. wide, 
or by the Corso al Cimitero di Musocco, beginning at the Piazza 
S. Michele, to the W. of the Cimitero Monumentale. 

Excursion from Milan to the Certosa di Pavia. 

To visit the Certosa di Pavia we may use either the Railway to Cer- 
tosa, on the Pavia-Voghera line, or the Pavia Steam Tramway as far as 
Torre di Mangano. The railway starts from the Central Station and takes 
i/2- 3 A lir. (fares 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 45 c. ; return-fares 4 fr. 75, 2 fr. 50, 

1 fr. 60 c). The tramway starts about every 2 hrs. from the Porto Tici- 
nese (PI. D, 8; electric tramway from the Piazza del Duomo, see p. 107) and 
takes I72 hr. (return-fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c, or, incl. omn. to the Certosa, 

2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 80 c. ; comp. below). The whole excursion takes V2 day. 

The district traversed between Milan and Pavia consists of alter- 
nate stretches of rice-fields and underwood and offers little of in- 
terest. At (4y 2 M.) Rogoredo the Railway diverges to the S. from 
the line to Piacenza (p. 315). — 5y 2 M. Chiaravalle Milanese, with 
its Cistercian *Church, a fine brick edifice with a lofty domed tower 
in the so-called Romanesque Transition style, dedicated in 1221 
but partly modernised. The interior is adorned with frescoes by 
Milanese painters of the 16th cent, and contains choir-stalls of 
1465. — 9y 2 M. Locate; 12y 2 M. Villamaggiore. 

17*/ 2 M. Stazione della Certosa (Fratelli Rizzardi's Restaurant), 
whence two routes lead along the enclosing wall (right and left) 
to the entrance (W. side) of the Certosa (walk of y 4 hr. ; also omn. 
from the station, 50 c). 

The Steam Tramway follows the highroad and passes Binasco, 
a small town with an ancient castle, in which, on Sept. 13th, 1418, 
the jealous Duke Filippo Maria Visconti caused his noble and in- 
nocent wife Beatrice di Tenda (p. 43) to be put to death. The 
station of Torre di Mangano (Alb.-Ristorante Italia, clean, de"j. 2^2, 
D. 4fr., wine included; Alb. Certosa), on the Naviglio di Pavia, 
lies about l/ 2 M. to the W. of the Certosa (omn. 30 c). 

Adjoining the Certosa is a Restaurant (de"j. 3 fr.). 

The *Certosa di Pavia , or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 
memorial of the Milan dynasties, begun in 1396 by Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti (p. 105) in the Gothic style, from' the plans of Marco di 
Campione, and suppressed under Emperor Joseph II. in 1782, was 
restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented to the 
Carthusians. Since the suppression of the Italian monasteries it has 
been maintained as a 'National Monument'. — A vestibule, em- 
bellished with sadly-damaged frescoes by Bern. Luini(SS. Sebastian 
and Christopher), leads to a large inner court, at the farther end 
of which rises the celebrated facade of the church. 

The **Fa9Ade, begun in 1491 by Giov. Ant. Amadeo and finish- 

OERTOSA DI PAVIA. 19. Route, 135 

ed (upper part) by Dolcebuono and Cristofano Solari, is perhaps 
the most masterly creation of its kind of the 15th century. Its 
design , independent of the antique orders of architecture , is in 
the Lombard-Romanesque style of graduated church-fronts, with 
projecting pillars and transverse arcades, while within these well 
defined structural features it embraces a wonderful and judiciously 
distributed wealth of ornament (Burckhardt). Thirty of the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, had 
a share in its embellishment, the most eminent of whom are : the 
brothers Cristofano and Antonio Montegazza, Giov. Ant. Amadeo, 
and Andr. Fusina (15th cent.) ; Giacomo della Porta, Agostino Busti, 
surnamed II Bambaja, and Cristofano Solari, surnamed II Gobbo 
(16th cent.). The plinth is adorned with medallions of Roman em- 
perors, above which are reliefs representing Biblical history and 
scenes from the life of Gian Galeazzo. Below the four magnificent 
windows is a row of angels' heads, and above them are niches with 
numerous statues. This is unquestionably the finest decorative 
work of the kind in N. Italy, although inferior to the facades of the 
cathedrals of Orvieto and Siena, especially as the upper partis 
wanting. The reliefs are on the whole superior to the statues. 

An inspection of the *Interior, which is open from 8 to 5.30 
in summer and from 9 to 4 in winter (closed on Sun. at 3), takes 
l^-^hrs. (adm. 1 fr., Sun. free; guide imperative, gratuities for- 
bidden). — The beautiful and spacious building consists of a nave, 
supported by eight handsome pillars, with aisles and 14 chapels, 
large transepts with apsidal endings, and a long choir. The dome 
above the crossing was added in the Renaissance period. The 
whole is sumptuously and tastefully fitted up ; the handsome coloured 
enrichments were probably designed by Borgognone. The fine mosaic 
pavement is modern. The transept and choir are separated from 
the rest of the church by a beautiful screen of iron and bronze. 
The chapels and altars are richly adorned with valuable columns 
and precious stones. 

We begin in the Left Aisle. The 2nd Chapel once contained a picture 
by Perugino in six sections, of which the central part, above, representing 
*God the Father, alone remains, the other parts being now in France and 
England. Adjacent are the four great Church Fathers, by Borgognone. In 
the 6th Chapel : Borgognone, St. Ambrose with other saints. Left Tran- 
sept : "Figures of Lodovico Moro and his wife Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), 
from the demolished monument of the latter, one of the chief works of 
Crist. Solari, brought in 1564 from S. Maria delle Grazie in Milan (p. 127) 
and restored in 1891 ; handsome bronze candelabrum (16th cent.). —The Old 
Saceistt, to the left of the choir, has a fine marble portal with seven relief 
portraits of the Visconti and Sforza families ; in the interior is a fine carved 
ivory altar-piece, in upwards of 60 sections, by Leon, degli Ubriachi of Florence 
(16th cent.). — The Choir contains a fine marble altar with carving of the 
16th cent. ; beneath, in front, is a charming small relief medallion of the 
Descent from the Cross, by Grist. Solari. The "Choir Stalls are adorned 
with inlaid figures of apostles and saints, from drawings by Borgognone. 
The handsome bronze candelabra on the marble altar-rail are by Libero 
Fontana. — The door to the right of the choir, handsomely framed in 
marble and with four relief-portraits of princesses of the Sforza family, 

136 Route 20. SARONNO. 

leads to the Lavacko, which contains a rich fountain and the Madonna 
and Child in fresco hy Bern. Luini. To the right of the Lavacro is a small 
burial-place. — Right Transept: magnificent "Monument of Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti, begun about 1490 by Giov. Gristoforo Romano from the design of 
Galeazzo Pellegrini, but executed chiefly by Antonio Amadeo and Giacomo 
della Porta (before 1562). — The adjoining Sagrestia Nbova, or Oratorio, 
has a large altar-piece, an *Assumption by A. Solario (restored), a late work 
showing the influence of Leonardo (the apostles on the wings are specially 
line). Over the door, Madonna enthroned, with two saints and angels, by 
Bart. Montagna; the side-pictures are by Borgognone. 

The front part of the *Cloisters (Cbiostro della Fontana) possesses 
slender marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine 
view from the front of the Refectory (W. side) of the side of the church 
and the right transept. — Around the Great Cloisters, farther back, are 
situated 24 small houses formerly occupied by the monks, each consisting 
of three rooms with a small garden. — We now re-enter the church. Right 
Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel: Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with two saints 
(injured). 3rd Chapel: Borgognone, St. Smis and four other saints. 4th- 
Chapel: "Borgognone, Crucifixion. 6th Chapel: good altar-piece in six 
sections by Macrino d^Alba (1496). 

The round generally ends with a viait to the Distillery, in which 
the old liqueur (Chartreuse) is still prepared. — The Dome cannot be 
ascended without a special 'permesso 1 , obtained at the prefecture in Pavia. 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 
prisoner hy L annoy, a general of Charles V., took place near the 
Certosa on 24th Feb., 1525. 

Pavia, which lies 5 M. to the S. of the Certosa, and the railway 
thence to Voghera and Genoa, are described in R. 30. 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco. 

a. From Milan to Como via. Sakonno. 

2872 M. Railway (Ferrovie Nord) in l 1 /^ 1 /* hrs. (fares 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 
20, 1 fr. 65 c. ; return-fares, 5fr., 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25 c). — At both the 
station and the town office (p. 106) through and return tickets may be 
procured for Cernobbio, Cadenabbia, Bellagio, Menaggio, Bellano, and Colico. 

As far as (3 M.) Bovisa, see p. 142. Farther on we enjoy a good 
view of the Mte. Rosa group, to the left. — 5 M. Novate; 6 M. Bol- 
late; 9y 2 M. Garbagnate; 11 M. Caronno. 

13y 2 M. Saronno (702 ft.; Albergo Madonna; Leon d'Oro), a 
large village on the Lura, with 5100 inhab., known in Italy for its 
excellent gingerbread (amaretti). — A quadruple avenue of plane 
trees leads W. from the station to the Santuario della Beata 
Vbrgine, a celebrated pilgrimage-church, built at different times 
between the end of the 15th and the end of the 17th cent., chiefly in 
a pompous baroque style. It contains a series of admirable *Frescoes. 

The paintings in the interior of the dome represent a concert of 
angels, and are by Gaudenzio Ferrari. Round the drum are several wooden 
statues by Andrea Fusina. The frescoes immediately below the drum are 
by Lanini, those in the next section by Cesare da Sesto and Bernard. 
Luini (SS. Rochus and Sebastian). The remaining frescoes are all by 
Luini, who, as the story goes, sought an asylum in the sanctuary of Sa- 
ronno after killing a man in self-defence, and had to work at the bidding 
of the monks. In the passage leading to the choir are depicted the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin and Christ among the doctors; in the choir itself, 

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MONZA. 20. Route. 137 

the "Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple. Above, 
in the panels and lunettes, are Sibyls, Evangelists, and Church Fathers. 
A small apse built out from the choir contains paintings of *St. Apollonia 
to the right, and *St. Catharine to the left, each with an angel. 

Saronno is a station on the line from Novara to Seregno (p. 61). 

— From Saronno to Varese and Laveno, see p. 157. 

I51/2 M. Bovello; 191/4 M. Lomazzo ; 21i/ 4 M. Cadorago ; 23 M. 
Fino-Mornasco ; 23 3 / 4 M. Portichetto; 25i/ 2 M. Grandate (p. 140); 
27 V2 M. Camerlata (p. 138), at the foot of a mountain- cone 
(1414 ft.), bearing the ruined Castello Baradello, once a residence 
of Frederick Barbarossa (p. 110). — 28 M. Como Borghi ; 281/2 M. 
Como Lago, the main station, on the bank of the lake (p. 139). 

b. From Milan to Como and Lecco (Colico) viaMonza. 

From Milan to Como, 30 M., railway (Eete Mediterranea) in l-ls/ 4 hr. 
(fares 5 fr. 45, 3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 45 c. ; express, 6 fr., 4 fr. 20 c). Through 
and return tickets may be obtained at the Central Station of Milan and 
at the Agenzia Internazionale (p. 106) for Como, Tremezzo, Cadenabbia, 
Bellagio, Menaggio, and Colico. — From Milan to Lecco, 32 M., railway 
( Rete Mediterranea) in li/ 4 -2i/ 4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 5, 2 fr. 60 c.) ; to 
Colico, 56 M., in 21/2-41/2 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 20, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 60 c). 

The line traverses a fertile plain, luxuriantly clothed with vine- 
yards, mulberry-plantations, and fields of maize, and intersected 
by innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irrigation. 

— 41/2 M. Sesto San Giovanni. 

8M. Monza (532 ft.; Alb. del Castello e Falcone, at the railway 

station; Alb. San Filippo, Via Italia 12) is a town on the Lambro, 

with 11,800 inhabitants. Leaving the station and following the Via 

Italia to the right, we pass the church of Santa Maria in Jstrada 

(2nd on the right), with a Gothic brick facade of 1327, and soon 

reach the *Cathedbal (S. Giovanni), the chief object of interest. It 

was erected in the 14th cent, in the Lombard Gothic style by Marco 

da Campione on the site of a church founded in 590 by the Lombard 

queen Theodolinda, and contains double aisles and transept, flanked 

■with chapels on both sides. Above the portal is a very curious relief 

representing Queen Theodolinda amid her treasures ; below, the 

Baptism of Christ. 

Interior. In the E. transept is a relief representing the coronation 
of Emp. Charles IV. (1355). — The chapel to the right of the choir, 
restored by Beltrami in 1890, contains the plain sarcophagus of Queen 
Theodolinda (beginning of 14th cent.) and frescoes of scenes from her life 
by Zavattari (1444). The celebrated Iron Crown, with which the German 
emperors were crowned as kings of Lombardy, is also preserved in this 
chapel. This venerable relic was used at the coronation of the Emp. 
Charles V. in 1530, of Napoleon in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 1838. 
It, consists of a broad hoop of gold adorned with precious stones, round 
the interior of which is a thin strip of iron, said to have been made from 
a nail of the true Cross brought by the Empress Helena from Palestine. 
From the time of Theodolinda onwards it was used as the royal crown 
of the Lombards. In its present form it is, perhaps, a work of the 12th 
century. In 1859 it was carried off by the Austrians, but after the peace 
of 1866 it was restored to its former repository, and until lately preserved 
in the crypt. (Fee for seeing the crown, 5 fr.) — The "Treasury (fee 

138 Route 20. TKEZZO. From Milan 

1 fr., 5 fr. for a party) contains several objects of historical interest: a 
hen with seven chickens in gold, representing Lombardy and its seven 
provinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, 
fan, and comb ; two silver loaves, presented by Napoleon I. after his coron- 
ation ; the cross which was placed on the breast of the Lombard kings at 
the moment of their coronation; a richly-adorned book- cover with an in- 
scription of Theodolinda; reliquary, cross, and missals of Berengarius; 
goblet of sapphire, with a stem of Gothic workmanship ; Gothic goblet of 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti; fine diptychs of the 4-6th cent. ; Gothic carvings 
in ivory; 'ampullae' from the Roman catacombs (vessels with a dark-red 
deposit supposed to be the blood of martyrs) ; Byzantine pilgrim-flasks from 
Palestine; model of the iron crown. A cabinet outside the church contains 
the mummy of one of the Visconti, who died in 1413. 

The handsome Gothic Municipio , or town-hall , also called 
Palazzo Arengario, dates from the 13th century. — The royal Sum- 
mer Palace, built by Pietro Marino in 1777, lies to the N. of the 
town, in an extensive and beautiful park, traversed by the Lambro. 

From Monza to Bergamo, steam-tramway in 2^4 hrs. (comp. p. 108). 
The chief intermediate station is Trezzo sull' Adda (615 ft.), with the 
picturesque ruins of a Castle of the Visconti (adm. 50 c), in which Giov. 
Galeazzo (p. 105) confined his uncle Bernabo. A little below the castle, 
which is encircled by the Adda (p. 15), the tramway crosses the river 
by the "Ponte di Paderno, a single bold iron archway, 275 ft. above the 
level of the water. Below the bridge the stream forms a series of rapids 
(rdpidi). The Martesana (p. 12 L) diverges here, and its old sluices are 
said to have been constructed by Leonardo da Vinci. Adjacent is a dam, 
150 yds. long, constructed by the Edison Co. in 1897 to conduct the water 
into the old canal, which has been considerably widened. Thence it is 
led over a weir and through a partly underground channel, 2 M. long, 
to the Electric Works, 90 ft. above the level of the Adda, which furnish 
the motive power (ca. 13,000 horse-power) for the tramways and lighting 
of (22 M.) Milan. — Bergamo, see p. 180. 

Other tramways run from Monza to Milan (see p. 108) and to Gorgon- 
zola (famous for its cheese), Treviglio, and Caravaggio (p. 177). 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The former line 
runs to the N.W., affording pleasant views, to the right, of the 
fertile Brianza (p. 142), with its numerous country-residences. The 
train passes through several tunnels. 11 M. Lissone-Muggio. To the 
right rises the long, indented Monte Resegone (p. 141), to the left 
of which are the Monte Grigna and the mountains reaching to the 
Spliigen. — 12y 2 M. Desio. — U l / 2 M. Seregno (735 ft.), a town 
with 6100 inhab., is the junction of branch-lines to Novara (p. 61), 
and to (25 M.) Bergamo (in IV2 hr.), via Usmate-Carnate (p. 141) 
and Ponte S. Pietro (p. 185). — From (18 M.) Camnago a branch- 
line diverges to Seveso San Pietro (p. 142). 20^ M. Carimate ; 
21 V2 M. Cantu-Asnago ; 24!/. 2 M. Cucciago; 27 M. Albate-Camerlata 
(p. 137). — 30 M. Como (Stazione S. Giovanni, see below). 

Como. — Arrival. The Stazione Como S. Giovanni or Mediterranea, 
the principal station (St.. Gotthard Railway), is J/z M. from the quay (omn. 
30 c, included in through-tickets). — The Stazione Como Lago or Ferrovie 
Nord lies 200 yds. to the E. of the quay (branch-lines to Saronno and Milan, 
p. 136, and to Varese and Laveno, p. 157). — The Stazione Como Borghi, 
a third station, is of no importance to tourists. 

Hotels (all in the Piazza Cavour, near the harbour). ''Hotel Volta 
(PI. v), R., L., & A. 4-6, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 7-10, omn. 1 fr., with 
cafe"-restaurant ; Gr.-Hot. Plinius, new; *Italia (PL i), R., L., & A. 2-4, 

to Como. COMO. 20. Route. 139 

B. H/2, de"j. 2V2, D.4, S. 3, pens. 7-9, omn. 8/4 fr- i *Metropole «fc Suisse 
(PI. s), German, R., L., & A. from 272, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 
7V2-10, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel-Pension Bellevue (PI. 6), R. from I1/2, B. l'/4, 
dej. 2V2, U. 31/2 (both incl. wine), pens. 8-10, omn. 3 /4 fr., with cafe-restau- 
rant, well spoken of; Hot. Plinius (PI. H. P.), on the quay, a first-class 
hotel with elevator and. electric light. — "Trattoria Frasconi Confalonievi, 
at the corner of the Piazza Cavour; Cafi-Restaurant Cavour, in the Hot. 
Me"tropole, Munich beer; Caffe Plinio, next the Hot. Volta. 

Lake Baths (Bagni) by the Giardino Pubblico (also warm and vapour 
baths). — Books, photographs, etc. : Ostinelli, Piazza del Duomo 8. — Post 
Office (PI. p), Via Cinque Giornate, to the S.W. of the cathedral. 

Cable Railway (Funicolare) from the Borgo Sanf Agostino, l /t M. to the 
N. of Stazione Como Lago, to Brunate (p. 140); fares, up IV2, down 1, up 
and down 2 fr. — Omnibos to Cemobbio (p. 145),. 30 c. 

Como (705 ft.), the capital of a province and the see of a bishop, 
with. 11,000 inhab. and large silk-factories, the birthplace of the 
elder and younger Pliny and of the electrician and philosopher Volta 
(1745-1826 ; whose Statue by P. Marchesi is in the Piazza Volta, 
near the quay), lies at the S.W. end of the Lake of Como, and is 
enclosed by an amphitheatre of mountains. It was the Roman 
Comum, and of some importance in the middle ages. 

The *Cathedral, begun in the Gothic style in 1396, and altered 
in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir, transept, out- 
side of nave) in 1486, is built entirely of marble, and is one of the 
best in N. Italy. The S. portal is by Bramante (1491); the dome is 
modern. The greater part of the sumptuous plastic ornamentation is 
by Rodari and other contemporary Lombard artists. Over the magni- 
ficent W. portal are reliefs (Adoration of the Magi) and statuettes 
(Mary with S. Abbondio, etc.). At the sides of the main entrance 
are statues of the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 1498. 

Interior. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at a cost of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemble 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 134). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio ; there are others to the right of the entrance and in the choir. — To 
the right of the entrance is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Oallio , a 
benefactor of the town, erected in 1861. Farther on, to the right, 2nd 
Altar, di S. Abbondio, with handsome wood-carving, and scenes from the 
life of the saint; adjoining (1.) the *Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, 
and (r.) the Flight into Egypt, by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the (3rd) altar of 
St. Jerome, a *Madonna by B. Luini. In the N. Transept, the Altare del 
Crocefisso of 1498, with a fine statue of St. Sebastian. In the Choir, the 
Apostles, by Pompeo Marchesi. The Sacristy contains pictures by Guido 
Reni, Paolo Veronese, etc. In the Left Aisle, the altar of the Mater Dolo- 
rosa with an Entombment by Tommaso Rodari (1498). At the Altare di 
S. Giuseppe: 1. G. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling 
Raphael ; r. B. Luini, Nativity ; St. Joseph , a statue by P. Marchesi, and 
a bas-relief below, the last work of this master. By the third altar, the 
busts of Pope Innocent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Ravelli, Bishop of Como. 

Adjoining the church is the Broletto (now a public office), con- 
structed of alternate courses of different-coloured stones, and com- 
pleted in 1215. Behind the cathedral is the Theatre, erected in 1813. 
In the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which runs W. from the cathedral, 
is the rear of the Romanesque church of S. Fedele, with a fine semi- 
circular apse. The chief facade of the church , in the Piazza del 

140 Route 20. COMO. From Milan 

Mercato , is as little worthy of attention as the completely spoiled 
interior. — The Palazzo Qiovio contains the Museo Civico, opened 
in 1897 and containing Roman antiquities, arms, and coins. — The 
Porta Torre, now known as the Porta Vittoria, a massive five- 
storied structure, is also worthy of note. Outside the gate, in the 
Piazza Vittoria, is a bronze Statue of Garibaldi, by Yela. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church of Santissima 
Annunziata, of the 17th cent., richly decorated with marble and 
gold; also known as the church Del Crocefisso, from a miraculous 
image. Farther on, on the slope of the mountain, is the fine old Ba- 
silica Sani' Abbondio, originally aLombard structure of the8th cent, 
rebuilt in the 11th cent., and restored in 1863-88. Beneath it the 
remains of a church of the 5th cent, have been found. 

Excursions. The Castello Baradello (p. 137), reached by a tolerable 
footpath in l^hr., is an excellent point of view. — On the W. bank of 
the lake, on the beautiful road to (272 M.) Cernobbio (p. 145), just beyond 
the Borgo San Giorgio or N.W. suburb of Como, lies the "Villa VOlmo 
(Duca Visconti-Modrone), the largest on the lake, with fine rooms and a 
charming garden (visitors admitted). — Another fine road, traversing the 
Borgo Sanf Agostino, leads along the E. bank of the lake and then, on the 
hillside, high above the lake, to Blevio and (5 M.) Torno (p. 145). — A Cable 
Railway (2/3 M. long; its steepest gradient 55: 100; fares, see p. 139), passing 
under the garden of the Villa Pertu&ati by a tunnel 125 yds. long, leads 
from the N. end of the Borgo S. Agostino to (20 min.) Brunate (2350 ft^ 
* Grand Hdtel, with steam heating, electric light, and view-terrace ; Bellavista, 
R., L., & A. from 4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens, from 9 fr.), which com- 
mands a superb *View of the plain of Lombardy as far as Milan, and of 
the Alps to Mte. Rosa. 

From Como to Bellagio via Erba, about 26 M., one-horse carriage 
in 5-6 hrs. (25 fr., with fee of 3 fr.). The road, which will also repay the 
pedestrian, passes Camnago Volta (a little to the N. of the road; with the 
tomb of Volta), Gassano, and Albesio, and affords views of the Brianza, 
the Montorfano, several small lakes, and the Plan d'Erba, dominated on 
the E. by the Corni di Canzo (4510 ft.) and the Resegone (p. 141). — 11 M. 
Erba, and thence to Bellagio, see p. 142. 

From Como to Lecco, 26 M., railway (Rete Mediierranea) inlV2-2hrs. 
(4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 15 c). — 3 M. Albate-Camerlata, see p. 13S; 5 M. 
Albate-Trecallo; 7y 2 M. Cantii; 10 M. Brenna-Alzate , between the villages 
of these names; 11 M. Anzano del Parco. To the left lies the Lago d'Al- 
serio. — 13i/2 M. Merone-Ponlenuovo , the junction of the Milan and Erba 
line (p. 142). — 15 M. Mojana; 15 3 / 4 M. Caslelto-Rogeno , on the S. bank 
of the Lago di Pusiano ; 17 M. Molteno; I8V2 M. Oggiono, at the S. end 
of the Lago d'Annone. The train then runs along the E. bank of this lake. — 
22 M. Sala al Barro, the starting-point for an ascent of *Mte. Barro (3150 ft). 
A good bridle-path (horse 372 fr., incl. fee) ascends to the (2 hrs.) "Alb. di 
Monte Barro (2790 ft.), a quiet resort with a large garden, whence a walk 
of 7z hr. brings us to the top. The magnificent view embraces the Brianza, 
the Lake of Lecco (p. 148), the Val Sassina, and its mountains. The de- 
scent may be pleasantly made to (I72 hr.) Malgrate (p. 141), passing a 
finely situated pilgrimage-church. — The Lago d'Annone is connected with 
the Lake of Lecco by the Ritorlo, the course of which we follow beyond 
(2272 M.) Civate. The Mte. Resegone (p. 141) is prominent to the E. — 
2372 M. Valmadrera. The train then penetrates a tunnel , crosses the wide 
Adda by a new bridge, and reaches (26 M.) Lecco (p. 141). 

From Como via Vaeese to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, 32 M., rail- 
way (Ferrovie Nord) in 2-37* hrs. (fares 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 85, 2 fr. 70 c): to 
Varese, 18 M., in 1-17 2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 55 c). — As far as 
(472 M.) Grandate, see p. 137. Our line rans to it Q . T V. to (57z M) Ci- 

to Lecco. LECCO. W. Route. 141 

vello, crosses the Lura at (7 M.) Lurate-Caccivo, and then ascends to the 
^lo^* trough a fertile region, passing many country-houses. 10 M. Olgiate 
(1330 ft.). Beyond a tunnel we reach (12 M.) Solbiate (1460 ft.), the highest 
point of the line. 15 M. Malnate (p. 158), the junction of the Milan-Sa- 
ronno-Varese line. — 18 M. Varese, and thence to (32 M.) Laveno, see p. 158. 

From Como to Monte Generoso and Lugano, see pp. 14-12. 

The Railway from Monza to Lecco skirts the S.E. slopes of the 
beautiful range of hills of the Brianza (p. 142), studded with nu- 
merous villas of the wealthy Milanese. — 11 l / 2 M - Arcore (630 ft.). 
— From (15^2 M.) Usmate-Carnate, also a station on the line from 
Seregno to Ponte 8. Pietro and Bergamo (p. 138), an omnibus runs 
in 3/ 4 hr. to Monticello (1330 ft. ; Alb. Monticello), a summer-resort 
a little to the N.W. — From (19 M.) Cemusco-Merate a pleasant ex- 
cursion may be taken to the lofty Montevecchia (1572 ft.), situated to- 
wards the N.W. (i l /% nr - 5 * ne church of Montevecchia commands an 
excellent view of the Lombard plain, Milan, Cremona, Novara, and 
part of the Brianza, etc. ; good wine, but a poor inn ; pleasant return 
route by Missaglia, with a guide, l 1 /^ hr. ; thence by carriage to Me- 
rate ; fine views). The village of Merate (945 ft. ; Albergo del Sole), 
1 M. from the station, was formerly fortified; pretty villas. — 21 M. 
Olgiate-Molgora. Beyond a tunnel a view of the valley of the Adda 
is obtained to the right. The train descends, crosses the river by an 
iron bridge, and joins the Lecco and Bergamo line (p. 185) at (27y 2 M.) 
Calolzio. — 30 M. Maggianico, with a prettily situated hydropathic 

32 M. LeCCO. — Albergo-Ristorante Mazzoleni, at the pier, l ! /2 fr., 
well spoken of; Croce di Malta, Corona d ''Italia, hoth unpretending. — 
Rail. Restaurant, clean. — Omn. between the station and the pier 50 c. 

Lecco is an industrial town with 6100 inhab. and silk, cotton, 
and iron manufactories, at the foot of Mte. Besegane (6160 ft.) and at 
the S. end of the Lake of Lecco or E. arm of the Lake of Como 
(p. 148), from which the Adda here emerges. Statues of Garibaldi 
and Alessandro Manzoni (b. in Milan 1785, d. 1873), the poet and 
head of the romantic school, both by Confalonieri, were erected in 
the piazza in 1884 and 1891. The pedestal of the latter is decorated 
with reliefs from Manzoni's 'I Promessi Sposi'. Pleasant walks, ad- 
mirably described in that romance, lead to the hill of S. Gerolamo, 
with a pilgrimage- church and a ruined castle ( 3 / 4 hr.), etc. The Ponte 
Grande, a stone bridge of ten arches, constructed inl335byAzzone 
Visconti, and furnished with fortified towers at the extremities, 
leads S. from Lecco to Pescate, where the road divides: the right 
branch, passing the village of Malgrate (with many silk-factories) to 
the W. of Lecco, leads to Como (p. 138), the left to the S. to Milan. 

Ascent of the "Monte Barro from Malgrate (2*/2 hrs.), see p. 140. It is 
preferable to drive from Lecco by a beautiful road (carr. 5, with two horses 
10 fr.) to Galbiate, and walk or ride thence to the top. 

Below Lecco the Adda expands into the Lago di Garlate, and further 
down, into the small Lago d' Olginate. 

142 Route 21. ERBA. From Milan 

The Railway from Lecco to Colico has little interest for tourists, but 
furnishes the shortest route between Milan and CMavenna {Splilgen; R. 4) 
and the Val Tellina (p. 151). It runs along the E. bank of the lake, passing 
through tunnels and over viaducts. 6 M. Mandello-Tonzanico (p. 148); 10 M. 
Lierna (p. 143); 14 M. Perledo-Varenna (p. 148); 15 J /2 M. Bellano (p. 149); 
187 2 M. Dervio (p. 150). — 24 M. Colico, see p. 150. 

Steamer from Lecco to Bellagio (Como), see p. 144. — Railway 

to Bergamo, see p. 180. 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza. 

Railway (Ferrovie Nord) from Milan to (27 x /2 M.) Incino-Eroa (starting 
from the Stazione Ferrovie Nord. p. 105) in 1 72-274 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 60 c. ; return-tickets 6 fr. 80 c, 4 fr., 2 fr. 70 c). — Highroad 
from Erba to (19 M.) Bellagio. 

Brianza is the name of the undulating, grassy, partially wooded, and 
extremely fertile tract, 12 M. in length, 6 M. in breadth, extending be- 
tween the Seveso and the Adda, and stretching to the N. to the triangular 
peninsula which divides the Como and Lecco lakes (comp. p. 144). The 
soil is very fertile, and the whole district studded with villas peeping out 
from vines, orchards, and mulberry-plantations. In the centre are several 
small lakes (Lago d^Annone, Pusiano , Alserio , Segrino , and Montorfano). 

The Railway fkom Milan to Incino - Ere a traverses a well 
cultivated and well watered plain. As far as (3 M.) Bovisa it coin- 
cides with the line to Saronno (p. 136). 4y 2 M. Affori; 5M. Bruz- 
zano; & l /2 M. Cormanno. The train now crosses the small Seveso. 
6 M. Cusano; 7^2 M. Paderno Dugnano; 9 M. Palazzolo. Beyond 
(10 M.) Varedo the train again crosses the Seveso and reaches 
(11 M.) Bovisio. 12 M. Cesano-Mademo. From (14 M.) Seveso 
S. Pietro a branch-line diverges to (l 1 /^ M.) Camnago (p. 138), a 
station on the Monza-Como railway, which our line crosses near (15M.) 
Meda. 16 M. Cabiate (777 ft.); 17i/ 3 M. Mariano- Comense. Near 
(18^2 M.) Carugo-Oiussano the country becomes hilly. 20 M. Arosio, 
pleasantly situated amid vine-clad hills, some of which are crowned 
with villages and country-houses. — 21^2 M. Inverigo (1150 ft), a 
pretty village, in the valley of the Lambro. On an eminence rises 
the *Rotonda, one of the finest villas in the Brianza, with a park 
and admirably-kept garden, and commanding an extensive view. 
The Villa Crivelli is famous for its cypresses. — The train now as- 
cends the valley of the Lambro. 23 M. Lambrugo (950 ft.); 25V2 M. 
Merone-Pontenuovo, the junction of the Lecco and Como line (p. 140). 
The Lago d J Alserio is passed on the left and the Lago di Pusiano on 
the right. The train enters the charming plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba). 

27y 2 M. Incino-Erba, the station for the village of Incino and 
the small town of Erba. Incino, the ancient Liciniforum, is men- 
tioned by Pliny along with Bergamo and Como ; it contains a lofty 
Lombard campanile. Erba (1065 ft. ; Albergo) lies a little to the N., 
on the road from Como to Lecco, which here traverses the fertile 
and terraced slopes of a small hill. It contains several villas, among 
which is the Villa Amalia, on the N.W. side, commanding a charm- 
ing view of the Brianza. — From Erba to Como, see p. 140. 

to Bellagio. CIVENNA. 21. Route, 143 

From Erba to Bellagio, about 19 M. ; a highly interesting 
excursion. — Beyond Erba we cross the Lambro, which has here 
been canalized and is conducted into the Lago di Pusiano , a little 
to the S.E. Immediately afterwards the route to Bellagio diverges 
to the left from the road to Lecco, and runs to the N., past Longone 
on the W. hank of the narrow Lago del Segrino, to — 

6 M. Canzo (1270 ft. ; Croce di Malta), which is almost contiguous 
to (iy 4 M.) Asso (1394 ft.), the two numbering together 2700 in- 
habitants. At the entrance of Asso is a large silk-manufactory 
(Cam Versa). 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in 
the picturesque valley of the Lambro, the Vall' Assina, the slopes 
of which are well wooded; it passes through (2 M.) Lasnigo, (2 M.) 
Barni (2083 ft.), and Magreglio (2415 ft.), where it becomes steeper; 
first view of both arms of the Lake of Como from the eminence near 
the (1 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful *Survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far be- 
yond, after passing the first church of (l 1 /^ M.) Civenna (2045 ft.; 
*Bellevue, new, open from April to Oct.; Angelo, R. 1 fr., unpretend- 
ing), with its graceful tower. The road now runs for 2y 4 M. along 
the shady brow of the mountain, which extends into the lake at 
Bellagio. Beyond the chapel good views are obtained of the "W. arm 
of the lake (of Como), the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotta and 
Cadenabbia, the E. arm (Lake of Lecco), a large portion of the road 
and railway on the E. bank, the former supported by masonry and 
embankments, and finally of the entire lake from the promontory 
of Bellagio to Domaso (p. 150), and far below the park of the Villa 
Serbelloni (p. 147). 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., finally passing the 
Villa Oiulia (p. 147) and the churchyard of Bellagio. From Civenna 
to the hotels at Bellagio on the lake (p. 146), 2 hrs.' walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the "Monte 
S. Primo (p. 14S). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4-5 hrs., descent 
to Bellagio 3 hrs. (fatiguing , over de"bris). 

22. Lake of Como. 

Plan of Excursion. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 153) and the 
Lago Maggiore (R. 28) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously as 
follows : by the St. Gotthard line or the Saronno-Como railway in 1V4- 
l 3 /4 hr. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by steamboat in the afternoon in 
lVa-2 hrs. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, the latter the most beautiful point on 
the Lake of Como, and spend the night there. In the evening and next 
morning visit Villa Carlotta and Villa Serbelloni; by steamboat in 1 /t hr., 
or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; thence by railway in 1 hr. to Porlezza, 
in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano (p. 153) , arriving early 
enough to leave time for the ascent of Monte S. Salvatore. From Lugano 
by steamboat in l x /2 hr. to Ponte Treta and thence by steam-tramway in 
3 /4 hr. to Luino; steamboat from Luino in 2-3V4 hrs. to the Borromean 
Islands. From the islands we may proceed in l 1 /4-l 1 /2 hr. to Arona and 
return by railway to Milan (l 3 /4-2'/4 hrs. ; R. 26), or we may return by 

144 Route 22. LAKE OF COMO. 

steamer to (Vi-l 1 / 2 hr.) Laveno and go on thence by the N. railway via Va- 
rese to (2-3 hrs.) Milan (R. 25). — The Circular Tour Tickets (see p. xvii) 
issued for this excursion are economical and convenient. Tour No. 8 of 
the Rete Mediterranea (1st class 27 fr. 70, 2nd cl. 24 fr. 10 c.) and No. 1 
of the Ferrovie Nord (20 fr. 50, 16 fr. 15 c.) follow substantially the above 
indicated routes. — The Return Tickets issued by both railway-systems 
for Bellagio, Cadenabbia, and Menaggio (Rete Med., 10 fr. 50, 8 fr. 55 c. ; 
Ferr. Nord, 9 fr. 55, 7 fr. 85, 4 fr. 75 c.) and those issued by the Ferr. 
Nord for Colico (12 fr. 50, 10 fr. 70, 6 fr. 40 c.) are valid for eight days 
and allow the steamboat journey to be broken at four points. 

Steamboat thrice daily from Como to Colico in 4-5 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 
2fr. 60 c.) ; five times daily from Como to Bellagio, eight times to Torriggia; 
thrice daily from Como to Lecco in 2*/i-tL l /i hrs. ; thrice daily from Lecco 
to Colico in 3V4-3 3 /4 hrs. The tickets are issued on board the steamers 
(also tickets for the railways in connection and the Swiss diligences). 
Embarkation and landing free (the tickets have a coupon which is given 
to the boatman). Those who embark at intermediate stations must procure 
a check at the pier to be given up when the tickets are taken on board. 
The advertised hours are not rigidly adhered to. Some of the boats are 
handsome saloon-steamers, with good restaurants on board. — In the fol- 
lowing description the stations at which there is a pier are indicated by 
'P', the small-boat stations by 'B\ and the railway-stations (comp. p. 142) 
by 'R\ 

Rowing Boats (barca, pi. barche). First hour IV2 fr-, each additional 
hour 1 fr. for each rower. From Bellagio to Cadenabbia and back (or vice 
versa), each rower 2 J /2 fr. •, Bellagio to Tremezzo, Bellagio to Menaggio, and 
Bellagio to Varenna also 272 fr. each rower; Bellagio to Villa Melzi, Villa 
Carlotta, and back, each rower 3 fr. — One rower suffices, unless the trav- 
eller is pressed for time; a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta 
uno ! ' When travellers are not numerous , the boatmen readily reduce 
their demands. The following phrases may be found useful : Quanto volete 
per una corsa d"un ora (di due ore) ? Siarno due (tre, quattro) persone. E 
troppo, vi daro un franco (due franchi, etc.). In addition to the fare, it is 
usual to give a '■mancia' or ''buonamano' of 1 /i fr. or 1 fr. according to the 
length of the excursion. 

The *Lake of Como (650 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the Romans, is extolled by Virgil (Georg. ii. 159), 
and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in N. Italy. 
Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M. ; greatest widtb, be- 
tween Menaggio and Varenna, nearly 2y 2 M. ; greatest depth 1340 ft. ; 
total area 60 sq. M. At Bellagio (p. 146) the lake divides into two 
branches, called respectively the Lakes ofComo(W.~) and Lecco QS.). 
The Adda (p. 141) enters at the upper extremity and makes its 
egress near Lecco. The "W. arm has no otitlet. Numerous villages 
and the gay villas of the Milanese aristocracy, surrounded by luxur- 
iant gardens and vineyards, are scattered along the banks of the 
lake. In the forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and 
walnut contrasts strongly with the greyish tints of the olive. The 
variegated hues of the oleanders are also striking. The laurel grows 
wild here. The mountains rise to a height of 7000 ft. — The in- 
dustrious inhabitants of the banks of the lake are much occupied in 
the production and manufacture of silk. Tasteful articles in olive 
wood are made at Bellagio. — The lake abounds in fish, and trout 
of 20 lbs. weight are occasionally captured. The 'Agoni' are small, 
but palatable. 


22. Route. 145 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E., the Punta 
di Oeno, the beauty of the lake is disclosed to view. 

Lake of Como. 

W- Bank. 

Borgo S. Qiorgio and * Villa 
VOlmo, see p. 140. 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Breggia. Villa Gon- 
zalez ; Villa Cima, in a beauti- 
ful park. 

GernobbiO (P). — "Grand Hotel 
Villa d'Este et Reine d'Angle- 
tekre, R., L., & A. 4-7, B H/z, dej. 3, 
D. 5, omn. 1 (to Chiasso 3), pens. 8- 
12 fr., with pleasant grounds, fre- 
quented by English and Americans 
(Engl Church Serv. on Sun.); Hot. 
Ceknobbio et de la Reine Olga, 
R., L., & A. 3-5, B. li/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 8-12, omn. 1 fr., well spoken of; 
"Alb. Milano, Italian. — Omnibus to 
Como, see p. 139. 

Cernobbio, a considerable vil- 
lage, 272 M. to the E. of Chiasso 
(p. 14), is surrounded by hand- 
some villas : Belinzaghi, Baroggi, 
and others. High above lies the 
church of Rovenna. 

The Monte Bisbino (4390 ft.), with 
a pilgrimage-church and a fine view, 
is easily ascended in 3 hrs. from 
Cernobbio or Brienno (p. 146). 

Villa Volpi, on a promontory 
extending far into the lake. 

Moltrasio (P ; Alb. Caramazza), 
in a beautiful situation, with the 
large Palazzo Passalacqua, rising 
above its terraced garden. 

t/no(B); then Carate (P ; Hot.- 
Pens. Lario), Laglio , and Ger- 
manello, all with attractive villas. 
On the bank of the lake is a lofty 
pyramid erected to the memory of 
Dr. Frank, a professor of Pavia 
(d. 1851), with money left by him 
for the purpose. 

Torriggia (P ; Ristor. Casarico) ; 
on the promontory the Villa Elisa. 

BaEDEKEE. It.alv T. lltTi '"Rflit.. 

E. Bank. 

Borgo 8. Agostino and Brunate, 
seep. 140. — Behind these rises 
the Monte San Maurizio. 

Blevio (B), with the villas My- 
lius and Ricordi, and, beyond the 
Punta di Geno, the villas Ratazzi, 
Cornaggia, etc. Villa Taglioni, 
formerly the property of the fam- 
ous danseuse Marie Taglioni 
(d. 1884); Villa Ferranti, once 
the residence of the celebrated 
singer Pasta (d. 1865); Villa 

Torno (P ; Alb. Bella Venezia) 
has a pretty church and is sur- 
rounded by villas. 

Road hence to Como , see p. 140. 

Villa Pliniana , in the bay of 
Molina, at the entrance of a narrow 
gorge, erected in 1570 by Count 
Anguissola, is now the property 
of the Marchesa Trotti. It derives 
its name of Pliniana from a 
neighbouring spring which daily 
changes its level , a peculiarity 
mentioned both by the younger 
and the older Pliny. The passages 
are inscribed on the walls of the 


146 Route 22. 



W. Bank. 

Brienno (B) , embosomed in 

Argegno (P; Alb. & Ristor. 
Telo ; Alb. Barchetta) , at tbe 
moutb of tbe fertile Intelvi Valley. 

A carriage-road leads hence via, 
Casliglione d'Inlelvi and S. Fedeled' In- 
telvi (2520 ft.; Alb. S. Rocco) to 
Lanzo d'Inlelvi (p. 153). 

Coionno(B); tben Sala (B), 
with the small island of Comacina, 
frequently mentioned in tbe an- 
nals of mediaeval warfare , now 
occupied by a small cburcb of 
S. Qiovanni. 

Monte Legnone and Monte 
Legnoncino(jp. 150) are distinctly 
visible towards tbe N.E. 

Campo , charmingly situated ; 
tben tbe promontory of Lavedo, 
whicb bere projects far into tbe 
lake. On its extremity (3/ 4 M. 
from Campo or Lenno) glitters tbe 
Villa Arcomati, with its colonnade 
(visitors admitted ; fine view). 

In tbe bay lie Lenno (B ; Ristor. 
Brentani), with an old octagonal 
baptistry, and Azzano (B). On 
tbe slope above, Mezzegra. 

Tremezzo (P; * Hot.- Pens. 
Bazzoni, R. , L., & A. 31/2, de'j. 2, 
D. 3 fr. ; *H6t. du Lac et Villa 
Carlotta, pans. 5-6 fr.; Hot-Pens. 
Belvedere, pens, from 6 fr., well 
spoken of), practically forming 
one place witb Cadenabbia (see 
below). The Tremezzina is a beau- 
tiful district justly called tbe 
garden of Lombardy. 

Interesting excursion (there and 
back, 3-4 hrs.) by Lenno (see above) 
to "Santa Maria del Soccorso (1375 ft), 
a pilgrimage -church with beautiful 
view (the sacristan sells refresh- 
menti); return by Mezzegra. 

Cadenabbia. — *Bellevue, ad- 
joining the Villa Carlotta, with shady 
grounds on the lake, pens. 11-16 fr. 
(closed Dec. to Feb.) ; *Belle-Ile, R., 

E. Bank. 

Biva di Palanzo (P) and Pog- 
nana (B); then Quarsano and 

Nesso (B) , at the mouth of the 
Val di Nesso , which ascends to 
the Piano del Tivano (3800 ft.), 
with a high waterfall in a narrow 
gorge, frequently dry in summer. 

Beyond La Cavagnola we ob- 
tain the first view of Bellagio. 

Near Lezzeno (B) is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 

Villa Besana. 

S. Giovanni (B), with a church 
containing an altar-piece by 
Gaud. Ferrari : Christ in glory, 
with saints and donors. VillaTrotti 
(fine garden, visitors admitted). 

Villa Trivulzio, formerly Poldi, 
contains the mausoleum of the 
last of the Gonzagas, in the form 
of a round Romanesque tower. 
Fine view. Visitors are admitted 
to the beautiful garden. 

Villa Melzi, i/ 2 M. to the S. 
of Bellagio, erected by Albertolli 
in 1810-15, for Count Melzi 
d'Erile (1753-1816), who was 
vice-president of the Italian Re- 
public in 1802, and was made 
Duke of Lodi by Napoleon in 
1807. It now belongs to the 
Duchess of Melzi, and possesses 
numerous works of art and a 
splendid garden (adm. Thurs. & 
Sun., 1 fr.). 

Bellagio. — *Grande Beetagne, 
frequented by the English, and 
Gkand Hotel Bellagio , R. 3Va-6, 
L. & A. 2, B. IV,, dej. 3'/ 2 , D. 5, 

of Como. 


22. Route. 147 

W. Bank. 
L., &. A. 3-4, B. li/ 4 , dej. 2y 4 , D. 
4, pens. 7-10 fr.; *Britannia, R. 2- 
4 L. 3/4, A. i/ t , B. ii/,, dej. 3, D. 
41/2, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel- 
Pension Oadenabbia, pens. 7-8 fr. — 
C'afi Lavezari. — Hotel-omnibuses at 
the pier. — English Church, with 
services from April to November. 

Cadenabbia, 1 M. to the S. of 
Menaggio(omnibus at the station), 
lies in the most sheltered situa- 
tion on the Lake of Como. — In 
the vicinity (S.W.), in a garden 
sloping down to the lake, stands 
the celebrated *Villa Carlotta, 
formerly Sommariva. In 1843 it 
came into the possession of Prin- 
cess Albert of Prussia, after whose 
daughter Charlotte, Duchess of 
Saxe-Meiningen (d. 1855), it is 
named. The Duke of Saxe-Mei- 
ningen is the present proprietor 
(accessible from 8 to 6, door 
opened every l / 2 ar - j 1 fr- ea °h 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated 'Reliefs by Thorwaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was paid by Count Som- 
mariva in 1828) ; also several statues 
by Canova (*Cupid and Psyche, Magda- 
len, Palamedes, Venus); Paris, by 
Fontana ; bust of Count Sommariva ; 
Mars and Venus, by Acquisti; Cupid 
giving water to pigeons , by Bien- 
aimi , etc. The Billiard Room 
contains casts , and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney-piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession, said to be an early work 
of Thorwaldsen. — In the Garden 
Saloon, several modern pictures (Ha- 
lf ez , Romeo and Juliet ; Lordon, 
Atala), and a marble relief of Na- 
poleon when consul, by Latzarini. 

The 'Garden, which stretches to 
the S. to Tremezzo, and to the N. 
towards the Hotel de Bellevue, con- 
tains the most luxuriant vegetation; 
on the S. side of the Villa is a 
splendid magnolia ; pleasant view 
towards Bellagio. At the end of the 
garden wall is the mortuary chapel 

E. Bank. 
pens. 10-16, omn. 3/ 4 f r-i both well 
litted up, and the property of com- 
panies, beautifully situated on the 
lake and having fine gardens \ Villa 
Serbelloni , a dependance of the 
Grand Hotel Bellagio, pens. 9-14 fr. ; 
*Genazzini, also beautifully situated 
on the lake, R., L., & A. 31/2-6, 
B. l'/2, dej. 372, D. 41/2, pens. 7-11 fr. 
— Of less pretension: *H6tel-Pen- 
sion Florence, R., L., & A. 2V2-4, 
B. I1/2, dej. 3, D.4, pens.7'/2-9, omni- 
bus 72 fr- ; Pension Suisse, R. 172-2, 
L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. 1, dej. 27z, D. 37 2 , 
pens. 6-7 fr.; Hot. -Pens. desEtrang- 
ers, with beer garden at the quay, 
dej. 272, pens. 7-8 fr. — The large 
hotels send omnibuses to meet the 

Lace, Silk Goods, and Olive-wood 
Carvings at numerous shops. — 
Books and Photographs, at P. Introz- 
zi's. — Druggist, Lavizzari. 

Rowing Boats, see p. 144. 

English Church Services (April-Oct ) 
at the Grande Bretagne. 

Bellagio (710 ft.), a small town 
with 800 inhab. , at the W. base 
of the Punta di Bellagio , the 
wooded promontory which sep- 
arates the Lake of Como from the 
Lake of Lecco, is perhaps the 
most delightful point among the 
lakes of Upper Italy. 

Higher up stands the *VilIa 
Serbelloni (footpath ascends by 
the Hot. Genazzini in 25 min.), 
the park of which extends to the 
head of the wooded promontory 
(adm. 1 fr., free for guests of Hot. 
Bellagio). Charming glimpses of 
Varenna, Villa Arcomati, Villa 
Carlotta, etc. 

The Villa Belmonte, the prop- 
erty of an Englishman, commands 
another fine view (adm. 1/2 fr-)- 

About 1 M. to the S. of the 
lower entrance to the Villa Ser- 
belloni, beyond the cemetery, 
we reach a small blue gate on 
the left, leading to the Villa 
, Giulia , the property of Count 


148 Route 22. 



W. Bank. 

of the Sommarivas, with marble 
sculptures (adm. for a fee). 

Behind Cadenabbia rises the 
rock of II Sasso di S. Martino. 

Halfway up stands the Madonna 
di S. Martino, a small church, com- 
manding a beautiful view ; ascent 
I72 hr. (we proceed via Griante to 
the small chapel of S. Rocco and 
then follow the paved track). 

The Monte Crocione (5370 ft.), a 
more lofty mountain to the W., com- 
mands a striking view of the Lake 
of Como and Bellagio (a fatiguing 
ascent of 31/2-4 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in 
order to avoid the heat the traveller 
should start at 2 a.m.). A finer view 
of the Alps of Valais is obtained from 
the *Monte Galbiga (5600 tt.), to the 
W., which may be reached in 50 min. 
from Monte Crocione by following 
the crest. From Monte Galbiga we 
may descend via. the Ponna Alp to 
(3 hrs.) Osteno (p. 153). 

E. Bank. 

Blome of Vienna, with beautiful 
*Gardens (adm. on Sun. and 

holidays; fee V2 f r 0- 

A pleasant excursion may be taken 
hence to "Civenna (p. 143), either by 
road, passing the Villa Oiulia (one- 
horse carr. 8 fr.,; 3 hrs. there and 
back), or from th\e steamboat-station 
of Vassena (*ee below). 

The highly interesting ascent of 
the '■ Monte S.Primo (5555 ft.) may be 
made in 4^2 hrs. from Bellagio (with 
guide, 10 fr.). The route leads past 
the Villa Giulia and Casate, and forks 
at (2 hrs.) a chapel. We follow the 
narrow road to the right to the alps 
of Villa and Borzo, whence a foot- 
path leads to the (2 x /2 hrs.) summit. 
Magnificent view of the Lake of Como 
and the Brianza, backed by a grand 
mountain-panorama. Descent to 
Canzo, see p. 143. 

At Bellagio the S.W and S.E. arms of the lake unite. 

The latter, the Lago di Lecco, though inferior to the other in pic- 
turesqueness and luxuriance of vegetation, presents grander mountain 
scenery. The E. bank is skirted by the railway mentioned at p. 141. 
Steamers ply on the lake from (Como) Bellagio to Lecco and back, and 
from Colico to Lecco and back (comp. p. 144). 

The steamer rounds the Punta di Bellagio (p. 147). To the left, Lierna 
(B. and R), at the foot of the abrupt Cima Palagia (5080 ft.). Fine view 
towards the N — Bight: Limonta (B.) Vassena (B.), the station for (3 M.) 
Civenna (p. 143), and Onno (B.). Left: Olcio (R.), at the foot of Mte. Grigna 
(p. 149) ; Tonzanico ; Mandello (P & R.) at the foot of Mte. Campione (7165 ft.) ; 
Abbad'a (B. & R.), at the mouth of the Val Gerona. On the W. bank, at 
the base of the Corni di Canzo (4500 ft.), are several cement-furnaces. Op- 
posite Lecco, to the right, lies Pare, situated at the mouth of the Ritorto 
(p. 140) and separated from Malgrate (p. 141) by the promontory of San 
JDionigio. The lake now contracts to the width of the Adda. — Lecco 
(P. & R.), see p. 141. 

On the chief arm of the Lake of Como, as we proceed towards 

Colico, the first steamboat-stations are Menaggio (W. bank) and 

Yarenna (E. bank). 

' Menaggio (P). — Piers. One, to 
the S., beside the Hotel Menaggio, 4 
for the Steam Tramway to Porlezza 
(Lugano; see p. 152' 5 another beside 
the Hotels Victoria and Corona. 
Hotel-omnibuses meet the steamers 
at both. 

Hotels. *Geand Hotel Victoria, 
R., L., & A. from 5, B. IV2, d£j. 3, 
D. 5, pens. 8-11 fr. (English Church 

E. Bank. 
Varenna (P ; *H6t. Royal Mar- 
cionni, R. , L., & A. 2-3, B. l 1 /^; 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 7-9, omn. 
!/ 2 fr. ; Alb. Vittoria, unpretend- 
ing) is charmingly situated on 
a promontory , surrounded by 
gardens (Isimbardi, Lelia, Ve- 
nini), at the mouth of the Val 

of Como. 


22. Route. 149 

W. Bank. 

Service); *Grand Hot. Menaggio, 
R., L., & A. 31/2-51/2, B. H/ 2 , dej. 3, 
D. 5, pens. 8-11 fr. , both beauti- 
fully situated, with gardens on the 
lake ; ''Corona , an unpretending 
Italian house. R. li/ 2 , D. incl. wine 
3 fr. — Caf 4- Restaurant Olivedo. 

Menaggio (1000 inhab.), with 
an extensive silk manufactory, 
commands a fine view of Bellagio. 
On the lake, to the S. of the vil- 
lage, is the handsome Villa My- 
lius. — A good road , diverging 
to the right from the Cadenabbia 
(Como) road, ascends in windings 
to (Y2 hr.) Loveno Superior x e, near 
the church of which stands the 
Villa Vigoni, formerly Mylius, 
commanding a magnificent view 
of Bellagio, Menaggio, and of the 
three arms of the lake (apply to 
the gardener; fee 1 fr.). The 
garden-saloon contains two re- 
liefs by Thorwaldsen and a group 
in marble byArgenti. — Adjacent 
are the Villa Massimo d'Azeglio, 
with paintings by the poet Mar- 
chese Massimo d' Azeglio(d.l866), 
and the Villa Oaroviglio. 

From the Villa Vigoni a good 
footpath leads via the villages of 
Plesio and Breglia to (I1/2 hr.) the 
church of Madonna delta Breglia, corn- 
man ding an extensive view. From 
Breglia we may descend by a steep 
path to Acquaseria (see below) and 
return thence to Menaggio by steam- 
boat or via the Sasso Rancio. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild, yellowish-brown cliff, the 
Sasso Rancio ('orange - rock'), 
which is traversed by a trying 
footpath. The Russians under 
Bellegarde marched by this route 
in 1799, though with heavy losses. 

Acquaseria (P) is the chief vil- 
lage in the commune of S. Ab- 
bondio. — Mastenna. 

Rezzonico (B), with a restored 
castle of the 13th century. 

E. Bank. 

d'Esino. Above, beside the small 
village of Vezio, are the ruins of 
the Torre di Vezio, with a beauti- 
ful view (ascent i / 2 hr.). In the 
vicinity both road and railway 
pass through several tunnels. 
Most of the marble quarried in 
the neighbourhood is cut and pol- 
ished in the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is precip- 
itated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring, but 
sometimes dried up in summer. 

From Varenna a fatiguing foot- 
palh leads past Regoledo (see below) 
and above the Orrido di Bellano to 
(l 3 /4 hr.) Bellano (see below). 

The 'Monte Grigna (7905 ft.; 8hrs.) 
is a very fine point. From Varenna a 
bridle-path leads on the right bank of 
the EsinovxkPerledo to(2 1 /2hrs.)£'«no 
(2960 ft. ; *Alb. Monte Godeno, moder- 
ate), prettily situated. Thence (guide 
desirable ; to the club-hut 4, Monco- 
dine 7 fr.) to the Alp Gainallo IV2, 
Alp Prada li/ 2 , Rifugio of the Italian 
Alpine Club (5930 ft.) 1/2 hr., and to 
the top of the Grigna Settentrionale or 
Moncodine in 2hrs. more (the last part 
rather trying). Superb view of the 
whole Alpine chain from theMte.Viso 
to the Ortler (the Mte. Rosa group 
particularly fine), and of the plains 
of Lombardy to the distant Apen- 
nines. We may descend to the W. 
(steep) to the club -hut Capanna di 
Releggio (5840 ft.) in the Val Neria, 
and to Mandello, or to the E. to 
Pasturo in the Val Sassina (p. 150). 

Qittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake (cable-railway). 

Bellano (P; *Alb. Porta, *Alb. 
Bellano, on the lake) has 1400 in- 
hab. and considerable factories. 
By the pier is a monument, by 
Tantardini, to Tom. Grossi, the 
poet, who was born at Bellano in 

1 50 Route 22. 


W. Bank. 

Cremia (B), with the hand- 
some church of S. Michele (altar- 
piece *St. Michael, by Paolo Ve- 
ronese). The old church of S. 
Vito contains a fine Madonna and 
angels by Borgognone. 

Then Pianello. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso (B) are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Rocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the Castellan of Musso', who from 
this spot ruled over the entire 
Lake of Como. 

Dongo (P ; Alb. Dongo) , a 
large village in a sheltered situ- 
ation . 

Gravedona (P; Alb. Grave- 
dona, well spoken of; Alb. del 
Lauro), with 1600 inhab., is pic- 
turesquely situated at the mouth 
of a gorge. The handsome Pa- 
lazzo del Pero with four towers, 
at the upper end, was built in 
1586 by Pellegrino Tibaldi for 
the Milanese Cardinal Tolomeo 
Gallio. Adjoining the venerable 
church of S. Vincenzo rises the 
Baptistery of Santa Maria del 
Tiglio, an interesting building of 
the 12th cent., with campanile, 
containing two Christian inscrip- 
tions of the 5th century. 

A bridle-path leads to the W. 
through the Val di Gravedona and 
over the Passo di 8. Jorio (6420 ft.) 
to (9 hrs.) Bellinzona (p. 7). Provi- 
sions and guide necessary (no inn en 

Domaso (P) possesses several 
handsome villas. — Finally Gera 

From Colico to Chiavenna, and 

E. Bank. 

1790 (d. 1853). A wide street 
leads hence to the (8 min.) sta- 
tion. Following the Via Cavour 
to the left by the Albergo Bellano, 
then turning to the right and then 
to the left again, we reach the 
church of S. Giorgio and the *Or- 
rido di Bellano, a rocky gorge in 
which the Piovema forms a lofty 
waterfall (adm. t/ 2 fr.). 

A narrow road leads through 
the Val Sassina, which opens at Bel- 
lano, via Taceno to (6 M.) Cortenova 
and thence via, Introbbio to Lecco. 

Dervio (B), at the mouth of the 
Varrone, is situated at the base 
of the abrupt Monte Legnone 
and its spur, the MonteLegnoncino 
(5680 ft.). 

Monte Legnone (8505 ft.), the high- 
est mountain of Lombardy, may be as- 
cended hence in 7 hrs. (fatiguing but 
interesting). Bridle-path to (2 hrs.) 
Sueglio (2590ft.; Osteria Pinetta, fair) 
on the slope of Mte. Legnoncino, 
and through Valle Lavade to the (2 hrs.) 
Rifugio of the Italian Alpine Club 
(4460 ft. ; good accommodation) by the 
Roccoli Lorla, on the eaddle between 
Legnone and Legnoncino ; thence 
(with guide) to the (2y 4 hrs.) Ca- 
panna Alpina (7010ft ; no beds) and 
the (1 hr.) summit, with magni- 
ficent view. — The ascent on the N. 
side, from Delebio (p. 151), is easier. 
A bridle-path leads through the Valle 
delta Lesina to the (4 hrs.) Alp Cop- 
pello, and thence across the Bocchetta 
di Legnone in 3 hrs. to the summit. 

Corenno, with a ruined castle; 
Dorio (R.); Olgiasca. — Piona 
(R.), on the bay named Laghetto 
di Piona. 

Colico ^Hotel Risi, R. 21/2, B. 
1 fr.; Jsola Bella, both in the 
Italian style), comp. p. 15. 

over the Spliigen to Coire, see R. 4. 

TIRANO. 22. Route. 151 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio. 

C * ^° M oP o^° In S ? NDRI °' 25V2 M., railway in l-H/ 2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 
bo, 6 tr. 25, 2 fr. 10 c.) ; from Sondrio to Bormio, 41 M., diligence once 
daily (to Ttrano, several times daily) in 10 hrs. Beturn-tickets (available 
for 30 days) from Milan to Tirano 28 fr. 95, 22 fr. 35, 16 fr. 90 c • to 
Bormio 43 fr. 60 c, 37 fr., 31 fr. 55 c. ' 

_ The FaZ Tellina, which is now traversed by a railway, belonged to the 
Gnsons down to 1797, then to Austria, and since 1859 has been united to 
Italy. The broad valley is watered by the Adda (p. 15), the inundations ot 
which often cause considerable damage, and make the lower part of the 
valley marshy and unhealthy. An aromatic red wine is yielded by the 
vines on the slopes of the valley. 

4 T /2 M. Delebio, on the Lesina (ascent of Mte. Legnone, see p. 150). — 
8 M. Cosio-VallelUno-Traona, the latter place lying at the base of the 
mountains beyond the Adda. — 10 M. Morbegno (850 ft. ; Ancora), with 
2500 inhab., is noted for its silk-culture and has a church of the 17th cent, 
with a few good pictures. — 12 M. Talamona. The line then crosses the 
Adda, here joined by the Masino, and skirts the base of the mountains 
to the north. 14 M. Ard«nno - Masino , at the mouth of the Val Masino 
(see Baedeker's Switzerland); l9 ! /2 M. San Pietro-Berbenno; 22 1 fc M. Castione- 
Andevenno. Farther on the train skirts the hill of Sassella, noted for its 
wine and crowned with a church. 

25Vz M. Sondrio (1140 ft. ; "Posta, with a garden, R., L., & A. 4Vz, D. 
4 fr. ; Maddalena; Ristorante Marino, with rooms, well spoken of; omn. 
to the town 50 c), with 4000 inhab., the capital of the Val Tellina, situated 
on the Malero. A large building outside the town, once a nunnery, is now 
private property. The old residence of the bailiffs is now a barrack. — 
Through the Val Malenco to the Monte delta Disgrazia, see Baedekers 

Beyond Sondrio the Highroad continues to ascend the Val Tellina. 
The churches of Montagna and Pendolasco rise on the left. Beyond S. 
Giacomo, about halfway up the N. slope of the valley, rises the ancient 
watch-tower of Teglio (2945ft.), which gives its name to the valley (Val 
Teglino). At (10i/a M.) Tresenda (1236 ft.; Alb. Ambrosini, moderate) the 
road over the Passo d'Aprica diverges to the right (p. 195; from Tresenda 
to the Bergamasque Alps, see pp. 185, 184). — The road next crosses the 
Poschiavino, which descends from the Bernina glaciers, and soon reaches 
Madonna di Tirano (1500 ft.; "Alb. S. Michele, R. 3, B. 1 fr.), a small vil- 
lage with a large and handsome pilgrimage-church of the 16th century. 
The mountain-road which here diverges to the left leads to Poschiavo, and 
across the Bernina Pass to the Upper Engadine (see Baedeker's Switzer- 
land). The ' Confine Svizzero' is 3 / 4 M. to the N.W. of Madonna di Tirano. 
About !/ 4 hr. after leaving Madonna di Tirano we reach — 

18 M. Tirano (1505 ft.; "ATbergo Italia, with the post-office, R., L., & A. 3, 
D. 4 fr.; Posta; Stelvio, by the lower bridge), a small town of 3000 inhab., 
with old mansions of the Visconti, Pallavicini, and Salis families. 

The road now ascends along the vine-clad slopes to Sernio (2083 ft.). 
To the N. rises the precipitous Monte Masuccio (9240 ft.), a landslip from 
which in 1807 blocked up the narrow channel of the Adda, and converted 
the populous and fertile valley into a vast lake. At (6 M.) Mazzo (1845 ft.) 
the road crosses to the right bank of the Adda, and at the large village of 
(l 1 /* M.) Grosotto (Alb. Pini) it crosses the Roaseo, which here issues from 
the Val Grosina. To the right, at the mouth of the latter, is the impos- 
ing ruined castle of Venosta. Beyond (l ! /4 M.) Grosio (2170 ft.) the road 
recrosses to the left bank. 

30 M. Bolladore (2840 ft.; Posta or Angelo, R. I1/2 fr. ; Hdtel des Alpes). 
On the hill on the other side of the river rises the picturesque church of 
Sondalo. The valley contracts ; the southern vegetation disappears; far 
below rushes the grey glacier-water of the Adda. I72 M. Mondadizza. At 
(IV2 M.) LePrese we again cross the Adda. We enter the defile of Serra 
di Morignone, about 3 1 /* M. in length, which separates the Val Tellina 

1 52 Route 23. PORLEZZA. 

from the l Paese Freddo\ or 'cold region'', of Bormio. In 1859 the Ponte 
del Diavolo was the scene of an engagement between Austrians and Gari- 
baldians. At the end of the pass, in the green Valle di Sotto, lie the 
hamlets of Morignone and (farther on) Sanf Antonio. 

Beyond (3 l / 2 M.) Geppina we reach the level green valley of Bormio, 
enclosed by lofty mountains, the lower slopes of which are clothed with 
pines, and the upper in part with snow. At Santa Lucia we cross the 
muddy Frodolfo, just above its confluence with the Adda. The road runs 
to the N.E. to (37s M.) — 

44 M. Bormio, Ger. Worms (4020 ft.; "Posta or Leon d'Oro, R. 2 fr. ; 
Alb. della Torre), an antiquated little Italian town, with numerous dilap- 
idated towers, picturesquely situated at the entrance to the Val Furva. — 
The diligence goes on hence, ascending the winding Stelvio route, to 
(2 M.l the — 

46 M. Bagni di Bormio. The "New Baths (Bagni Nuovi; 4380 ft.), a 
handsome building on a terrace commanding a fine survey of the valley 
of Bormio and the surrounding mountains, are much frequented in July 
and Aug. (transient rates, R., L., & A. 3 l /2-4, B. I72, D. 4, S. 3 fr.) and are 
closed in Oct. (Engl, church service in summer). The Bagni Vecchi, or 
Old Baths of Bormio, are a little higher up (4750 ft.), perched on the rocks 
below the road; a picturesque footpath, shorter than the road, ascends 
to them in 74 hr. The seven springs, containing salt and sulphur (100- 
105° Fahr.), rise in the Dolomite cliffs near the old baths, whence the water 
is conducted to the new baths in pipes. They are mentioned by Pliny 
and Cassiodorus as known to the Romans. The old Roman baths (piscine) 
hewn in the rock are interesting. — From Bormio over the Stelvio to 
Landeck and Meran, see Baedekers Eastern Alps. 

23. From Menaggio, on the Lake of Como, to Lugano 
and to Luino, on the Lago Maggiore. 

42 M. Steam Tramway from Menaggio to Porlezza, 8 M., in 1 hr. (fares 
2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 a). Steamboat from Porlezza to (11 M.) Lugano in 1 hr. 
(fares 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 35 c), and to (26 M.) Ponte Tresa in 2V 2 -3 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 70 c). Steam Tkamwat from Ponte Tresa to Luino, 8 M., in 
1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 c). Through-tickets 9 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60 c. ; return, 
Sunday, and circular tickets at a reduced rate (to be had on board of any of 
the steamers). — Swiss custom-house examination on board the steamers 
in the Lake of Lugano, Italian custom-house at Porlezza or Ponte Tresa 
(usually also on board the steamers). 

Menaggio, see p. 148. The railway- station is at the S. end of the 
village; the ticket-office is in the Hotel Menaggio. The line at first 
ascends rapidly (5 : 100) to the hills above the lake, then turns sharp- 
ly, and runs towards the N. Fine view to the right of the central 
part of the Lake of Como, with Bellagio in the middle. Farther on 
the line describes a wide bend, affording a view (right) of the Val 
Sanagra, with Loveno and the Villa Vigoni in the foreground 
(p. 149). We then thread a tunnel 110 yds. long. At (3M.) Qrandola 
(1260 ft.) we reach the highest point of the line, 610 ft. above the 
Lake of Como, whence the train descends rapidly (4 : 100), via Bene- 
Grona, Piano (on the small Lago del Piano), 8. Pietro, and Tavordo. 
It next crosses the Cuccione and Beggo, and reaches — 

8M. Porlezza (Alb. del Lago ; Posta or Angelo), on the N. arm 
of the Lake of Lugano, with the Italian custom-house for travellers 
in the other direction. Bail, station, close to the steamboat-pier. 

OSTENO. 23. Route. 153 

The *Lake of Lugano (870 ft.) , called by the Italians Lago 
Ceresio after its doubtful Latin name, is 20 sq. M. in area and 945 ft. 
deep at its deepest point. Its wooded and oft-times precipitous 
banks are less varied and more sombre than those of Lakes Como 
and Maggiore, but its central part, the Bay of Lugano, vies in 
scenic charm and luxuriance of vegetation with its more celebrated 
neighbours. — The steamer (poor restaurant) proceeds towards 
Osteno, without calling at Cima, at the foot of the steep hills on 
the N. bank. 

Osteno (Hotel du Bateau; Ristorante della Qrotta), on the wooded 
S. bank of the lake, is frequently visited from Lugano on account 
of its grotto (return-fare 2 fr. 35 c. ; ticket for the grotto, obtained 
on board the steamer, 75 a). 

The 'Grotto of Osteno, Ital. Orrido or Pescara ('fishermen's gorge') 
di Osteno, is 7 min. from the landing-place. We pass through the village; 
outside the gate we descend to the right before the stone bridge, and 
cross the brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there are two small 
waterfalls, is near a projecting rock (restaurant). Visitors embark in a 
small boat and enter the grotto, the bottom of which is occupied by the 
brook. The narrow ravine through which we thread our way is curiously 
hollowed out by the water. Far above, the roof is formed by overhanging 
bushes, between which glimpses of blue sky are obtained. The gorge is 
terminated by a waterfall. — The Tufa Grottoes of Rescia may also be 
visited if time permit (1 hr. there and back) before the steamer returns 
from Porlezza. Boat (with one rower, there and back, 2 x /2 fr.) round the 
promontory to the E. of Osteno in x j\ hr. to the hamlet of Rescia; thence 
by a narrow path to the grottoes in 5 min. (adm. & torches 1 J2 fr.). In the 
vicinity are tufa quarries, containing interesting fossils. 

A road leads from Osteno to the S.W. to (6 M.) Lanzo d'Intelvi 
(3115 ft. ; Pens. Lanzo dUntelvi; Caffe Centrale, dej. 2 fr.), l*/4 M. above which 
is the ~Hdt. Belvedere (pens. 8-10 fr.), a pleasant spot for a stay (Engl. 
Church Service in summer), with a fine view of the Lake of Lugano and 
the Alps with Mte. Rosa. [Those whose destination is the Hotel Belvedere 
take the footpath to the right, about 3 f\ M. before reaching Lanzo, which 
soon joins the road ascending to the hotel.] A road also leads to Lanzo from 
(8 M.) Maroggia (p. 12), and another from Argegno on the Lake of Como 
(12 M. ; see p. 146). Near Lanzo (20 min.) are the baths of Paraviso. 
Bridle-path to Mte. Oeneroso (p. 13), 5 ! /2 hrs. 

The steamer now steers obliquely across the lake, leaving to the 
right Cresogno and Loggio on the N. bank, to S. Mamette (Stella 
$ Italia), beautifully situated at the mouth of the picturesque 
Val Solda, with Castello high above it (p. 11). Beyond Oria, the 
station for Albogas io, we enter Switzerland. Bellarma, to the right, 
is the first village on Swiss soil ; the slopes of Mte, Caprino (p. 11), 
to the S., are also in Switzerland. On the N. bank the steamer 
touches at Gandria (Pension; walk to Lugano, see p. 10), at the 
foot of Mte. Bre (p. 11), with its gardens borne by lofty arcades 
and its vine-terraces, and then turns into the pretty bay of Lugano, 
leaving Castagnola (p. 10) to the right. The Mte. S. Salvatore 
rises conspicuously on the S. side of the bay. 

Lugano (three piers), see p. 7. The station of the St. Gott- 
hard Railway lies high above the town, 1 M. from the lake (cable 

154 Route 23. PONTE TRESA. 

As we leave Lugano, we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town, with 
Mte. Bre (p. 11) to the N. The steamer rounds the promontory of 
8. Martino , the spur of Monte S. Salvatore, on the right; to the 
left rises Monte Caprino (p. 11). On some trips the steamer calls 
at Campione, an Italian enclave in Swiss territory. The church of 
the Madonna dell' Annunziata contains some old frescoes. To the 
left rise the steep flanks of Mte. Oeneroso (p. 13). The arch of the 
viaduct (p. 12) through which the boat now passes, with lowered 
funnel, frames a picturesque glimpse of scenery. The vessel touches 
at Melide on the W. and sometimes at Bissone on the E. hank. 

At this point a fine view is obtained to the left of the S.E. 
arm of the lake {Lake of Capolago, see p. 12), which the Mte. S. 
Giorgio (3590 ft.) separates from the S."W. arm. The steamer enters 
the latter (to the left, the hamlet of Brusin-Arsizio) and stops at 
Morcote [Hotel-Restaurant Morcote, on the lake, R. from 1, pens, 
from 4^2 fr>) > a small town with arcaded houses , picturesquely 
situated on the vine - clad Monte Arbostora (2710 ft.) and com- 
manded by a church and a ruined castle. 

The express-steamer plies direct from Morcote to Ponte Tresa, 
but the other boats steer obliquely across the lake to the small bay 
of Porto Ceresio, situated on Italian soil (railway to Varese and 
Milan, see p. 167). To the S. opens the Val Brivio, with Mte. Vseria 
(p. 167). The steamer turns to the N. and reaches the W. part of 
the lake. To the left, in Italy, lies Brusinpiano, opposite which, to 
the right, is Figino , where Mte. S. Salvatore again comes into sight 
to the N.E. The boat passes to the left of the Lake of Agno (see 
below), the background of which is formed by Mte. Bigorio, Mte. 
Tamaro, and other summits, and steers through the Stretto di La- 
vena, a narrow channel leading into the westernmost bay of the 
lake, which is almost completely enclosed by mountains. To the 
left is the village of Lavena; to the right, the sheer Sassalto 
(1740 ft.). At the W end of the bay is — 

Ponte Tresa, consisting of two villages, the larger of which is 

Swiss and the smaller Italian, divided by the river Tresa, which 

issues from the lake here. The railway-station and steamboat 

quay are on the Italian side. Italian custom-house examination. . 

The Road from Lugano to Ponte Tresa (6 M.), which may be re- 
commended to pedestrians, ascends to the Restaurant du Jardin in Sorengo 
(see p. 10),- descends past the small Lake of Muzzcmo , and traverses the 
broad valley of the Agno (p. 7) to the small town of Agno (970 ft.), which 
lies on the arm of the Lake of Lugano named after it (see above). Farther 
on we pass Magliaso and the church of Magliatina, traverse the Swiss part 
of Ponte Treta, cross the bridge to the left, and reach the railway-station. 

The Stbam Tramway prom Ponte Tresa to Luino , at first 
ascending a little, follows the left bank of the rapid and clear Tresa, 
which here forms the boundary between Italy and Switzerland. 
Several villages and churches are seen perched among the rocks. 
Beyond the station of (372 M.) Cremenaga (833 ft.) the train passes 

VARESE. 24. Route. 155 

through two tunnels and crosses the river, the right bank of which 
is now also Italian. The valley contracts, and the hanks become 
steeper. 6 M. Creva (745 ft.), with important manufactories. 
Crossing finally the Bellinzona-Genoa line (R. 27; station to the 
left), we arrive at (8 M.) Luino, where the station adjoins the Lago 
Maggiore steamboat-quay (see p. 163). 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio, on the Lake of 
Lugano, via Gallarate and Varese. 

47 M. Railway (liete Mediterranea) in 2-2 3 A hrs. (fares 8 fr. 40, 5 fr. 90, 
3 fr. 80 c). Trains start from the Central Station (p. 105). — The Italian 
custom-house examination (a somewhat ruthless proceeding) takes place 
at the rail, station of Porto Ceresio, the Swiss examination on the steamer. 

Milan, see p. 106. — 4 M. Musocco; 9 M. Rhb (p. 62), with 
the church of the Madonna dei Miracoli by Pellegrino Tibaldi; 
HYa M. Vanzago; 15 M. Parabiago. — 17y 2 M. Legnano (5400 
lnhab.), where Frederick Barbarossa was defeated by the Milanese 
in 1176; the principal church of S. Magno, ascribed to Bramante, 
contains a large * Altar-piece, one of thebest works of Luini. — 21M. 
Busto Arsizio (Alb. del Vapore, clean), a town with 9300 inhab., the 
church of which, designed by Bramante, contains frescoes by Gaud. 
Ferrari. Branch -line to Novara and Seregno (p. 61). — 25y 2 M. 
Gallarate (780 ft. ; Alb. Leon d'Oro), a town with 4400 inhab., at 
the S.E. base of a range of hills bounding the vast and fruitful Lom- 
bard plain, contains a technical school and carries on large manufac- 
tures of textile fabrics. The line to Arona (p. 158) diverges here. 

From Gallarate to Laveno, 20 M., railway in 1-2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 75, 
2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 75 c). The line diverges to the right from that to Avona. — 
3'/a M. Besnate; 6 M. Crugnola- Cimbro ; 10 M. Temate-Varano, on the little 
lake of Comabbio ; 15 M. Besozzo ; 18 M. San Giano. — 20 M. Laveno^ see p. 164. 

Our line runs to the N. through the attractive hilly district of 

the Varesotto. 307-2 M. Albizzate; 31 V2 M - Castronno ; 35 M. Gaz- 

zada (1230 ft.), in a lofty situation, with the Villa Cagnola. 

371/2 M. Varese. — Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Rete Mediterranea, 
to the E. of the town. — 2. Stazione Ferrovie Nord, 350 yds. to the N.E. of 
the foregoing, for the Milan-Laveno and Como-Laveno lines (pp. 157, 140). 

Hotels (rooms must be ordered in advance during the races, at the 
end of Sept.). *Gra"«d Hotel Vaeese (Excelsior), a large establishment 
(formerly the Pal. Recalcati), in an open situation 1 31. from the town, 
near the station of Casbeno (p. 158), with a lift, a beautiful garden, and 
a splendid view of the whole chain of the W. Alps, R., L., & A. from 5, 
B. I 1 /-', de"j. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-11, omn. I-I1/2 fr. This house, which is much 
visited hy English travellers, is closed from Dec. to Fehruary. — In the 
town: 'Italia, Corso Roma, with restaurant and small garden; Edropa, 
Via Luigi Sacco; Leon d'Oro, Gambero. Angelo, Alb. Centrale, all four 
quite unpretending. — Cafes (Cavour, etc.) under the arcades in the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele. — Beer Houses. Sport Bar, Corso lioma (also res- 
taurant); Birreria Poretti, at the Stazione Rete Mediterranea. 

Post Office, Piazza S. Vittore. 

Electric Tramway (generally crowded on Sun.) from the Stazione Fer- 
rovie Nord along the Corso Roma and Corso Vitt. Emanuele and through 

156 Route 24. YARESE. 

the villages of S. Ambrogio and Fogliaro to (25 min.) the Prima Cappella, 
below the Madonna del Monte (every 20 min.; fare, up 60, down 60 c). 
English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Varese. 

Varese (1250 ft.) is a thriving town with 5800 inhab. and 
silk paper furniture, and other manufactories. In summer the 
charming environs attract a number of wealthy Milanese families, 
who possess villas here and in the neighbourhood. The busiest street 
is the Corso Yittorio Emanuele. Adjacent, in the small Piazza 
S. Yittore is the church of San Vittore, rebuilt about 1580 after a 
design by Pellegrino Tibaldi, with a facade of the end of the 18th 
century. Fine view from the handsome tower, 246 ft. in height. In 
the interior are a St. Gregory by Crespi and a Magdalen by Moraz- 
zone. In the Yia Luigi Sacchi, to the left, is the Municipio, for- 
merly named La Corte, built for Duke Francis III. of Modena in 1775 
and now containing a collection of prehistoric and other antiquities. 
The Giardino Pubblico, laid out in the old Italian style, commands 
fine views. Among the villas may be mentioned : Villa Litta, on the 
road to Biume Superiore ; Villa Ponti, to the N.E., on the road to 
Biume Inferiore ; then , near the latter village, Villa Litta Modi- 
gnani, which still bears traces of a skirmish fought here in 1859. 

Walks. To the Colle Gampiglio (1485 ft.), l l /i M. to the W., on the road 
to Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view ; thence via Masnago and 
Casciago (where the Villa Castelbarco affords a fine "View of the five 
lakes and the chain of Mte. Rosa) to Luvinate, whence a beautiful view 
to the S.W. is obtained of the Lake of Varese and the small adjacent 
Lake of Biandronno, and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate and 
Comabbio. A little farther on are the rail, stations of Barasso and Gavirate 
(p. 158). — To the S. to (l 3 A M.) San? Albino and Gazzada. — To the S.W. 
to Casbeno (p. 158) and Schieranna, on the Lago di Varese^ and thence either 
by boat to the (1 hr.) Isola Virginia (restaurant), with the small Museo 
Ponti (relics of lake-dwellings), or along the N. bank of the lake to Cal- 
cinate, Oltrona, Voltorre (where there is an old monastery of the Canomci 
Lateranensi with interesting Romanesque cloisters), and (71/2 M.) Gavirate 

(see above). , . 

The most interesting excursion, however, is that to the Madonna del 
Monte (2885 ft.), a resort of pilgrims, 7'/ 2 M. to the N.W. The road leads 
via SanV Ambrogio and Fogliaro to the hamlet of Oronco, near the Prima 
Cappella (electric tramway, see p. 155; one-horse carr. there and back 
8-10 fr.). About 150 yds. beyond the tramway-terminus is 1he Albergo del 
Riposo, with a pretty garden (view). A broad, steep, and shadeless paved 
path (horse 2, ox-cart 4 fr.) ascends hence to (1 hr.) the Pilgrimage Church, 
passing 14 chapels or stations of various forms, adorned with 17th cent, 
frescoes and groups in stucco, and, lastly, a statue of Moses. The church, 
situated on an abrupt rocky summit, is a baroque structure of the 17th 
cent., with an ancient crypt. Adjacent are the old monastery and the 
Albergo Camponovo. The view hence is not less celebrated than the peculiar 
sanctity of the spot. The small lakes of Comabbio, Biandronno, and 
Monate, that of Varese, two arms of the Lago Maggiore, part of the Lake 
of Como, and the expansive and fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. 

A far more comprehensive view, including the glacier-world also, is 

obtained (best by morning-light) from the "Monte Campo de'Fiori (7305 ft.), 
13/ 4 hr. farther to the N.W. It is reached by a bridle-path diverging to 
the right at, the above-mentioned statue of Moses (horse or mule from the 
Prima Cappella, with driver, 4-5 fr.). 

Those who make a longer stay should take the pleasant Drive round 
the Mte. Campo de" Fiori via, Gavirate (see above), Cocquio, Orino, Cabiaglio, 
Brinzio, and Fogliaro (see above; carr. 8-10 fr.. with two horses 16-20 fr.). 

TRADATE. 25. Route. 157 

— Another attractive road leads from S. Ambrogio (see above) into the 
picturesque Val Ganna. 

Excursion to Castiglione Olona, see below. — From Varese to Como. 
see pp. 141, 140; to Laveno, see R. 25. 

The Railway to Porto Cebjbsio crosses the Ferrovie Nord and 
then a lofty viaduct over the Olona, which descends from the Val 
Ganna. — 40 M. Induno-Olona , with the Villa Medici. To the 
left rises the Mte. Monarca (2815 ft.). Tunnel. 42 M. Arcisate- 
Brenno, the first at the base of the finely -shaped Sasso delle 
Coma (3390 ft.). — The line then describes a wide curve round the 
Monte Vseria (1810 ft.), with its pilgrimage - church. — 44 M. 
Blsuschio-Viggiii. Bisuschio, which lies in the ValBrivio, 1 M. to the 
"W., is a favourite resort from Varese and contains the Villa Cicogna, 
with a large park in the Italian style and a splendid view of the 
Lake of Lugano. Viggiu lies on the height to the right, commanded 
by the church of S. Elia. — We now descend into the Val Brivio. 

47 M. Porto Ceresio (p. 154). The rail, station (no porters) 
lies close to the Lake of Lugano. Steamer to ( 3 /i-l hr.) Lugano, 
see p. 154. 

25. From Milan to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, 
via Saronno and Varese. 

45V2 M. Railway (Ferrovie Nord) in 2-3 hrs. (fares 7 fr. , 4 fr. 70, 
2 fr. 80 c); to (311/2 M.) Varese in lVi-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 55, 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 
55 c). For return-tickets, comp. p. lbl. The trains start from the Stazione 
Ferrovie Nord (p. 105). — In clear weather this is a very attractive journey 
Osest views to the left). 

From Milan to (1372 M.) Saronno, see p. 136. As we proceed, 
we have a fine view to the right of Brunate, the mountains round 
Lake Como, and Mte. Generoso. 16 M. Gerenzano ; 19^2 M. Moz- 
zate ; 20^ M. Locate- Varesino ; 22 M. Abbiate Guazzone. 

22V 2 M. Tradate (1014ft.). To the left we obtain a grand view 
of the Valais Alps ; in the foreground appear the Mte. Campo de' 
Fiori, with the Madonna del Monte (p. 156), and the mountains 
round the Lake of Lugano. — 24^2 M. Venegono Inferiore; 26 M. 
Venegono Superiore; 27y 2 M. Vedano- Olona. 

About IV2 M. to the W. of Venegono Superiore, and 2 1 /* M. to the S.W. 
of Vedano, is Castiglione Olona (1053 ft. ; Albergo S. Antonio), with 600 in- 
hab. and some interesting works of art. The choir of the high-lying Col- 
legiate Church contains "Frescoes painted about 1428 for Cardinal Branda 
Castiglione by Masolino of Florence, the master of Mataccio (p. 420) : at the 
sides of the windows, scenes from the life of St. Stephen ; on the vaulting, 
Birth of Christ, Annunciation, Assumption of the Virgin, Marriage of 
the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, and Angels playing musical instruments ; 
on the left is the monument of Card. Branda Castiglione by Leonardus 
Griffus (1443). The sacristy contains some valuable church-furniture and 
an Annunciation on panel ascribed to Masolino. — The sacristan (1 fr.) con- 
ducts visitors across the court to the Baptistery, in which there are well 
preserved frescoes by Masolino (about 1435). Outside, the Annunciation ; 
within, on the right, the daughter of Herodias begging the head of John 
the Baptist and bearing it to her mother. The rocky cave in the back- 
ground is the saint's tomtf; on the vaulting, church-fathers ; farther to the 

158 Route 26. ARONA. 

right, John the Baptist in prison, and preaching before Herod. On the 
rear-wall is a 'Baptism of Christ (the three figures undressing themselves 
to the right are interesting indications of the awakening study of the hu- 
man form) ; below, on the left, John preaching Christ as the Messiah ; 
above, God the Father between angels. — In front of the Ghiesm di S. Se- 
polcro, in the lower part of the town, stand two gigantic figures of saints. 

The train now enters the charming hilly district of the Varesotto 
(p. 155), crosses a viaduct, and reaches (287 2 M.) Malnate, the junc- 
tion of the Como-Laveno line (p. 141). We cross the valley of the 
Olona by a lofty viaduct. Beyond a tunnel we cross another ravine. 

3172 M. Varese (p. 155), the junction of the line from Milan 
to Porto Geresio via Gallarate (R. 24). 

The railway sweeps round Varese on the S. — 33V2 M. Casbeno, 
the station for the Grand Hotel Varese (p. 155). — 35 M. Morosolo. 

37V2 M. Barasso, with numerous villas. The train then pass- 
es near the N."W. extremity of the Lago di Varese and reaches 
(38V2 M.) Gavirate , near which are quarries of 'marmo majo- 
lica', a kind of marble used for decorative purposes. Opposite is the 
Isola Virginia (p. 156). View of Monte Rosa. 40 1 / 2 M. Cocquio; 
42 M. Oemonio. Farther on the Boesio is crossed , and , beyond 
(43 M.) Cittiglio , its right bank skirted. The line then leads past 
the S. base of the Sasso del Ferro to — 

45^2 M. Laveno (p. 164), on the E. bank of Lago Maggiore, a 
station on the Bellinzona and Genoa line (p. 159) and also a steam- 
boat-station. Boat to the Borromean Islands, see pp. 165, 167. 

26. From Milan to Arona, on the Lago Maggiore, 

via Gallarate. 

42 M. Railway (Rete Mediterranea) in l 3 /i-2^/ t hrs. (fares 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 
55, 2 fr. 65 c). Departure from the Central Station (p. 105). 

From Milan to (25i/ 2 M.) Gallarate, see p. 155. — 28 M. Caso- 
rate Sempione. — 30^ M. Somma Lombardo, near the E. bank of 
the Ticino (Ticinus), where Hannibal overthrew P. Cornelius Scipio 
in B.C. 218. — 33 M. Vergiate. Tunnel. — 36 M. Sesto Calende, 
junction of the line from Bellinzona to Genoa (p. 160). The train 
now crosses the Ticino, which issues here from the Lago Maggiore, 
and then skirts the S. bank of the lake. 

42 M. Arona. — *Albergo Reale d'Italia e Posta, R., I/., & 
A. 3-4, B. H/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Alb. San Gottakdo, 
R., L., & A. 2-2!/ 2 , both on the quay; Ancoea, behind the S. Gottardo. 
— Gafi adjoining the Albergo Reale; Gafi du Lac, near the quay; Caffi 
delta Stazione. 

Arona (740 ft.), an ancient town with 3300 inhab., lies on the 
W. bank of the Lago Maggiore, about 3 M. from its S. extremity. 
In the principal church of Santa Maria the chapel of the Borromean 
family, to the right of the high-altar, contains the *Holy Family 
as an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Ferrari fl511) ; it is surrounded by 
five smaller pictures, the upper representing God the Father, at 

LAVENO. 27. Route. 159 

the sides eight saints and the donatrix. The adjacent Gothic church 
of Santi Martiri contains a high-altar-piece by Ambr. Borgognone. 

On a height overlooking the entire district, y 2 hr. to the N. of 
the station and pier, is a colossal Statue of'S. Carlo, 70 ft. in height, 
resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour of the 
celebrated Cardinal , Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan 
(born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). The head, hands, 
and feet of the statue axe of bronze, the robe of -wrought copper. 
The enterprising visitor may enter the interior (50 c.) and climb 
to the head of the statue, but the ascent is far from pleasant. The 
adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The extensive 
building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

From Arona to Novara, see p. 61. 

27. From Bellinzona to Genoa. 

155'/2 M. Railway in 7-11 hrs. (fares 28 fr. 15, 19 fr. 75, 12 fr. 90 c. ; 
express 30 fr. 80, 21 fr. 65 c.) ; to (25 M.) Luino in I-IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 50, 
3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c), to (34 M.) Laveno in l 3 /4-2'/ 2 hrs. (faree 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 50, 
2 fr. 85 c). — At Mortara this line is joined by another coming from Milan, 
on which gome of the through -trains from Milan to Genoa run. From 
Milan to Genoa, 106 M., in 4i/ 4 -7 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 35, 13 fr. 60, 8 fr. 75 c. ; 
express 21 fr. 30, 14 fr. 95 c). — The night-express of the St. Gotthard Railway 
is the only train on this route ('Bale-Pino-Genoa 1 ) that affords good connec- 
tions for passengers for the Riviera coming from the N. ; comp. RR. 3, 30. 

Bellinzona, see p. 7. Railway to (5*^ M.) Cadenazzo, where the 
Locarno line diverges, see p. 7. — At (lO^M.) Magadino (p. 162) 
the train reaches the Lago Maggiore, and skirts its E. bank (views 
to the right). Opposite lies Locarno (p. 161), at the mouth of the 
Maggia. 12t/ 2 M. S. Nazzaro; 14 M. Ranzo-Gerra (opposite Bris- 
sago, p. 163). At Zenna we cross the Dirinella , the Italian fron- 
tier. Tunnel. — 16 ] /o M. Pino, the first Italian station. The bank 
becomes steep and rocky, and the construction of the railway was 
attended with great difficulties here. Between Pino and Luino there 
are six tunnels and numerous cuttings and viaducts. Delightful 
views of the lake to the right ; on the opposite bank lies Cannobio 
(p. 163), and farther on is the promontory of Cannero, with the pic- 
turesque castles of that name on a rocky islet (p. 164). Near 
(21 M.) Maccagno the train crosses the Giona. Several tunnels. 

25 M. Luino, an international station , with Swiss and Italian 
custom-houses, see p. 163. — To Lugano, see pp. 155, 154. 

The line crosses the Margorabbia (p. 164) below its union with 
the Tresa (p. 154), and leads by Germignaga and through a tunnel 
to (29 V2 M.) Porto- Valtravaglia. Beyond a tunnel under the castle 
of Calde (p. 164) we skirt the bay of the same name (opposite Intra, 
p. 165) and enter the Tunnel of Calde, l 3 / 4 M. long. 

34 M. Laveno (p. 164) is beautifully situated at the mouth of 
the Boesio, at the foot of the Sasso del Ferro (p. 164). The lake here 
attains its greatest breadth. Splendid view of the broad bay of 

160 Route 27. MORTARA. 

Stresa; in the centre lie the Borromean Islands: in the distance 
rise the snow-peaks of Monte Rosa and the Simplon. 

Laveno is the station for Intra , Pallanza, Stresa , and the Borromean 
Islands (steamer and small boats, p. 165; from the station to the quay, 
l /t hr. ; omn. in 6 min.). — Railway to Varese and to Milan, see pp. 158-157. 

The line quits the lake. Tunnel of Mombello ( 3 / 4 M.). 36*/ 2 M. 
Leggiuno-Monvalle ; 40^2 M. Ispra, on a promontory (opposite Bel- 
girate and Lesa, p. 170); 43 ! /2 M. Taino-Angera. 

47 M. Sesto-Calende, at the efflux of the Ticino from the lake, 
junction for Arona and for Milan (p. 158). A handsome iron bridge, 
with three openings (central 310 ft., the others 260 ft.), and two 
roadways (the upper for the railway, the lower for the Simplon 
road), here spans the Ticino. The railway to Arona (p. 158) di- 
verges to the right on the other side of the river. 

We follow the right bank of the Ticino. 48 M. Castelletto- 
Tieino ; 51 M. Porto-Varalpombia ; then a long tunnel. 52M. Pom- 
Ma. 56^2 M. Oleggio is the junction of the Novara and Arona line 
(p. 61). A glimpse of Mte. Rosa is obtained to the right. Flat 
country. — 59 M. Bellinzago. 

67 M. Novara (p. 61), junction for Milan and Turin (R. 15). 

72^2 M. Oarbagna; 74y 2 M. Vespolate; 77 M. Borgo-Lavezzaro. 
We traverse rice-fields, interspersed with arable land and mulberry 
trees. — 82 M. Mortara, a town with 5100 inhabitants. The church 
of 8. Lorenzo contains pictures by Crespi, Lanini, Procaccini, and 
Gaud. Ferrari (Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). 

At Mortara the direct line to Milan diverges. Feom Milan to Mobtaea, 
32V2 M., in li/ 4 -1 3 A hr. (fares 5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c. ; express 6 fr. 50, 
4 fr. 55 c). We start from the Central Station, and pass Porta Ticinese 
(PL B, 8), Corsico, Trezzano sul Naviglio, Oaggiano, and Abbiategrasso (with 
a church ascribed to Bramante). We cross the Ticino to Vigevano (Alb. 
Reale), a town of some importance in the silk-trade, with 13,700 inhab. and a 
spacions market-place surrounded by arcades. Tramways from Vigevano to 
Wovara (p. 6i) and to Ottobiano (see below). — Then (32V2 M.) Mortara, 
see above. 

Mortara is also the junction for the Vekcelli-Pavia line: 42 M., in 
3-3>/ 2 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). Stations unimportant. Vercelli, 
see p. 60; Pavia, see p. 174. 

Tramway from Mortara by Ottobiano (see above) to Pieve del Cairo. 

85 M. Olevano; 89 V 2 M. Valle; 92*/ 2 M. Sartirana; 9572 M - 
Torre - Berretti the junction of the Pavia and Alessandria line 
(p. 176). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 
in the distance. The train crosses the Po. — 100 M. Valenza, once 
a fortified town, with 6500 inhab., has a cathedral of the 16th cent, 
(thence to Pavia, see p. 176; to Vercelli, see p. 61). — Tunnel 
IY3 M. in length. 104 M. Valmadonna; several prettily situated 
little towns lie on the chain of hills to the right. The Tanaro is 
then crossed. 

109 M. Alessandria; thence to Genoa, see pp. 46, 47. / 


28. Lago Maggiore. 

Plan for a circular tour round the three lakes, see p. 143. The finest 
part of the Lago Maggiore is the W. hay, with the Borromean Islands, 
which are best visited from Pallanza, Stresa, or Baveno by small boat, 
though the hurried traveller may accomplish the excursion by steamer. 

Railways. — From Bellinzona to Locaeno, 14 M., in V2- 3 /* hr. (fares 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15 c). Through-tickets including the steamboat on 
Lago Maggiore are issued for Pallanza (5 fr. 90, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 15 c), etc. 
(comp. p. 166). 

From Bellinzona to Sesto-Calende via Ldino, 47'/2 M., in V i j\-2 3 /\ hrs. 
(fares 8 fr. 45, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c); to Luino in I-I1/2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 
50, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c). See R. 25. — Stations on this line are denoted by 
a capital R. in the following description. 

From Luino to Lugano, see pp. 155, 154 ; from Laveno to Varese (Porto 
Ceresio, Como, Milan), see p. 158. 

Steamboat thrice daily in summer from Locarno to Arona, five times 
daily from Cannobio to Arona, and six or seven times daily from Luino to 
Pallanza and Stresa. From Locarno to Arona 5 1 /4-6 1 /4 hrs. ; from Luino to 
Isola Bella 2-3'/« (from Laveno IY4) hrs. ; from Isola Bella to Arona l^-l^a hr. 
(fare from Locarno to Arona 5 fr. 85 or 3 fr. 20 C, from Luino to Isola Bella 
2 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 30 c, from Isola Bella to Arona 1 fr. 70 c. or 1 fr., landing 
and embarking at small-boat stations included; comp. p. 144). Strict punctual- 
ity is not always observed. Some of the boats are saloon-steamers, with 
restaurants on board (dej. 3, D. 4 J /2 fr.). — Steamboat Stations are indi- 
cated in the following description by heavier type. The following stations 
are not always touched at: Magadino., Ascona, Gerra, Maccagno, Cannero, 
Oggebbio, Ghiffa, Porto Valtravaglia , Suna , and Isola Superiore. — Return 
tickets, valid for 8 day?, are issued from the chief stations on the lake 
to Milan (steamer to Laveno, thence N. Eailway via, Varese); fares 13 fr., 
9 fr. 40, 5 fr. 60 c. (Sunday return-tickets 8 fr. 50, 6 fr. 20, 3 fr. 90 c). 

From Bellinzona to Locarno (fares , see above). The train 
follows the Lugano line (p. 7) as far as (2^2 M.) Giubiasco , then 
diverges to the right and traverses the broad lower valley of the 
Ticino. — &1/2 M. Cadenazzo, the junction of the line skirting the 
E. bank of the lake to Luino, Novara, and Genoa (R. 27); change 
carriages for Locarno. — The Locarno branch crosses the Ticino 
before (872M.) Beazzino, and the Verzasca, which dashes forth from 
a gorge on the right, beyond (11 M.) Oordola. It then skirts the 
Lago Maggiore to (14 M.) Locarno. 

Locarno (R.). — *Grand Hotel Locarno, with elevator, electric 
light, and English Chapel, R., L., & A. from 3 J /2, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 
9-12, omn. 1 fr.; *H6tel-PENsioN dd Parc, R. 2'/2-5, B. I'/z, dej. 2 1/2, D. 31/2, 
pens. 6V2-IO fr. Both these have views and fine gardens. — Hut. -Pens. 
Reber, with garden on the lake, R. 3, pens. 6-8 fr. •, 'Pens. Beau-Rivagb, 
5-6 fr.; '-Corona, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. i'/i, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 6-7 fr., in 
the Italian style; "Hot. Suisse, in the chief piazza. R., L., <fc A. 2V2-3, B. 
I-I1/4, D. 3, pens. 7-8, omn. V2 fr- ; *H6t. dd Lac, near the rail, station, R. 
2, B. 1, D. 372, pens. 7 fr. ; Alb. S. Gottardo, also near the station, R., 
L., & A. from I1/2, B. 1, dej. incl. wine 2V2, D. inch wine 3, board 4 fr ; — 
Pens. Villa Righetti, on the way to the Madonna del Sasso, 5-6 fr ; *H6t.- 
Pens. Belvedere, still higher up, with a large garden, pens. 5-7 f p. ; Pens. 
Villa Muralto. — Furnished rooms at Giul. BorghetWs. — Restaurants : Rail. 
Restaurant ; Gafi du Lac; Cafe" Svizzero ; Commercio. — Baths, on the lake. 

Locarno (680 ft.; pop. 3400, Rom. Cath.), suitable for a pro- 
longed stay, is situated on the N. shore of the lake, at the mouth 
of the Maggia, the deposits of which have formed a considerable 

Baedeker. It aly I. 11th Edit. 11 

162 Route 28. LOCARNO. Logo Maggiore. 

delta. Politically Locarno has been Swiss (Canton Ticino) since 
1513, but tbe character of the architecture, scenery, and popu- 
lation is Italian. Its mild climate makes it a favourite transition 
and winter resort for Germans and Swiss. The expulsion of the 
Protestants in 1553 arrested the development of the town, which 
was of considerable importance in the middle ages. From the pier 
we proceed to the W. to the market-place, in which are the Govern- 
ment Buildings and the Post Office ; the houses have arcades on the 
groundfioor. A fountain in front of the church of SanV Antonio 
commemorates the Marchese Marcacci (d. 1854), a benefactor of the 
town ; and another monument has been erected to the deputy Mor~ 
dasini (d. 1888). In the neighbourhood is a trout-breeding establish- 
ment. Great national festival on 8th Sept., the Nativity of the Yirgin. 

The pilgrimage-church of *Madonna del Sasso (1170 ft.), on a 
wooded eminence above the town (*/2 hr. ; steep paved path passing 
to the left of the 'ScuolaNormaleFemminile'), contains an Entomb- 
ment, by Ciseri (to the left), and a Flight into Egypt, by Braman- 
tino (to the right). Passing through the convent-buildings, and 
turning to the left again across a wooden bridge, and ascending 
rapidly, we reach (5-6 min.) a Chapel, commanding a charmingly 
picturesque retrospect of the Madonna del Sasso. The chapel con- 
tains a painted terracotta group of the Resurrection by Rossi (1887). 
Still higher up is the chapel of Trinita del Monte, whence we have 
a view of the upper part of the Lago Maggiore. The whole walk 
(best towards evening) may be easily made in 1 ^ h r - 

The *Lago Maggiore (635 ft.; greatest depth 1220ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans , is about 37 M. long and averages 2-3 M. 
in width (area 85 sq. M. ). The N. part of the lake belongs to Switzer- 
land; the W. bank beyond the brook Valmara, and the E. bank 
beyond the Dirinella belong to Italy. Its principal tributaries are on 
the N. the Ticino (Tessin) and the Maggia, and on the W. the Tosa. 
The river issuing from the S. end of the lake retains the name of 
Ticino. The banks of the N. arm are bounded by lofty mountains, 
for the most part wooded, whilst the E. shore towards the lower 
end slopes gradually away to the level of the plains of Lombardy. 
The W. bank affords a succession of charming landscapes. The water 
is of a green colour in its N. arm, and deep blue towards the S. 

Opposite Locarno, at the mouth of the Ticino, lies Magadino 
(R. ; Hotel Bellevue, Pens. Viviani , pens. incl. wine 5 fr., well 
spoken of, both on the lake), comprising two villages, Magadino 
Inferiore and Superiore, at tbe foot of Monte Tamaro (p. 12). 

To the S. of Locarno we have a view into the valley of the Maggia, 
which has formed a large delta at its entrance into the lake. Farther 
on the W. bank of the lake is studded with country-houses, villages, 
and campanili. On the bank of the lake runs the road from Lo- 
carno to Pallanza. In an angle lies Ascona (B.), with a ruined 
castle and several villas ; higher up, on the slope, Ronco. Passing 

Lago Maggiore. LUINO. 28. Route. 163 

the two small Isole di Brissago, the steamer reaches Gerra (R.") on 
the E. bank , and then , on the W. bank , Brissago (*H6t.-Pens. 
Beau-Sejour, pens, from 6 fr. ; *H6tel Suisse; Pens. Kohler) , a 
delightful spot, with picturesque white houses and villas in luxur- 
iant gardens, and a fine group of old cypresses near the church. 
The slopes above are covered with fig-trees , olives , and pome- 
granates, and even the myrtle flourishes in the open air. A pleas- 
ant route leads to Madonna del Monte, with its chalybeate spring. 
Brissago is the last Swiss station. The Italian custom-house 
examination is made on board the steamer. To the S. of Brissago 
is a large 'international' tobacco factory. 

Opposite Brissago , on the E. bank , lies the Italian village of 
Pino (R.). 

S. Agata and Cannobio {EoteF Cannobio, R. 2t/ 2 -3, pens. 6 fr. ; 
Albergo delle Alpi, moderate; *Villa Badia, l 1 ^ M. to the S., 
260 ft. above the lake, pleasant and quiet, pens. 6-7 fr.) are also 
on Italian territory. Cannobio (1800 inhab.) is one of the oldest 
and most prosperous villages on the lake, situated on a plateau at 
the entrance of the Val Cannobina , and overshadowed by richly 
wooded mountains. In the church della Pieth, the dome of which 
is in the style of Bramante, is a*Bearing of the Cross, with a pre- 
della representing worshipping angels, by Gaud. Ferrari (about 1 525). 

Pleasant walk of J /2 hr. (also omn.) up the beautiful Val Cannobina 
to the hydropathic of La Salute (open from June to Oct.), and thence via 
Traffiume to the (20 min.) Orrzdo, a rocky chasm with a waterfall to which 
boats can ascend (boatman to be brought from Traffiume, V2-I fr.). — A 
walk along the road to (4t/2 M.) Cannero (p. 164) may also be strongly re- 

The steamer now steers to the E. bank (to the "W. the Castelli 
di Cannero appear in the lake; p. 164), and stops at Maccagno 
(R. ; Alb. della Torre"), with a picturesque church and an ancient 
tower, whence we may visit the (2 hrs.) loftily situated Lago d'Eglio 
(2950 ft. ; *Hotel ; fine view). Farther on the viaducts and tunnels 
of the St. Gotthard Railway are seen skirting the lake. Passing 
Casneda, in a wooded ravine, we next reach — 

Luino (R.). — The Steamboat Piek adjoins the waiting-room (ddj. 
incl. wine 2 J /2, D. incl. wine 4 J /2 fr.) of the Steam Tramway to Ponte Tresa 
(Lugano ; see p. 7). By passing to the left of this station and the statue 
of Garibaldi and following the wide 'Via Principe di Napoir we reach 
(10 min. ; omnibus 40, trunk 50, smaller package 25 c.) the Stazione Inter- 
nazionale, the station of the Bellinzona and Genoa line, where the Italian 
and Swiss custom-house examinations take place (*Restaurant, dej. 2-2 J /2, 
D. 3-4 fr., incl. wine). 

Hotels. Grand Hotel Simplon et Terminus, on the lake, to the S. of 
the town, with a garden, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l J /2i dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12, 
omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel Poste et Suisse, R., L., & A. 1^2, D. 3 fr., well spoken 
of; Vittoria, R., L., & A. 21/2, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 8, omn. 3 A fr. ; 
these two near the steamboat-pier. — Near the Stazione Internazionale: 
Milano, R., L., & A. 2 1 /*, dej. incl. wine 2. D. incl. wine 3, pens. 7 fr. •, An- 
cora. — Gafi Clerici, next the Hotel Poste. 

Luino or Luvino, a busy little town with 1800 inhab., is situat- 
ed at the base and on the slopes of the mountain, a little to the N. 


164 Route 28. LAVENO. Lago Maggiore. 

of the mouth of the Tresa. It affords good headquarters for a pro- 
longed stay on account of its ample railway and steamer facilities. 
The Statue of Garibaldi, near the pier, commemorates his brave hut 
futile attempt to continue the contest here with his devoted guerilla 
hand after the conclusion of the armistice hetween Piedmont and 
Austria on Aug. 15th, 1848. The church of San Pietro is adorned 
with frescoes by Bernardino Luini, a native of the place (ca. 1470- 
1530). Among the numerous tasteful villas in the vicinity is the 
Palazzo Crivelli, to the N., surrounded hy pines. Pleasant walk to 
Maccagno (p. 163). — At the mouth of the Margorabbia , l / 2 M. 
to the S., lies Germignaga, with the large silk-spinning (filanda) and 
winding (filatoja) factories of E. Stehli-Hirt of Zurich. 

On the "W. hank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the five brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. — Cannero (Hot.-Pens. Nizza; 
Alb. Cannero) is beautifully situated on the sunny S. slopes of 
Monte Carza, in the midst of vineyards and orchards. Beyond 
it is the little village of Barbe, with its slender campanile. The 
next stations are Oggebbio , built in terraces on the mountain 
slopes, and Ghiffa (small-boat station; *H6tel Ghiffa, pens. 6 fr.), 
on the W. bank, and Porto Valtravaglia (R. ; Osteria Anticd) on 
the E. In a wooded bay beyond the last lies Calde, with the an- 
cient tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. To the S. 
appears the green Sasso del Ferro (see below), and to the W. the 
Monte Rosa and Simplon groups. Then, to the E., — 

Laveno (R.; *Posta, R.,L., & A. 27 2 , B. iy 4 , D- ^U fr.; *Moro, 
nearer the landing-place, R., L., & A. 2 fr., Italian, unpretending), 
beautifully situated on the slopes of the two-peaked Monte Boscero, 
on a bay at the mouth of the Boesio, formerly a fortified harbour for 
the Austrian gunboats. The quay is close to the Varese-Milan Station 
(p. 158), while the St. Gotthard Station (Bellinzona-Genoa line, 
R. 27) lies 1/2 M. farther on in the same direction (omn.). A mon- 
ument near the quay commemorates the Garibaldians who fell in 
1859. The site of Fort S. Michele (to the left as the steamer ap- 
proaches) is now occupied by a pottery belonging to the Societa Cera- 
mica Italiana. Above it is the Villa Pulle, with a belvedere, which 
contains a few relics of 1859. 

Behind Laveno rises the green Sasso del Ferro (3485 ft.) , the most 
beautiful mountain on the lake, easily ascended in 2 1 /2-3 hrs., and com- 
manding a magnificent view of the lake, the plain as far as Milan, and 
the Monte Rosa chain. — About 7 M. to the N.E. of Laveno, behind the 
Sasso del Ferro, lies the hamlet of Vararo (2625 ft.), whence we may 
ascend the *Monte Nudo (4052 ft.; 1^2 hr.), perhaps the finest view-point 
in the district, commanding an imposing survey of the Lago Maggiore, 
the Lago di Lugano, the Lago di Varese , and the Valaisian Alps. — In- 
teresting excursion to the convent of Santa Caterina del Sasso, l 1 /* hr. 
from Laveno, high above the lake. We may go either via, Cerro, to which 
a road diverges to the right beyond the bridge over the Boesio and a little 
short of the St. Gotthard station (see above), and thence by a picturesque 

Lago Maggiore. INTRA. 28. Route. 165 

footpath; or direct by boat from Laveno. Imbedded in tbe vaulted roof 
of the church is a rock, which fell upon it in the 17th century and has 
remained there ever since. View of the Borromean Islands and the snow 
mountains to the W. 

From Laveno to the Borromean Islands and Pallanza (pp. 166, 167), boat 
with three rowers, 10-12 fr. ; to Isola Bella IV2 hr. ; thence to Isola Madre, 
20 min., to Pallanza 20 min. more. 

From Laveno via Varese to Como, see pp. 141, 140; to Milan via Varese 
and Saronno, see R. 25 ; to Porto Ceresio (Lake of Lugano) via Varese , see 
RR. 23, 24; to Milan via Gallarate, see p. 155. 

The steamboat now approaches the W. bank again, at first dis- 
closing a view of the N. neighbours of Monte Rosa: first the Strahl- 
horn, then the Mischabel and Simplon group. 

Intra [*Vitello d'Oro, Leone cTOro, and Hotel de la Ville, now 
united, R. & A. 272-3 V21 B - ^A fr -! H ° tel Intra ; Agnello ; Cafe 
Monti; Omnibus to Pallanza-Gravellona , see p. 166), a flourish- 
ing town (5700 inhab.) with manufactories chiefly belonging 
to Swiss proprietors , is situated on alluvial soil , between two 
mountain-streams, the S. Giovanni and S. Bernardino. Near the 
quay is a marble statue of Garibaldi; and close by is a war-mon- 
ument for 1859. In the square in front of the theatre is a bronze 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., by Barsaglia. A bronze bust com- 
memorates Pietro Cerretti, the philosopher, who was born at Intra 
in 1823. Intra contains a large Roman Catholic church and a Swiss 
Protestant church. In the vicinity are several fine villas with 
beautiful gardens. The * Villa Franzosini (Count Barbo), 72 M. to 
the N.E., and the Villa Ada of M. Ceriani, 3 / 4 M. farther on, are 
both noteworthy for their luxuriant gardens. To the S. are the little 
old church and villa of S. Remigio; and farther on, on the promon- 
tory of Castagnola, is the red Gothic Villa Ashburner. 

Pleasant walk from Intra to the N. by a good road (omn. ; carr. 16 fr., with 
2 or 3 horses, 25 fr. ; shaded short-cuts for walkers), via, Arizzano to (3 3 /* M.) 
Bee (1935 ft.; "Alb. Bee), with a fine view of Lago Maggiore, and to (3 M.) 
Premeno (26U0 ft.; "Hdt.-Pens. Premeno , pens. 8 fr. ; Ristor. Tornico, with 
rooms). Above it (10 min.) is the Tornico, a platform laid out in honour 
of Garibaldi, with a good spring and a beautiful view of the Alps. A few 
min. higher is the "Bellavista, an admirable point of view, commanding 
the lake to the E., and the beautiful and fertile Val Intragna to theW., 
with its numerous villages. 

To the S. of Intra the Punta della Castagnola , with its wealth 
of luxuriant vegetation, stretches far into the lake ; upon it is situ- 
ated the Hotel Eden (p. 166). As soon as we double the cape 
and enter the wide W. bay of the lake, we obtain a *View of the 
Borromean Islands : near the S. bank is the Isola Bella, to the W. 
of it, the Isola dei Pescatori, in front, the Isola Madre. The little 
Isola 8. Giovanni, near Pallanza, with its chapel, house, and garden, 
is also one of the Borromean Islands. Behind the Isola dei Pesca- 
tori rises the blunt pyramid of the Mottarone (p. 169), crowned with 
its hotel; farther to the W. appear the white quarries nearBaveno; 
while the background is filled up by the snow-clad mountains be- 
tween the Simplon and the Monte Rosa. 

166 Route 28. PALLANZA. Lago Maggiore. 

Pallanza. — Hotels (omnibus from the qtiay, i-H/4 fr.). *Geand Hotel 
Pallanza, a large house, finely situated, i/a M. from the landing-place, 
with the Villa Montebello and several other dependances, lift, electric light, 
and railway booking-office; R. & L. 2y 2 -6, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, warm 
bath 2V2, lake-bath IV2, board in summer 71/2-I2V2, in winter 7-lOVs fr. 
(tariff in bedrooms). "Grand Hotel Eden (p. 165), with extensive view to 
the E., S., & W., R., L., & A. 3V2-7, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12 fr. — 
*jMetkopole et Poste, with electric light, hot air heating, and lift, R., 
L., & A. from 3, B. V/2, dej. 2V2, D. A l h, pens. 5-8 fr. ; San Gottakdo, 
R., L., <fe A. from 2, dej. 2y 2 , D. 3 l /2-4, pens, from 5 fr. ; Bellevue, with"- 
beer-saloon, R. from IV2, D. 2 l /z, pens. 5-7 fr., these three near the quay; 
Alb. Milano, in the market-place, R. 2, B. H/4, D. inch, wine 3ty2 fr., well 
spoken of. — *Pens. Castagnola, pens. frh-Wfe fr. •, *Pens. Villa Maggioke, 
R. 2 fr., L. 30 c, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 5-6 fr. — Caf& Bolongaro, near the 

Diligence (office opposite the Alb. S. Gottardo) to (6M.) Gravellona, 4 
times daily, in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 65 c ; coupe or banquette 2^2 fr. ; 33 lbs. of 
luggage free), in connection with the diligence thrice daily to Intra (p. 165), 
in 25 min. (50 c). The Hotel Pallanza also sends a private omnibus to 
Gravellona. — Goods Agent, Meregalli. 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre and back 2'/2, with two 4'/2, 
to Isola Bella and back 3V2 or 6; to both islands and back 4 or 7; to 
Stresa and back 3^2 or 6-, to Laveno and back 3'/2 or 7 fr., etc. The traveller 
should ask to see the tariff before embarking. The hotels also possess 
boats, for which the charges are similar. Comp. also p. 165. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Pallanza (April-Oct.). 

Pallanza, a thriving little town with 3200 inhab., delightfully 
situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a view of them, 
and of the lake as far as the snow-covered Swiss Alps. As the 
most sheltered and warmest spot on the Lago Maggiore, it enjoys 
a repute as a winter-resort, especially as an intermediate stage 
between the Riviera and more northerly climes. Opposite the 
quay is the market-place (Piazza Garibaldi), with the Municipio, 
a monument to Carlo Cadoma (by Trubetzkoi ; 1895), and the church 
of S. Leonardo , the campanile of which stands on the foundations 
of an old castle. The road to the right passes the villas Giulia, Boz- 
zotti (right) , and Montebello (left; see above), and the interesting 
nursery gardens of Rovelli (left), and then leads round the promon- 
tory of Castagnola to Intra, pasring the large hotels mentioned 
above. — In the street running inland from the market-place is the 
Post Office (on the right), and at the end of the town, to the left, 
is the church of Santo Stefano, with a Roman inscription built into 
the wall to the left of the portal. The broad Viale Principe Uin- 
berto, straight in front, leads past the bathing-establishment of Ca- 
prera (alkaline springs) to the C/4 hr.) domed church of the Madonna 
di Campagna, containing frescoes by Gaud. Ferrari (dome) and the 
Procaccini (choir and chapels). The church lies at the foot of the Monte 
Rosso (2270 ft), which is ascended hence by a stony path (view). 

Circuit of the Monte Rosso (3V2-4 brs ; only bread and wine to be 
obtained on the way). We proceed straight on from the Madonna di 
Campagna; 1 /t hr. bridge over the S. Bernardino (p. 165; footpath ascends 
on the left bank); 20 min. Intra road, where we turn to the left; 6 min. 
Trobaso; we turn to the left in the village; in 12 min. the road forks, 
the right branch leading to Unchio (p. 167) , the left recrossing the 

Lago Maggiore. BAVENO. 28. Route. 167 

S. Bernardino by a fine bridge; l ft hr. Santino, beyond which the traveller 
should enquire the way, which is in pour condition; 1/2 hr. Bieno; then 
by a steep and stony palh to O/2 hr.) Cavandone, passing by the pilgrimage 
church below the village; the lake soon comes into view once more; 
IY2 hr. Suna (see below). — By following the right arm of the road 
beyond Trobaso (p. 166) to O/4 hr.) Unchio and (40 min.) Cossogno, and 
then taking the l Via Solferino 1 (to the left), we soon reach (stony path) the 
O/4 hr.) Roman Bridge over the romantic gorge of the S. Bernardino. Paths 
with steps lead hence to O/4 hr.) the church of Rovegro. To reach the 
village we turn to the right. In the village we turn to the left and then 
follow a stony path along the ridge (with a boy as guide) to (1 hr.) San- 
tino (see above). — Comp. also the excursions from Intra (p. 165) and from 
Laveno (p. 164). 

To the W. of Pallanza the road leads along the lake to (1 M.) 
Suna (small-boat station; *H6i. Suna, with garden, R. H/2 fr.,pens. 
from 6 fr.) and to (3 M.) Fondo Toce, the latter situated at the 
mouth of the impetuous Tosa (Toce). A road, diverging here to the 
right, leads to the small Lago di Mergozzo. Farther on we pass the 
granite-quarries of Monte Orfnno (2595 ft.) and then cross the Tosa, 
by a five-arched bridge, to the railway-station of Qravellona (p. 171), 
6 M. from Pallanza (omnibus, see p. 166). 

In the S.W. nook of the bay lies Feriolo, 23/ 4 M. from Gravellona 
(p. 171 ; omn. to Stresa, see p. 169). The large granite-quarries ex- 
tending along the hills between Feriolo and Baveno have for ages 
yielded a splendid building material, which has been used for the 
columns in the Cathedral of Milan, the church of S. Paolo fuori le 
Mura at Rome, the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele at Milan, and many 
other important structures. A visit may be paid to the Stabilimento 
Nic. Delia Casa, about 3 / 4 M. from Baveno, where the granite is 
hewn and polished. — Then — 

Baveno. — Hotels (all with large gardens). *Geand Hotel Belle- 
vue, R., L., & A. 4-8, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr., with lift; *Beau- 
rivage; 'Simplon et Suisse, R. from l 1 ^ , B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3, pens, from 
5 fr. — Diligence to Qravellona (p. 171; 5 M.) thrice daily in 1 hr. (fare 
1 fr. 15 c, coupe or banquette l 3 /4 fr.). 

Boats, see p. 144. Halfway between Baveno and Stresa is a ferry, 
where the charge for the short crossing (10 min.) is 1-2 fr. 

English Chukch in the garden of the Villa Clara. 

Baveno, a small place commanding a fine view of the Borromean 
Islands, is frequently chosen for a stay of some time. Near the 
village, on the side next Stresa, is the Villa Clara, in the early- 
English style, formerly belonging to Mr. Henfrey; it was occupied 
by Queen Victoria for some weeks in the spring of 1879 and by 
the Crown Prince Frederick of Germany in Oct., 1887 (no admission). 

The most beautiful feature in this W. bay of the lake is formed 
by the *Borromean Islands, the scenery in the neighbourhood of 
which rivals that of the Lake of Como in grandeur and perhaps 
surpasses it in softness of character. The westernmost, the Isola 
dei Pescatori or Superiore (Hotel- Ristor ante a" Italia, pens. 5-6 fr. ; 
Trattoria del Verbarto, both well spoken of), is almost entirely occu- 
pied by a fishing-village (300inhab.), but commands some pictur- 

168 Route 28. ISOLA BELLA. Lago Maggiore. 

esque views. The steamers touch here only occasionally, hut all of 
them call at the — 

*Isola Bella {Hotel du Dauphin or Delfino, R., L., & A. 3, 

B. II/4, D. 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Bistorante del Vapore , fair), the hest 
known of the four islands, which was formerly a barren rock with a 
church and a handful of cottages, until Count Vitaliano Borromeo 
(d. 1690) transformed it in 1650-71 by the erection of a chateau and 
the laying out of a garden. The huge Chateau, of which the N. wing 
is unfinished, contains a series of handsome reception-rooms, a 
gallery hung with tapestry of the 17th cent., and numerous other 
treasures of art (see below). The view through the arches of the 
long galleries under the chateau is very striking. The beautiful 
Garden, laid out in the old Italian style, rises in ten terraces 100 ft. 
above the lake, and is stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, magnolias, 
orange-trees, laurels, cork-trees, camphor-trees, eucalypti, magni- 
ficent oleanders, and other luxuriant products of the south, while 
shell-grottoes, arbours, and statues meet the eye in profusion. The 
traveller coming from the N. cannot fail to be struck with the love- 
liness of the bank of the lake as seen from here, studded with 
innumerable habitations, and clothed with southern vegetation 
(chestnuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives), the extensive lake with 
its deep blue waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains 
combining the stern grandeur of the High Alps with the charms 
of a southern clime. — The island is open to the public daily, ex- 
cept Mon., from March 15th to Nov. 15th, from 9 to 3, 4, or 5 ac- 
cording to the season. A servant shows the apartments (fee 1 /2 I " r -> 
for a party 1 fr.), and a well-informed gardener shows the garden 
for a similar fee. 

The Pictuee Gallery, amidst its numerous copies, contains a few 
good Lombard pictures: Oiov. Pedrini, Lucretia and Cleopatra; Gaud. Fer- 
rari, Madonna; Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Head of St. John; "Boltraffio, 
Portrait of a woman; Borgognone, Christ blessing; Gregorio Schiavone, 
Madonna between John the Baptist and St. Justina (an interesting work, 
wrongly ascribed .to Bernardinus Betinonus). — The Private Chapel, 
which is not always shown, contains the handsome tombs of three mem- 
bers of the Borromeo family, brought from Milan. The two earlier (Gio- 
vanni and Camillo Borromeo) are probably by Giov. Ant. Amadeo (d. 1485), 
while the third is said to be a work of Bambaja (ca. 1515). 

The usual charge for a boat to Isola Madre and back with two 
rowers is 3 fr. 

The *Isola Madre (not a steamboat-station), also belonging to 
the Borromeo family, on its S. side resembles the Isola Bella, and 
is laid out in seven terraces with lemon and orange trellises ; on 
the upper terrace is an uninhabited 'Palazzo' (beautiful view). On 
the N. side there are charming walks in the English style, with 
most luxuriant vegetation (fee 1 fr.). 

Nearly opposite Isola Bella, on the "W. bank, lies — 

Stresa. — Hotels (closed in winter). *H6tel desIles Borromees, l /zM. 
from the landing place, comfortable, with beauFTful gar 5 en, "B,. 2-4l/2*L- 3 A) 
A. 1, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12, omn. 1 fr. ; *Hot.-Pens. Beau-Sejour, 

Lago Maggiore. STRESA. 28. Route. 1 69 

above the village, on the road to the Mottarone, with large garden. — 
*H6tel Milano, with garden, near the steamboat-pier, R. from 2, B. l'/z, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 6 fr. — Albergo Reale Bolongaro, on the bike, 
R., L., & A. from 2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6V2 fr. ; Hot. dTtalie et Pens. 
Suisse, R., L., & A. 11/2-21/2, B. li/«, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens, from 6 fr. ; 
S. Gottakdo, with garden, R. 2, B. l'/4, dej. 2'/2, D. 3V2, pens. 572-6 fr., 
all these good Italian houses. — Ristorante Zanini, with beds. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2 fr. for the first hour, and 50 c. for each 
additional V2 hr. ; to Isola Madre and Isola Bella and back, with one rower, 
41/2 fr. 

Diligence to Gravellona (p. 171; V/2 M.) thrice daily in I1/4 hr. (fare 
1 fr. 80 C, coupe or banquette 2 fr. 70 c). 

Photographs : E. Biischi, Via Principe Tommaso. 

English Church Service at the Hotel des lies Borrome'es (April-Sept.). 
— English Physician, Dr. Danvers (in winter at Bordighera). 

Stresa, cooler and more breezy than the other places on the 
lake , occupies a picturesque and attractive situation , with the 
country-houses of many of the Italian noblesse, and is a suitable 
spot for a lengthened stay during the summer months. The Villa 
Ducale, adjoining the Alb. Milano on the W., belongs to the Duch- 
ess of Genoa (ne'e Princess of Saxony) , and the new building in 
the park belongs to her son the Duke of Genoa. — About 10 min. 
above the village, to the S. (reached by ascending from the Alb. 
Reale), stands the handsome Rosminian Monastery (875 ft.), now a 
school. The church contains the monument of Ant. Rosmini (d. 1855), 
with an admirable statue by Vela. The front of the church com- 
mands a beautiful view of Pallanza, Intra, and the islands. — Above 
the lake, Y2 M. to the S., is the beautifully situated Villa Palla- 
vicino, and 1/4 M. farther on is the Villa Vignolo, both with fine 
gardens (visitors admitted). 

The Monte Mottabone is easily ascended from Stresa or Baveno in 
3V2-4 hrs. (guide 5 fr., convenient; mule 5fr., with attendant 8 fr. ; one- 
horse mountain-car from Stresa to the Alb. Alpino 10 fr.). The route from 
Baveno leads by Romanico, Loita, and Campino, mostly through wood, to 
Someraro (1500 ft.), where it joins a route ascending from the road along the 
lake opposite the Isola Bella, and to (l 3 /4-2 hrs.) the hamlet of Levo (1915 ft.; 
*H6tel Levo, pens. 6-7 fr.). A road leads hence towards the left to (25 min.) 
the Alb. Alpino (see below). The route to the Mottarone farther on ascends 
across pastures, past the Alpe Giardino (3057 ft.), to the (i hr.) chapel of 
" SanV Eurosia (36b5 ft.), where we turn to the right. 20 vain. Alpe del Motta- 
rone, surrounded by line beeches and elms; V2 hr. Albergo Mottarone (see 
below). — Those who start from Stkesa at first follow the road diverging 
from the main road a little to the E. of the Hotel des lies Borrome'es. 
1 hr. Ristorante Zanini (a dependance of the establishment in Stresa), a 
hut on an open meadow adjoining the Sasso Marcio. A finger-post points 
to the right to Levo (see above), while the carriage-road goes on tq Gig- 
nese. We, however, followithe road which diverges to the right, 25 min. 
from the Ristorante Zanini, before we reach Gignese, and leads to O/4 hr.) 
the '-Albergo Alpino (2756 ft. ; pens. 7>/2-8 fr.), with a view of Pallanza, 
Intra, and Baveno. Thence we proceed across pastures and the Alpe del 
Mottarone (see above) to (l 3 /t hr.) the "Albergo Mottarone (4678 ft.; R., L., 
& A. 3, B. 1^2, dej. 3, pens, with wine 71/2 fr.), kept by the brothers Gug- 
lielmina, 10 min. below the turf-clad summit of the "Monte Mottarone 
or Motterone (4892 ft.), the culminating point of the Margozzolo Group. 
The view from the top of the 'Rigi of Northern Italy' embraces the Alps, 
from the Col di Tenda and Monte Viso on the W., to the Ortler and 
Adamello on the E. (panorama by Bossoli, in the hotel). The most con- 

170 Route 29. VOGOGNA. 

spicuous feature is the Mte. Rosa group (especially fine by morning-light) ; 
to the right of it appear the Cima di Jazzi, Strahlhorn, Rimpfischhorn, 
Allalinhorn, Alphubel, Mischabel (Taschhorn, Dom, Nadelhorn), Pizzo 
Bottarello, Portjengrat, Bietschhorn, Mte. Leone, Jungfrau, Helsenhorn, 
Fiescherhorner ; then more distant, to the E. of the peaks of Mte. Zeda, 
the Rheinwald Mountains, Bernina, Disgrazia, Mte. Legnone, Mte. Generoso, 
Mte. Grigna. At our feet lie seven different lakes, the Lake of Orta, Lago 
di Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago di Biandronno, Lago di Varese, Lago di 
Monate, and Lago di Comabbio ; farther to the right stretch the extensive 
plains of Lombardy and Piedmont, in the centre of which rises the cathe- 
dral of Milan. The Ticino and the Sesia meander like silver threads 
through the plains. 

On the W. side a path, rather steep at places (guide advisable), de- 
scends direct to (2 hrs.) Omegna (rail, stat., see p. 171). Travellers bound 
for Orta (4 J /2 hrs ) soon reach a broad bridle path on the S. side of the 
hiJl (guide unnecessary), which after 1 hr. passes above the Alpe Cortano 
(to the right) and in 40 min. more in front of the Madonna di Luciago. In 
2'/ 4 hrs. (from the summit) they reach Chiggino (5120 ft.), whence another 
J /4 hr. brings them to Armeno (1720 ft. ; Alb. al Mottarone), on the high- 
road. They follow the latter to the S., and in 12 min. reach a point 
where the road lorks, the left branch leading to Miaslno (p. 171), while 
the right , crossing the railway to Gravellona (station of Orta to the left), 
runs via Carcegna and the Villa Crespi (p. 171) to Orta (H/ 4 hr. from Ar- 
meno). To reach the Albergo Belvedere (p. 171), we turn to the right, 
2 min. beyond the Villa Crespi. 

Beyond Stresa the banks of the Lago Maggiore become flatter, 
and Monte Rosa makes its appearance to the W. The next place 
on the W. bank is Belgirate [Orand Hotel Belgirate, closed at pre- 
sent), surrounded by the Villas Fontana, Principessa Matilda, and 
others. — Then follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta), and, on 
the E. bank, Angera (rail, stat.), with a chateau of Count Borromeo. 

Arona, and thence to Milan, see p. 158; to Novara (Genoa, 
Turin), see p. 61. 

29. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. 
From Orta to Varallo. 

56 M. Railway in 31/2 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 20, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 60 c); to Gra- 
vellona, the station for the Lago Maggiore (omn. to Pallanza and to Stresa, 
see pp. 166, 169), I81/2 M., in 1 hr. (fares 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c). 

Domodossola , see p. 4. The railway runs straight through the 
Vol d'Ossola, skirting the base of the mountains on the W. and 
following the right bank of the Tosa (Toce), which separates into 
several arms and fills the whole valley with its debris. At (3^2 M.) 
Villa, or Villadossola, the Antrona Valley opens on the right. 

Near (5 M.) Pallanzeno (748 ft.) the train hugs the river for a 
short distance and then traverses an open expanse of meadow. At 
(7 M.) Piedimulera (810 ft. 5 *Alb. Piedimulera or Cavour ; *Corona; 
Alb. della Stazione) the Val Anzasca, leading up to Macugnaga at 
the foot of Monte Rosa (see Baedeker s Switzerland) , opens to the 
right. The railway crosses the Anza at (8 M.) Bumianca and the 
Tosa at (9 M.) Vogogna (716 ft. ; Corona), a small town at the base 
of precipitous rocks, with a ruined castle. — IOV2 M. Premosello. 

ORTA. 29. Route. 171 

Beyond (13 M.) Cuzzago the Tosa is crossed. On the hill to the left, 
near (15^2 M.) Ornavasso (690 ft.; Italia; Croce Bianco), are im- 
portant marble-quarries. 

18^2 M. Gravellona-Toce {Rail. Restaurant; inns poor), with 
large cotton-mills, situated at the junction of the Strona with the 

Passengers for the Lago Maggioke leave the railway here. The road 
to (6 M.) Pallanza rims via Fondotoce and Suna (see p. 167$ omn., see 
p. 166; carr. with one horse 5, with two horses 10 fr). For the road to 
(5 M.) Baveno (via Feriolo) and Stresa, see pp. 167, 163 (omn., see p. 169; 
carr. to Baveno 4, to Siresa 5 fr., with two horses 8 or 10 fr.). — There 
are always plenty of vehicles at Gravellona station. It is neither necessary 
nor advisable to take the omnibus seats at Domodossola. 

The railway runs to the S. through the fertile valley of the Strona. 
Beyond (21 M.) Crusinallo it crosses the river and immediately 
afterwards the Nigulia Canal, which drains the Lake of Orta. 

23 M. Omegna (Alb. della Posta), with a large paper-mill, lies 
at the N. end of the charming Lake of Orta (950 ft. above the sea ; 
7*/2 M. long) , now known as the Lago Cusio from its (somewhat 
doubtful) ancient name. — The line runs high above the lake, com- 
manding beautiful views of it. Beyond (27 M.) Pettenasco we cross 
the Pescone, and then the imposing Sassina Viaduct. 

28 1 /2 M. Orta, also the station for Miasino. 

The railway-station lies about 1 M. above Orta. On leaving it we 
turn to the left, pass below the railway, and proceed in a straight direction. 
About halfway to the town we pass the Villa Crespi, in a Moorish style, 
beyond which a guide-post points to the right to the Monte a" Orta and 
the O/4 hr.) Alb. Belvedere. 

Hotels. *Alb. Belvedere, on the W. slope of the Monte d'Orta, with 
fine view, R. & A. 3, D. 4 fr. (Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer). — Alb. 
S. Giulio (Ronchetli; well spoken of), Alb. Orta, both in the Piazza, by 
the lake, I1/4 M. from the railway-station; Hot. -Pens. Garibaldi, at the 
rail, station. — Boats for hire at the Piazza. 

The little town of Orta, consisting mainly of a Piazza, open on 
the side next the lake, one long narrow street, and a number of 
tasteful villas lining the road to the station, lies opposite the small 
IsolaS. Giulio, at the S.W. base of the Monte d'Orta (1315 ft.), 
or Sacro Monte, a beautifully wooded hill, stretching out into the 
lake. The ascent of the Sacro Monte may be made either from a point 
halfway between the town and the station (see above) or from the 
Piazza, through the grounds of the Villa of Marchese Natta (50 c). 
In the 16th cent. 20 chapels were erected here in honour of St. Francis 
of Assisi, each containing a scene from his history in painted life- 
size figures of terracotta, with a background 'al fresco'. Though of 
little artistic value, these groups are on the whole spirited and effect- 
ive. The best, are in the 13th, 16th, and 20th chapels; in the last 
is represented the canonisation of the saint. Various points on the 
hill command charming surveys of the lake, while the panorama from 
the Campanile at the top (50 c.) includes the snowy Monte Rosa, 
rising above the lower hills to the W. 

172 Route 29. COLDICOLMA. 

A boat to the Isola S. Oiulio and back costs I1/2 fr. The ancient church 
here was founded by St. Julius, who came from Greece in 379 to convert 
the natives, and has been frequently restored. It contains several good 
reliefs, old frescoes, and a fine Romanesque pulpit. In the sacristy are a 
Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari and some old vestments, while the crypt, 
below the high-altar, contains a shrine of silver and crystal, with the 
body of St. Julius. 

Picturesque Excursions may be made from Orta to the (1 hr.) Madonna 
delta Bocciola (1565 ft.) , situated on the hill above the station, to the 
W., and to the (IV4 hr ) Torre di Buccione (see below; boat to Buccione 
1^2 fr.), to the S., both points commanding good views. By Bella (see below) 
to G/2hr.) Alzo, with extensive granite-quarries (branch-railway from Goz- 
zano, see below), and to (lhr.) the Madonna del Sasso (2090ft.), the pretty 
church of the hamlet of Boletto, on a lofty cliff, commanding a fine view. 
— The Monte Mottakone may be ascended from Orta in 5 hrs. via Car- 
cegna, Armeno (carr. practicable to this point; beyond it ox-carts), and 
Cheggino (see p. 170 ; arrows on the houses, 'al Mottarone' or 'al Mergozzolo') ; 
guide 6, donkey 10 fr. ; over the Mottarone to Baveno or Stresa, 10 and 15 fr. 

Beautiful views of the lake as we proceed. In the centre lies the 
island of S. Giulio (p. 171), and on the steep cliffs of the W. hank is 
the church of Madonna del Sasso (see above). Beyond (30!/2 M.) Cor- 
conio the train traverses a cutting on the W. side of the Castello di 
Buccione, a conspicuous old watch-tower at the S. end of the lake. 
3IY2M. Bolzano. 33!/2 M. Gozzano (branch-line to Alzo , see above). 
We now traverse the fertile Vol d'Agogna. 36 Y2 M. Borgomanero 
(Alb. al Ramo Secco); 41 M. Cressa-Fontaneto ; 43 M. Suno; 
461/2 M. Momo; 50V2 M - Caltignaga; 6S l / 2 M. Vignale. 

56 M. Novara. From Novara to Milan, railway in 1-1 72 hr., 
see pp. 61, 62; to Laveno in 1-1 V2 hr., see P- 160. 

From Orta over the Colma to Varallo, 472 hrs., a beauti- 
ful walk (donkey 6, to the Colma 3 fr. ; guide, 5 fr., unnecessary). 
On the W. bank of the lake , opposite Orta , the white houses of 
Fella (Pesce d'Oro, unpretending) peep from amidst chestnuts and 
walnuts (reached by boat from Orta in 20 min. ; fare 1 fr.). We 
now follow the road leading along the slopes above the W. bank, 
and then a footpath leading to the left to (1 hr.) Arola (2015ft.). At 
Arola we obtain a fine retrospect of the lake of Orta. We turn to the 
left 5 min. beyond the village, descend a little, and then keep on for 
72 hr. on the same level, skirting the gorge of the Pellino, which here 
forms a pretty waterfall. We next ascend through wood, between 
crumbling blocks of granite, to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) wooded Col di Colma 
(3090 ft.). An eminence to the left commands a splendid view, 
embracing Monte Rosa. In descending (to the right), we overlook 
the fertile Vol Sesia, with its villages. The path leads through 
groves of chestnuts and walnuts to( 3 / 4 hr.) Civiasco (2350 ft. ; several 
Cantine), whence a fine new road (short-cut by the old path to the 
left), affording a magnificent view of Mte. Rosa, leads to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

Varallo (1480 ft.; •Italia, R., L., & A. 31/2, B. i 1 /* dej. 2% 
D. 4, pens. 7-8, omn. i/ 2 fr. ; *Posta, R. & A. 2i/ 2 , B. li/ 2j D. 4 fr., 
good cuisine; Parigi; Croce Bianca ; post-office in the Palazzo di 

VARALLO. 29. Route. 173 

Citta) , the terminus of the railway from Novara (p. 61) and the 
capital of the Val Grande, with 2300 inhah., at the mouth of the Val 
Mastallone (see helow). The Piazza Vitt.Emanuele, at the entrance 
to the town from the station, is embellished with a monument to 
Victor Emmanuel II., by Gius. Antonini (1862). Over the high- 
altar of the collegiate church of S. Oaudenzio is a picture in six sec- 
tions (Marriage of St. Catharine, Pieta, and Saints) by Gaud. Fer- 
rari (1471-1546), a native of the neighbouring Val Duggia. The 
church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, at the approach to the Sacro 
Monte, contains a series of 21 *Scenes from the life of Christ (rood- 
screen) and other frescoes by this master, while there is also an 
Adoration of the Child by him over the portal of the church of 
Santa Maria di Loreto, about 3 / 4 M. from the village. A marble statue 
of Ferrari, by Pietro DellaVedova (1884), stands in the Piazza Ferrari. 
The building of the Societa per I Incoraygiamento alle Belle Arti, in 
the Via del Santuario, contains a small picture-gallery and some 
natural history collections. In the Piazza Nuova are the library and 
reading-room of the Varallo branch of the Italian Alpine Club 
(strangers welcome). — On the Mastallone bridge is a statue of 
General Giacomo Antonini, by Gius. and Leone Antonini (1891). 
Beyond the bridge are the *Stabilimento Idroterapico, a large and 
well-equipped hydropathic (open from May 1st to Oct. 15th; pens. 
9-11 fr.), with a garden and swimming-bath, and the Cotonifimo 
Cuorgne - Varallo, a cotton-spinning mill. 

The 'Sacro Monte (Santuario di Varallo; 1995 ft.), rising in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the town, is ascended from S. Maria delle Grazie (see above) 
in 20 min. by a paved path shaded by beautiful chestnuts, and commands 
a delightful view. On the top of the hill and on its slopes are a church 
and 46 Chapels , or oratories, containing scenes from sacred history in 
painted lifesize figures of terracotta, with supplementary frescoes, begin- 
ning with the Fall in the 1st chapel, and ending with the Entombment of 
the Virgin in the 45th. These are the work of Gaudenzio Ferrari (No. 5. 
The Magi, 38. Crucifixion), his pupil Bern. Lanini, Tabaccfielti, Morazzone, 
and later masters of the upper valley of the Sesia. This '■Nuova Gerusa- 
lemtne nel Sacro Monte di Varallo'' was founded in 1486 by Bernardino 
Caloto, a Milanese nobleman, with the sanction of Pope Innocent VIII.; 
but as a resort of pilgrims it did not become important until after the 
visits of Cardinal Borromeo (p. 159), who caused the handsome Church 
to be built by Pellegrino Tibaldi in 1578. In the dome of the latter is a 
plastic representation of the Assumption, wilh 150 figures, by Bossola and 
Volpini of Milan. On the top, adjoining the church, are the Albergo- Pension 
Alpina and a Cafe". 

A road ascends the pretty Val Mastallone, passing the (3 M.) pictuivsque 
Ponte delta Gvla, to (10 1 /;. M.) the charming village of Fobello (28& r > ft. ; 
Posta; Italia), whence an easy bridle-path crosses the Col di Baranca (5970ft.) 
to (fi hrs ) Pontegrande and Macugnaga (see Baedekers Switzerland). 

From Varallo to Alagna, 23 M., omnibus daily in 5 hrs. The road 
ascends the fertile Val Sesia by Valmaggia and Vocca to (5 M.) Balmuccia 
(LGOO ft.), at the mouth of the Sermenza (p. 174), and next leads via. 
Scopa. Scopeilo, Pila, Piode, and Campertogno to (10 M.) Mollia (2887 ft.; 
"Aib. Valsesiano). Thence through the narrowing valley to (5'/2 M.) Riva 
Valdobbia (3628 ft ; 'Hotel delle Alpi), with an elaborately decorated church, 
and (2'/2 M.) Alagna (39,)5 ft. ; "Hdtel Monte Rosa; Qr.-H6tel Alagna), situated 
at the S.E. base of Monte Rosa, and frequented ; s a summer-resort. An 
easy bridle-path leads hence over the Col d'Olen (9420 ft.) to (6>/2 hrs.) Ores- 

174 Route 30. PA VI A. From Milan 

soney-la-Triniti; another, still easier, from Riva (p. 173) over the Col di 
Valdobbia (8360 ft.) to (7 hrs.) Oressoney-St-Jean. On the latter route, in 
the Val Vogna , i l fa M. from Riva, is the Casa Janzo (4593 ft. ; *Inn), an- 
other favourite resort. 

From Balmuccia (p. 173) a road ascends the picturesque Val Ser- 
menza by (U/2 M.) Boccioleto (2188 ft.; 'Fenice) and Ferrera to (l^M.) 
Fervenlo (restaurant), whence a bridle-path leads to (1 hr ) Rimasco (2370 ft. ; 
two inns), where the valley divides : in the branch to the right (E. ; Val 
cTEgua) lies (2 hrs.) Carcoforo (4280 ft. ; Monte Moro, plain), while in the 
Val Piccolct, to the left (W.), are Rima S. Giuseppe and (2 hrs.) Rimct 
(4650 ft. ; *Alb. Tagliaferro). For the passes hence to Macugnaga and other 
details, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera. 

93 M. Railway in 3-6V2 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 7 fr. 70 c. ; ex- 
press 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 15 c); to Pavia, 22y 2 M., in 1/2-I hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 
2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 85 c. ; express 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). Passengers between 
Milan and Pavia may not use the express trains, except in the morning 
from Milan to the Certosa. — In winter the 'train de luxe 1 from Vienna to 
Cannes traverses this route (from Milan to Genoa, 3 hrs. ; fare 23 fr. 75 c). 

From Milan to (17 M.) Certosa, see p. 134. 

22^2 M. Pavia. — Hotels. *Ckoce Bianca (PI. a; B, 4), R., L., & A. 
from 3, B. H/2, dej. incl. wine 21/2, D. 4, omnibus l lntr.; Tee Re (PI. c; B, 
5). — Cafi Demetrio, Corso Vittorio Emanuele; Caffe-Ritt. Mangiagalli, in 
the Mercato Coperto, well spoken of. 

Cab per drive 80 c, per hour 1 fr., at night 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 50 c. — 
Omnibus to the town 25 c — Steam Tramway to Milan (comp. p. 108), start- 
ing from the Piazza Petrarca (PI. B, 3). 

The names of most of the streets have been altered recently; the 
old names are generally given in red lettering below the new. — A visit 
to the chief points of interest in the town occupies about 3 hrs. 

Pavia, with. 27,800 inhab., capital of the province of the same 
name and the see of a bishop, is situated near the confluence of 
the Ticino and the Po and is connected with Milan by the Naviglio 
di Pavia (comp. p. 109). It is the Ticinum of the ancients, sub- 
sequently Papia, and was the capital of the Lombards from 572 
to 774. In the middle ages it was the faithful ally of the German 
emperors, until it was subjugated by the Milanese in 1315. The 
victory gained here by Charles V. over Francis I. of France is de- 
scribed at p. 136. Part of the old ramparts and bulwarks are still 

Leaving the railway-station, we enter the Conso Cavoub (PI. 
A, 4) through the Porta Cavour (in a wall to the right is the statue 
of a Roman magistrate), and following the Via Jacopo Bossolaro to 
the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4; B, 4), begun by Cristoforo Rocchi in 
1486 on the site of an ancient basilica and continued with the co- 
operation of Bramante, but never completed, is a vast 'central' 
structure (comp. p. lxiv) with four arms. It is now undergoing a 
thorough restoration. The dome is modern. 

In the Intekioe, on the right, is the sumptuous "Area di Sanf Agostino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints, and allegorical), begun, it is supposed, 
in 1362 by Bonino da Campiglione (p. 2L0). To the right of the entrance is 
a wooden model of the church as originally projected, by Rocchi. 

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to Genoa. PAVIA. 30. Route. 175 

The gateway to the left of the church is in the late-Romanesque 
style. Adjoining it rises a massive Campanile, begun in 1588. 

We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese, and leading to the Covered 
Bridge (14th cent. ; a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) 
over the Ticino. A chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. Michele (PI. 7; B, 5), to which the third side-street to the 
right leads (coming from the bridge), a Romanesque church errone- 
ously ascribed to the Lombard kings, belongs to the latter part of the 
11th century. 

The facade is adorned with numerous very ancient reliefs in sand- 
stone , in ribbon-like stripes, and a curious gabled gallery. The interior, 
restored in 1863-76, is supported by eight pillars, from which rise double 
round arches. The short choir, under which there is a crypt, terminates 
in an apse. Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars of 
the nave bear traces of ancient frescoes. 

Near the middle of the Corso Yitt. Emanuele, to the right, is 
the handsome Mercato Coperto (PL 32 ; B, 4), completed after Ba- 
lossi's designs in 1882. Behind it, in the Piazza del Popolo, is a 
monument (PL 36; B, 4), by Enrico Cassi (1896), to Benedetto 
Cairdli (1825-89), the statesman and patriot, who was a native of 
Pavia. — In the N. part of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, to the right, 
stands the University (PL 31 ; B, 4), founded in 1361 on the site 
of a school of law, which had existed here since the 10th century. 
The present imposing building dates partly from the 15th century. 
The quadrangles of the interior are surrounded by handsome ar- 
cades and embellished with numerous memorial-tablets, busts, and 
monuments of celebrated professors and students. In the first court 
are statues of the professors Bordoni, Porta, andPanizzi; in the 
second a statue of Volta and several memorial reliefs of professors 
attended by students. — Opposite the university, in the Piazza 
d'ltalia, rises a statue of Italia. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Theatre (PL 29; 
B, 3), to the Piazza Castello, with a monument to Garibaldi, by 
Pozzi, and to the old Castle (PL C, 3), erected by the Visconti in 
1360-69, now used as a barrack, and containing a handsome court 
of the 14th century. — Adjacent, at the corner of the Largo di S. 
Croce, is the church of S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro (PL 14; B, 3), with a 
Romanesque facade and the tomb of the Lombard king Liutprand 
(713-744), re-discovered in 1895. 

At the back of the university lies the Ospitale Civile (PI. 21 ; 
B, 3), and farther E., in the Via Defendente Sacchi, is the church of 
Santa Maria di Canepanova (PL 15; C, 4), a small dome-covered 
structure by Bramante (1492), with a passage round the top. — More 
to the N., at the corner of the Corso Cairoli (formerly Contrada del 
Collegio Germanico) , is the Gothic church of 8. Francesco Orande 
(PL 8; C, 4), of the 14th cent., with a rich but mutilated facade. In 

1 76 Route 30. PA VI A. 

the vicinity stands the Collegio Ohislieri (PI. 18 ; C, 4), founded in 
1569 by Pius V. (Ghislieri), a colossal bronze statue of whom has 
been erected in the piazza in front (PL 35; C, 4). 

In the Via Roma, to the W. of the university, to the right, is 
the Jesuits' Church (PI. 11 ; B, 4). — At the end of the short Via 
Malaspina is the Palazzo Malaspina (PI. 25; B, 4), at the entrance 
to the court of which are busts of Boethius and Petrarch. The interior 
contains the Museo Municipale, a collection of engravings, paintings 
(including a Holy Family, an early work of Correggio, and a portrait 
"by Antonello da Messina), antiquities, etc. 

Tradition points this out as the place in which Boethius, confined by 
the Emperor Theodoric, composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philo- 
sophy 1 . Petrarch once spent an autumn here with his daughter and son- 
in-law. His grandson, who died at the Pal. Malaspina, was interred in 
the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. A short poem of Petrarch in allu- 
sion to this event, in six Latin distiches, is one of the many inscriptions 
on the wall opposite the entrance. 

The church of San Teodoro (PI. A, 5) is an old basilica with 
raised choir. On the N. and S. walls of the transepts are late frescoes 
in good preservation; and over the font, at the N.W. corner, is a 
view of Pavia, with its towers and gates. 

The Via Roma terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, with the 
church of Santa Maria del Carmine (PI. 6 ; B, 4), a brick edifice of 
fine proportions, flanked with chapels, and dating from 1375. 

In the S.E. part of the town is the Collegio Borromeo (PI. 16; 
C, 5, 6), with its beautiful court, founded by St. Carlo Borromeo 
in 1563; the vestibule is decorated with frescoes by Fed. Zuccaro. 

From Pavxa to Alessandria via Torre-Berretti and Valenza, 4OV2M., 
railway in 2y 2 hrs. (fares 7fr. 35, 5fr. 15, 3fr. 35 c). The line crosses the 
Ticino and intersects the broad plain of the Po, in a S.W. direction. Un- 
important stations. — Torre-Berretti, see p. 160; Valenza, see p. 160. 

From Pavia to Brescia via Cremona, 77'/2 M., railway in 4 3 /4-6 hrs. 
(fares 14 fr. 20, 9 fr. 95, 6 fr. 40 c). Carriages are changed at Cremona, 
where a long detention takes place. — The line intersects the fertile plain 
watered by the Po and the Olona. — 9'/2 M. Belgiojoso, with a handsome 
chateau. — 27 M. Casalpusterlengo, where the line unites with that from 
Piacenza to Milan (p. 316). — 30 M. Codogno (9000 inhab.) possesses large 
cheese-manufactories (to Piacenza, see p. 316). Near (34 J /2 M.) Pizzighettone, 
a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, is crossed. — 46 M. Cre- 
mona (p. 177) is a terminus, from which the train backs out. To Treviglio 
(Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see p. 177. — 771/2 M. Brescia, see p. 187. 

From Pavia to Stradella, via, Bressana-Bottarone (see below), 20 M., 
railway in l'/4 hr. Stradella, see p. 315. 

From Pavia to Vercelli, see p. 160. 

The Railway to Genoa crosses the Ticino by a bridge V2 M. 
long, and almost immediately afterwards, beyond (26 M.) Cava Ma- 
nara, it crosses the Po. At (31 M.) Bressana-Bottarone diverges the 
above-mentioned branch to Stradella (p. 3151. 3372 M. Lungavilla. 

3872 M. Voghera (Italia), with 10,800 inhab., perhaps the an- 
cient Iria, on the left bank of the Staffora, was once fortified by Gian- 
galeazzo Visconti. The church of S. Lorenzo, founded in the 11th 

CREMA. 31. Route, ill 

cent., was remodelled in 1600. Steam-tramway to Stradella (p. 315). 
From Voghera to Piacenza, see p. 315. 

On the highroad from Voghera to Casteggio (p. 315), to the S. of the 
railway, lies Montebello, famous for the battle of 9th June, 1800 (five days 
before the battle of Marengo). Here, too, on 20th May, 1859, the first 
serious encounter between the Austrians and the united French and Sar- 
dinian armies took place. 

At (44 M.) Pontecurone we cross the impetuous Curone (dry in 
summer). Country fertile. 

49^2 M. Tortona (Croce Bianca), the ancient Dertona, a town of 
7100 inhab., on the Scrivia. The Cathedral, dating from 1584, con- 
tains a fine ancient sarcophagus. Above the town are the ruins of a 
castle destroyed in 1155 by Frederick Barbarossa. 

From Tortona a branch-railway runs to (5 J /2 M.) Castelnuovo- Scrivia, 
and a steam-tramway to Sale (p. 46). 

From Tortona to Turin via, Alessandria, see E. 11 a. 

54 M. Rivalta Scrivia; 58 M. Pozzolo Formigaro. 
60 M. Novi, and thence to (93 M.) Genoa, see p. 47. 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 53/ 4 -7i/2 hrs. ; fares 18 fr. 10, 12 fr. 65, 8fr. 20 c. (to 
Cremona, 60 M. ; fares 11 fr., 7 fr. 70 c, 5 fr.). 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 185. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.B. — 24^2 M. Caravaggio, a town 
of 6100 inhab., with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna di Ca- 
ravaggio, was the birthplace of the painter Michael Angelo Amerighi 
da Caravaggio (1569-1609). It is also connected with Milan and 
Monza by a steam-tramway (p. 138). — 27 M. Capralba; 29y 2 M. 
Casaletto- Vaprio. 

33^2 M. Crema (Alb. Pozzo), an industrial town (8300 inhab.) 
and episcopal residence , with an ancient castle. The Cathedral 
has a fine Romanesque facade , and contains a St. Sebastian by 
Vine. Civerchio (2nd altar on the left). The church of Santa Maria 
delle Orazie is adorned with interesting frescoes. — About 3 / 4 M. 
from the town stands the circular church of *S. Maria della Croce, 
with effective subsidiary buildings in brick , built about 1490 by 
Oiov. Batt. Battaggio of Lodi, under the influence of Bramante. The 
interior, octagonal in form, is adorned with paintings by Campi. 
— Steam-tramways to Brescia (p. 187) and to Lodi (p. 316). 

40M. Castelleone; 45 M. Soresina; bO l / 2 M. Casalbuttano ; 54y 2 M 
Olmeneta. — 60 M. Cremona, the station of which is outside the 
Porta Milanese (PI. B, C, 1). 

Cremona. — *Italia e Cappello (PI. b ; E, 3), Corso Campi, E., L., 
& A. 4, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 3 U fr. ; Roma, in the S.E. angle of the Piazza 
Roma (PI. E, F, 3), E. 11/2-2, A. '/z, B. 1 fr. 20 c, dej. H/2, D. 21/2, omn. 
V2 fr. — Cafe's Roma and Soresini. — Cab per drive V2 fr-- for V2 hr. 1 fr., 
each additional V2 hr. 72 fr- 

Cremona (155 ft.), the capital of a province and an episcopal 

Baedekek. Italy I. 11th Edit. 12, 13 

178 Route 31. CREMONA. From Milan 

see, with 29,000 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of 
the Po, and carries on considerable silk-manufactures. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars, and was several times reduced to ruins, but 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, did great damage to the town. Cremona espoused the 
cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema, and subsequently 
came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, after 
which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene surprised 
the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 1799 the 
Austrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andrea Amati (1510-80) and Niccolo Amati (1596-1684), Giuseppe Guar- 
neri (ca. 1690), and Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737). 

Painting. Boccaccio Boccaccino (ca. 1460-1518), who also worked in 
Venice in the circle of Giov. Bellini (p. 251), is generally regarded as the 
founder of the Cremona school of painting. The frescoes of his assistants 
Altobello Melone and Gian. Franc. Bembo show the influence of Romanino 
(p. 188) and Pordenone (p. 251), who worked side by side with them in 
the cathedral. The traditions of Boccaccino were continued by his son, 
Camillo Boccaccino, and by Galeazzo Campi (d. 1536). The younger Campi, 
Giulio and Antonio, were mainly subject to the sway of Giulio Romano. 
Cremona was the birthplace of Sofonisba d"Anguissola (1535-1626), who, 
like her five sisters, practised the art of painting, and was highly esteemed 
by her contemporaries. She afterwards retired to Genoa, and even in her 
old age attracted the admiration of Van Dyck. 

In the Piazza del Comune (PL F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, erected in 1261-84, and connected with the cathe- 
dral by a series of logge. Extensive view from the top. — Oppo- 
site the tower is the Gothic *Palazzo Pubblico (now the Municipio) 
of 1245 (restored), containing a few pictures by masters of the 
Cremona school, some relics of Stradivari (p. 179), and a rich marble 
chimney-piece by G. C. Pedone (1502). Adjacent is the Gothic 
Palazzo de' Gonfalonieri or de' Oiureconsulti, of 1292. 

The *Cathedral (PL F, 4), a vaulted structure in the Roman- 
esque-Lombard style, erected in 1107-90, has a rich main facade 
embellished with columns (partly remodelled in 1491) and tasteful 
brick facades on the transepts, especially the S. 

The Interior with its aisles, and transepts also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes by Boccaccio Boccaccino (ca. 1506-18), Romanino 
(1519-20), Pordenone (1520-22), and later masters of the Cremona School, 
such as Camillo Boccaccino, the Campi, Altobello Melone, Pietro and Gian. 
Franc. Bembo, and Gatti. Over the arches of the nave, on both sides, are 
long series of frescoes. Left wall, above the first four arches: Boccaccio Boc- 
caccino, Life of the Virgin, in eight scenes; 5th arch, Gian Francesco Bembo, 
The Magi, and Presentation in the Temple; beyond the organ, Altobello 
Melone, Flight into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents; above the last 
arch, Boccaccino, Christ teaching in the Temple. The colossal figures in 
the apse are also by Boccaccino . Right wall : Melone, Last Supper, Christ 
washing the Disciples' 1 feet, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, Christ taken by 
the soldiers, Christ before Caiaphas ; above the 4th and 5th arches, Ro- 
manino, Christ led out to be crucified, Scourging of Christ, Crown of 
Thorns, Ecce Homo ; above the last three arches, towards the facade, 
Pordenone" s three celebrated *Passion Scenes: Christ before Pilate, Christ 

to Mantua. CREMONA. 31. Route. 179 

and St. Veronica, Christ nailed to the Cross. On the front wall, a colossal 
Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — The two pulpits are em- 
bellished with important Lombardic reliefs, from an old altar, ascribed 
to Amadeo (1482). — The choir contains fine Renaissance stalls by Giov. 
Maria Platina and Pietro dalla Tarsia (1482-90). — In the right transept 
stands the sarcophagus of SS. Peter and Marcellinus, by Bened. Briosco 
(1507). — First Chapel to the right : altar-piece by Pordenone, Madonna 
between two saints, with the donor worshipping. 

In the vicinity are the octagonal Battistero (PL F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Campo Santo (PI. F, 4), with curious old mosaics (Hercules 
and Nessus ; Piety wounded by Cruelty ; Faith tearing out the 
tongue of Discord, etc.). 

The adjacent Piazza Roma (PI. E, F, 3) is laid out with gardens 
(music on Sun. and Thurs. evenings). No. 1 in this square, indi- 
cated by a memorial tablet, is the house (much altered) in which 
Antonio Stradivari made his violins for many years and died in 1737. 
Some of his direct descendants are said to live still in Cremona. 

A few hundred yards to the N.W. of the Piazza Roma, in the Piazza 
dell' Ospedale (PI. F, 2), stands the old Palazzo Dati, erected about 1580 in 
the baroque style and now part of the hospital. The court is very fine. - 
To the E., near the Porta Venezia (p. 180), is the church of Sanf Abbondio 
(PI. Gr, 2), with a good high-altar-piece by Giulio Campi (Madonna with 
SS. Nazarius and Celsus). In the sacristy are some cabinets by Gr. M. Platina. 

From the Municipio the Via Ala Ponzoni leads to the W. to the 
Palazzo Reale (formerly Ala di Ponzone), which contains natural 
history and other collections, coins, and a few pictures (daily 9-3, 
except Sun.). In front of the palace is a Marble Statue of Amilcare 
Ponchielli, a native of the district and composer of 'Gioconda', by 
Pietro Bordini (1892). — Farther up the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, in 
the second cross-street to the left, is the church of S. Pietro al Po 
(PI. E, 5), built in 1549-70 by Ripari. Over the third altar to the right, 
Madonna and four saints, by Qian Franc. Bembo (1524). The rich 
ceiling-decorations are by Ant. Campi and later Cremonese masters. 

In Sant' Agostino e Giacomo in Bralda (PI. D, 3), 14th cent., 
with aisles and barrel-vaulting : first chapel on the right, Pieta, 
by Giulio Campi; last side-altar but one, Madonna and two saints 
by Perugino (1494); left, between the 3rd and 4th altars, portraits 
of Francesco Sforza, and between the 4th and 5th, of his wife Bianca 
Maria Visconti, frescoes (retouched) by Bonif. Bembo (15th cent.). 

The Via Guido Grandi (passing on the right the small church 
of Santa Margherita, built and painted by Qiulio Campi, 1546 ; and, 
farther on, to the left, No. 1, the Palazzo Trecchi, in the early- 
Renaissance style) leads hence to the Piazza Garibaldi (PI. C, 
D, 2), with a Monument of Garibaldi, by Malfatti, and the church of 
Sant' Agata (by the entrance-wall, Monument of the Trecchi, in the 
Renaissance style, by Cristoforo Romano, 1502; beside the high- 
altar, four large frescoes by Giulio Campi, painted in 1536 in the 
style of Pordenone). From the piazza the Corso Garibaldi leads to 
the N.W. to the Porta Milano (PL C, 1) and the station. — Near 


180 Routt 31. CREMONA. 

the gate, adjoining the interesting Gothic church of San Luca 
(right), is the Cappella del Cristo Risorto, a tasteful hrick edifice of 
the early Renaissance (1503) ; the interior, renewed in the baroque 
style, contains frescoes of 1590. 

Not far from the Porta Milano, in the Via Bertesi, stands the Pal. 
Crotti (formerly Raimondi), an early-Renaissance structure, contain- 
ing sculptures by Pedone. In the Via Palestro (PL D, 1) is the Pal. 
Stanga, with a baroque facade and a fine fore-court of the early 


About I72 M. to the E. of the Porta Venezia (PI. H, 2), near the 
Mantua road, is the church of "San Sigismondo, with frescoes and pictures 
by Boccaccio Boccaccino, the younger Campi, and other Cremonese masters ; 
"Altar-piece by Oiulio Campi (1640), Madonna with saints, and below, 
Francesco Sforza and his wife, founders of the church. S. Sigismondo 
is a station on the tramway from Cremona to Casalmaggiore (p. 186). — 
Near the village of Le Torri lies the beautiful Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (steam- tramway five times daily in l 3 /4hr.). 
The road intersects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after crossing 
the river with its numerous islands , passes Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, and 
Caorso, and crosses the river formed by the Chiavenna and Riglio. At 
Boncaglia we cross the Nure and proceed to the W. to Piacenza (p. 316). 

From Cremona to Bretcia or Pavia, see p. 176. 

66M. Villetta-Malagnino ; 70 M. Oazzo - Pieve - San Giacomo ; 
75 M. Torre de' Picenardi. — 79 M. Fiadena, the junction of the 
Brescia and Parma line (p. 186). 

81 M. Bozzolo, with an old castle of theGonzagas. Before (88M.) 
Marcaria we cross the Oglio. — 93V2 M. Castellucchio. 

About 2V2 M. to the E. of Castellucchio, 5 M. from Mantua, is the 
church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, founded in 1399, a famous resort of 
pilgrims, containing curious votive offerings in the form of lifesize figures 
in wax, bearing the names of 'Charles V.'', 'Ferdinand I.', 'Pope Pius II.', 
the 'Conne"table de Bourbon 1 , etc. Also a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — 100 M. Mantua, see p. 221. 

32. From Milan to Bergamo. 

331/2 M. Railway in H/4-2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the left. — Unhurried travellers will find the Steam 
Tramway via Monza and Trezzo (p. 138) preferable. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 185. Our line here di- 
verges to the N.E. — 26 M. Verdello; 33 l / 2 M. Bergamo. 

Bergamo. — Hotels. Alb. dItalia, Via Venti Settembre (PI. C, 5), 
R., L., & A. 2V2-3V2, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10, omn. 1 fr. ; Concordia, 
Viale Napoleone III. (PI. D, 5, 6), well fitted up, with a trattoria, a garden, 
and electric light, R., L., & A. 2-3 fr. •, Alb. e Ristorante Cavour, Strada 
Vitt. Emanuele (PI. D, 5), near the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele; Cappello d'Oro, 
Viale Napoleone III. (PI. D, 5), R. IV2-2V2, A. 1/2 fr., all four in the new 
town, the last two unpretending. — In the old town : Alb. e Rist. del 
Sole, Piazza Garibaldi. 

Cafes. Nazionale, Centrale, both in the Piazza Cavour ; Walker, Piazza 
Garibaldi, all three unpretending. Beer at the Qarribrino, Piazza Cavour. 

Tramways from the Porta S. Bernardino (PI. C, 6) by the Via Venti 
Settembre and the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele to the Porta S. Caterina (PI. E, 2), 

BERGAMO. 32. Route. 181 

and from the railway-station via. the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele to the station 
of the Cable Railway (PI. C, 3). Fare 10 c. — Cab, per hi-., 2V2 fr. — A 
Cable Tramway (Funicolare ; PI. C, 3) connects the lower town with the 
upper town; the lower station is in the Strada Vitt. Emanuele, Vs M. from 
the Piazza Cavour. Fare 15 c. 

Bergamo (1245 ft.), the ancient Bergomum , a Venetian town 
from 1428 to 1797, now a provincial capital and episcopal see, with 
44,200 inhab. (suburbs included), lies at the junction of the Vallt 
Brembana, watered by the Brembo, and the Valle Seriana, named 
after the rapid Serio (another affluent of the Adda). This is one of 
the busiest of the smaller trading and manufacturing towns in Italy. 
The once famous fair (Fiera di S. Alessandro, middle of August to 
middle of September) has lost its importance. The town consists of 
two distinct parts, the Citth Alta, picturesquely situated on hills 
(cable-tramway recently opened), and the much larger new quarters 
in the plain (Borgo 8. Leonardo, Borgo Pignolo, Borgo S. Tommaso), 
with cotton, silk, and other factories, an interesting piazza (la Fiera; 
PI. D, 4), attractive shops, and a Protestant church. 

From the railway-station (PI. D, E, 6) the broad Viale Napo- 
leone Terzo leads to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), 
with a statue of Victor Emmanuel by Barzaghi (PI. 19). The Via 
Borfuro leads hence to theW. to Santf Alessandro in Colonna (PI. 5 ; 
C, 5), containing a fine Assumption by Romanino. To the N.E., 
beyond the Teatro Donizetti (PI. 25 ; D, 5), is the Piazza Doni- 
zetti, with a tasteful monument by Franc. Jerace (1897) to the 
composer Oaetano Donizetti (1798-1848), who was a native of Ber- 
gamo. — In the Via Torquato Tasso, on the N. side of the Piazza, 
is the church of San Bartolommeo (PI. 8; D, 4). Behind the high- 
altar is a large altar-piece by Lor. Lotto, *Madonna surrounded by 
ten saints. — Farther on is Santo Spirito (PI. 17 ; E, 4), the fine 
aisleless interior of which is in the early Renaissance style. 

Interior. Left, 1st chapel : Previtali, John the Baptist, surrounded by 
SS. Bartholomew, Nicholas of Bari, Joseph, and Dominic, the painter's 
masterpiece (1515). Left, second altar, large *Altar-piece by Borgognone 
(1508): Descent of the Holy Ghost, God the Father, Annunciation; on the 
left, The Baptist and St. Jerome; on the right, SS. Augustine and Francis. 
Left, fifth altar: Scipio Laudensis, Madonna between SS. Peter and Paul. 
Eight, 4th Chapel: "Lotto, Madonna and four saints; above, angels in a 
glory (1521); 5th chapel, Previtali, Madonna and four saints (1525); above, 
by the same, Resurrection with four saints (finished by Ag. Caversegno). 

Farther on, in the Via di Pignolo, are S. Bernardino in Pignolo 
(PI. 10 ; D, 3), containing a high-altar-piece by *Lotto, Holy Family 
and Saints (1521), and Sani* Alessandro della Croce (PL 6, D 3 ; 
Moroni, Madonna; in the sacristy, Lotto, Trinity; Moroni, portrait ; 
Previtali, Crucifixion , dated 1514). — The Via Nuova runs in a 
straight direction to the Porta Santi Agostino, while the Via di 
S. Tommaso leads to the right to the Accademia Carrara (see p. 183). 

An avenue of chestnut-trees named Strada Vitt. Emanuele (cable 
tramway, see above ; lower station 8 min. to the E. of Piazza Ca- 
vour) connects the new town with the high-lying Citta Alta, the 

182 Route 32. BERGAMO. Cathedral. 

ramparts (Bastioni) of which have been converted into promenades 
and afford fine views of the plain of Lombardy and the Bergam- 
asque Alps. 

From the terminus of the cable-tramway we proceed in a straight 
direction to (3 min.) the Piazza Garibaldi, the former market 
place, with the Palazzo Nuovo (PI. 22; C, 2), in the Renaissance style 
by Scamozzi, but unfinished. The palace is now the Reale Istituto 
Tecnico Vitt. Emanuele. Opposite is the Library, in the Gothic 
Palazzo Vecchio, or Broletto (PI. 23 ; C, 2), the groundfioor of which 
consists of an open colonnade, in which is the Monument of Tor- 
quato Tasso (whose father Bernardo was born at Bergamo in 1493). 
In the middle of the piazza is a Bronze Monument ofGaribaldi(1885). 

Behind the library is the Romanesque church of Santa Maria 
Maggiore (PI. 16; B, 0, 2, 3), of 1137, with ancient lion-portals on 
the N. and S. 

The Interior (entrance on the S. side) contains ancient wall-paintings 
by Paxino da Nova, under thick tapestry (much injured) and fine carved 
"Choir Stalls by the Bergamasque artists, Franc. Capodiferro and Fra Da- 
miano. The : Tntarsia work in the central panels (usually covered) was 
partly designed by Lor. Lotto. This church contains the tomb of Cardinal 
Alessandri (d. at Avignon, 1319; modern canopy) and the monument of the 
famous composer Donizetti of Bergamo (d. 1848), by Vine. Vela-, opposite, 
that of his teacher Giov. Simone Mayr (d. 1845). In the treasury (above 
the sacristy) are a large crucifix (5 ft. high) of the 13th century (?) and 
several works in niello. — The adjoining 'Cappella Colleoni (shown by the 
sagrestano), in the early-Renaissance style, has a lavishly sculptured 
*Facade ; the modernized interior contains the tomb of the founder Bart. 
Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 286), by 0. Ant. Amadeo. The reliefs represent the 
Bearing of the Cross, Crucifixion, and Descent from the Cross; at the 
ends, the Scourging and the Resurrection; below runs a frieze of Cupids, 
above which are the Annunciation, Nativity, and Magi; and on the topis 
the gilded equestrian statue of Colleoni by a German master. Adjacent is 
the smaller, but beautiful monument of his daughter Medea. Above the 
altar on the right are good sculptures ; to the left, a Holy Family by 
Angelica Kaufmann; fine intarsia-work (covered) ; ceiling-paintings by Tiepolo. 

The adjoining Cathedral (PI. 13; C, 2) was built from designs by 
Carlo Fontana in 1689 on the site of an earlier edifice. First altar 
to the left : Madonna and saints by G. B. Moroni ; in the choir, a 
Madonna by Savoldo, and behind the high-altar, a *Madonna, a 
late work of Giov. Bellini (1512; generally covered). The adjacent 
Baptistery, by Giovanni da Campione (1340), restored in 1864, is 
best viewed from the passage leading to the sacristy. 

A little to the E. of the Piazza Garibaldi, in the Via Corserola, 
is the Luogo Pio Colleoni (PL 4 ; C, 2), once the dwelling of Bart. 
Colleoni, who bequeathed it to the city for an orphanage in 1466. 
On the groundfloor are some frescoes by Paxino da Nova and other 
masters of the 15th cent., discovered under the whitewash in 1889; 
among them is an equestrian portrait of Colleoni (fee of 1 /2~1 fr. t0 
the keeper). 

We now return to the station of the cable-tramway and proceed 
thence through the Strada Porta Dipinta, passing (right) the church 
of Sanf Andrea , which contains a Madonna enthroned with four 

Accademia Carrara. BERGAMO. 32. Route. 183 

saints, by Moretto (altar to the right; covered). Fine view. The 
street leads to a small and hilly piazza with the church of S. Michele 
al Pozzo Bianco (PI. 18, D2; usually closed), which contains good 
frescoes by Lor. Lotto, representing the Purification and Marriage of 
the Virgin (chapel to the left of the choir; partly concealed by the 
altar-piece). — We may proceed to the right through the Via Os- 
mano to the ramparts (p. 182), or continue to follow the Strada 
Porta Dipinta to the left to the Porta S. Agostino (PI. D, 2), near 
which is the old Gothic church of the same name (now a barrack). — 
Just below the gate a footpath, lined with acacias, leads to the — 

Accademia Carrara (PI. 1 ; E, 2), situated a short way outside 
the Porta S. Caterina (tramway, p. 180), a school of art with a 
*Picture Gallery [Galleria Carrara, Gal. Morelli, and Gal. Lochis ; 
open on 1st Sun. and 3rd Thurs. of each month, but daily from 
30th Aug. to 18th Sept. ; shown at other times by the custodian, 
gratuity ^-/^-i fr.). Lists of the pictures are provided. Catalogue of 
the Gal. Carrara and the Gal. Lochis 1 fr., of the Gal. Morelli 60 c. 

Galleria Carrara. I. R.: Engravings and Drawings. The paintings 
here include : 25. Previtali, Descent of the Holy Ghost-, opposite, 49. Belotto 
(Canalelto), Arch of Titus ; 45-48. Zuccarelli, Landscapes. — II. R. : to the left 
on entering, "66. Lotto, Betrothal of St. Catharine (1523; landscape cut out); 
68. Previtali, Madonna and 'saints-, 67. Cariani, Invention of the Cross; 70. 
Francesco da S. Croce, Annunciation (1504; early work); 75-83. Moroni, 
Portraits (80, *82, 83, best; 81, an early work). Then, beyond a series of 
portraits ('91 the best) by Ghislandi, the Bergamasque Titian of the 18th 
cent., 97. Previtali, St. Anthony, with SS. Peter, Paul, Stephen, and Law- 
rence; 98. Gaudenzio Ferrari, Madonna and Child; 100. Moroni, St. Jerome 
(in Mnretto's manner). — III. R. : to the left, 137. Caroto, Massacre of the 
Innocents; 165. Marco Basaiti, Head of Christ (1517); *153. Mantegna, Ma- 
donna ; farther on , 159. P. Brueghel the Elder , The Woman taken in 
adultery (1565) ; 168. School of Leon, da Vinci, Betrothal of St. Catharine ; 
no number, "Lor. Lotto, Portrait, with fine moonlight landscape ; 183. Pre- 
vitali, Madonna with saints ; farther on, 188. Moroni, Madonna and saints. 

Galleria Morelli, bequeathed in 1891 by the well-known art-critic. — 
I. R. To the left, 3. Vine. Giverchio, Annunciation; 6. Niccolb da Foligno, 
Angel; 7. Bern. Luini, Madonna; Franc- Pesellino, 9. A judgment, 11. 
Marriage of Griselda to the Lord of Saluzzo (after Boccaccio's Decameron) ; 
17. Vilt. Pisano, Portrait of Lionello d'Este; 20. Luca Signorelli, Madonna; 
21. Sandro Botticelli, Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici; 22. Boltraffio, Christ, 
a half-figure; 23. Baldovinetti, Portrait of himself; 26. Ambrogio de Predis, 
Portrait of a man; 27. Giov. Bellini, Madonna; 31. Ercole Grandi, St. John; 
35. Benedetto da Majano, Angel (figure in clay); 41. Giov. Bellini. Bladonna; 
44. Bart. Montagna, St. Jerome; farther on, 49. In the style of Lor. di Credi, 
Madonna; 53. Donatello (?), Relief of the Madonna. — II. R. To the left, 
60. Sodoma (?), Madonna; '61. Basaiti, Portrait (1521); 62. Bacchiacca, 
Cain and Abel; G4. Cavazzola, Portrait; farther on, 70. EUheimer, Land- 
scape, with St. Jerome; 75. A. van Ostade, Boors in a tavern; *77. B. 
Fabritius, Satyr and peasant; 79. Nic. Maes, Portrait; 80. Rembrandt, Por- 
trait of a woman (1635); 83. Frans Hals, Portrait of a man; farther on, 
86. Brueghel the Elder, Boors brawling; 88. /. van der Meer of Haarlem, 
Landscape; 91. Empress Frederick of Germany, Transitoriness (1882); 90. 
Lenbach, Portrait of Morelli; farther on, 98. Moretto, Christ and the Wo- 
man of Samaria; 103. Small water-colour copy of Giorgione, Madonna with 
SS. Rochus and Anthony (original in Madrid). 

Galleria Lochis. I. R. : entrance-wall, 2. Cariani, Portrait of a woman; 
opposite, 55. Moretto, Holy Family. — II. R. : entrance-wall, 179. Giorgione, 
Landscape with mythological accessories ; above the exit-door, 49-51, 84. 

184 Route 32. BERGAMO. 

0. Ferrari, Cupids; to the left, 32-34. A. Schiavone (ascribed by Frizzoni 
to Lor. Lotto), Studies of saints; 35. Moroni, Madonna, two saints below; 
67. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Agnes (a sketch in colours); to the right, 69. 
Ohislandi, Portrait of a boy; 60, 61. P. Longhi, Venetian scenes; 47, 
Tiepolo, Sketch for an altar-piece; above, 41,42. Paris Bordone, Vintage; 
opposite. 93, 94. Guardi, Views of Venice. — III. R. To the left of the en- 
trance, 140. Oiov. Bellini, Madonna (an early work ; retouched) ; 128. Mon- 
tagna, Madonna between SS. Sebastian and Rochus (1487); 129. C. Or%. 
velli, Madonna; 138. Giov. Bellini, Pieta (an early work) ; 130. Luini, Holy 
Family; "137. Boltraffio, Madonna and Child; 131. Zenale (more probably 
Ambrogio Borgognone), Madonna and Child; 233. Cosimo Tura, Madonna; 
153. Sebast. del Piombo(?), Portrait; 151. After Bellini, The doge Loredan 
(original in London); 154. Mantegna (Bonsignorif), Portrait of Vespasiano 
Gonzaga; 160. Giovenone, Madonna with saints; Mantegna (more probably 
Gregorio Schiavone), 159. St. Alexius, 161. St. Jerome; 168. Pensabene, Ador- 
ation of the Child ; 235. Carpaccio, Nativity of the Virgin ; 170. Caroto, 
Adoration of the Magi; 169. School of Mantegna, Resurrection; 185. Lor. 
Lotto, Holy Family with St. Catharine (1533) ; 184. Cariani, Portrait of a 
man; 174. Moroni, Portrait of a man; *183. Palma Vecchio, Madonna be- 
tween SS. John and Mary Magdalen ; 177. Moretto (not Titian), Christ ap- 
pearing to a donor (signed 1518); 223. Garofalo, Madonna and SS. Rochus 
and Sebastian ; 221. Giac. Francia , Bearing of the Cross ; 207. Raphael, 
St. Sebastian (early work, painted in Perugino's school); 222. Antonello 
da Messina, St. Sebastian; 218. Dosso Dossi, Madonna with St. George and 
a canonized bishop; 225. Vine. Foppa, St. Jerome. 

A more extensive view than that from the ramparts (p. 182) is 
obtained from the old Castello (PI. A, 1), about 3 / 4 M. to the N.W. 
of the Porta S. Alessandro (PI. B, 2). There is a small osteria at 
the top. — About l^M. to the W. of the Castello is the Pasco 
del Tedeschi, commanding a good view of the Valle Brembana. 

Steam Tkamway from Bergamo to Soncino, 26 M. Intermediate stations: 
3 M. Seriate (p. 185); 7 ! /2 M. Cavernago, the station for (1 M.) Malpaga, the 
ancestral chateau of Bart. Colleoni with frescoes by Romanino; 1572 M. 
Romano. From (26 M.) Soncino (p. 193) a tramway runs to Cremona (p. 177) 
and Lodi (p. 316). — From Bergamo (rail, station, PI. D, 6) to Trezzo and 
Monza, see p. 138. — Railway via Ponte San Pietro (p. 185) and Usmale- 
Carnate to Seregno, see p. 138. From Seregno to Saronno, Busto Arsitio, 
and Novara, see p. 61. 

From Bergamo (railway- station; PI. E, 6) to Ponte della Selva, 
18 M., railway in li/ 2 -l 3 /« hr., through the picturesque and industrial Valle 
Seriana. The train descends into the valley of the Serio. Ik x /i M. Alzam 
(where S. Martino contains one of Lotto's best works, Death of Petei 
Martyr; good wood-carvings in the sacristies). 6 M. Nembro; 8 M. Albino. 
The line ascends, supported at places by arches, over the bed of the Serio. 
IO1/2 M. Cene; 11 M. Gazzaniga-Fiorano, the latter at the entrance of the 
pretty valley of Gandino. I21/2 M. Vertova. The train follows the brawling 
Serio, crosses the Bondo descending from the left, the road, the Riso, and 
then the JVossa at (17 M.) Ponte di Nossa. 

18 M. Ponte della Selva (*Inn) is at present the terminus of the line. 
Road thence by Clusone (2165 ft.; Alb. Gambero, fair; Alb. Reale), with 
its interesting church, to Lovere (p. 194). 

Interesting excursion from Ponte della Selva or from Clusone to the 
Bergamasque Alps. — From Clusone we proceed via Ogna and Ardesio to 
the (4*/2 M.) Ponte diBrialto, where we reach the road running up the left 
bank of the Serio from Ponte della Selva. We then go on via, (2V2 M.) 
Gromo (2198 ft. ; *OsteriadeiTerzi; guides, Is. Bonetti, II. Zamboni A Scacchi) 
and (4 M.) Fiumenero (2560 ft.; inn) to (3 M.) Bondione (2920 ft.' ' Alb. delta 
Cascata, above the village, unpretending; guides, Placido and Se'raflnO 
Bonacorsi), the last village in the Val Seriana. Bridle-paths lead from here 
on both banks of the Serio (that on the left bank preferable) passing 

PONTE S. PIETRO. 32. Route. 185 

picturesque cascades and ravines (Goi difoncc, Goi del ca), to the (2 hrs.) 
magnificent : Cascata del Serio , which descends in three leaps from a 
height of about 1000 ft. into a romantic caldron environed by snow-clad 
mountains (best view from the Belvedere, with its iron railing). Above the 
falls is the Pian del Barbellino (6175 ft.-, 3 hrs. from Bondione), with the 
small and old refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club, whence the Monte 
Gleno (9460 ft. ; 3Vz-4 hrs.) and the Pizzo di Coca (10,015 ft. ; 5 hrs.) may 
be ascended. About 3 /4 hr. farther up is the new Rifugio Curd (6215 ft.) of 
the club, finely situated at the S.E. base of the Pizzo del Diavolo (9600 ft. ; 
4 hrs., not difficult). Hence we may proceed over the Passo di Barbellino 
(ca. 9050 ft.) and through the finely wooded Vol Malgina to San Qiacomo 
and (7-S hrs.) Teglio (p. 151), in the Val Tellina (a pleasant trip). Or we 
may pass the small Barbellino Lake (6995 ft. ; to the N.E.) and the sources 
of the Serio and ascend steeply to (3 hrs.) the Passo di Caronella (8565 ft.), 
to the W. of Monte Torrena; we then descend through the Valle di Caro- 
nella to (3 hrs.), Carona (3710 ft. ; accommodation at the Cure's) and (i'/a hr.) 
Tresenda (p. 151). 

Feom Beegamo to Loveke, 28 M., diligence once daily. — The road 
at first follows the direction of the railway to Brescia and then runs via (8M.) 
Trescorre, 2 M. to the N.E. of station Gorlago (see below; diligence), with 
frequented sulphur-baths, into the Val Cavallina. [Near Trescorre is the 
Villa Suai'di, with admirable frescoes by Lor. Lotto, dating from 1524.] 
The road ascends the Val Cavallina, passing Spinone and the pretty lake 
of the same name, and finally descends to (28 M.) Lovere (p. 194). 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo. 

52 M. Railway in 3-3Vz hrs. (fares 9fr. 40, 6fr. 60, 4fr. 25c). 

Lecco, seep. 141. — 2i/ 2 M. Maggianico; 4i/ 2 M. Calolzio (p. 141). 
— 10 M. Cisano Bergarnasco ; 121/ 2 M. Pontida; 14 M. Mapello. — 
16 M. Ponte S. Pietro, with a pretty church and an old castle, the 
junction for Seregno (see p. 184). — We cross the Brembo (p. 181). 
201/2 M. Bergamo (p. 180). — Near (231/2 M.) Seriate the Serio is 
crossed. 30 M. Albano-Sani' Alessandro ; 3iy 2 M. Qrumello del 
Monte. The Oglio (p. 193), descending from Lago d'Iseo, is next 
crossed. 34 M. Palazzolo (branch to Paratico, p. 193); 391/2 M. Coc- 
caglio, with the convent of Mont 1 Orfano on a height; 40i/ 2 M. Rovato 
(p. 186) ; 441/2 M. Ospitaletto Bresciano. — 52 M. Brescia, see p. 187. 

33. From Milan to Verona. 

93 M. Railway in 23/4-63/4 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c, 
express, 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10 c). The 'Train de Luxe 1 (Cannes -Vienna) 
mentioned at p. 20 may be used in winter (2 1 / , 2 hrs.). — Railway Stations 
in Verona, see p. 207. 

Milan, see p. 105. — 7 M. Limito ; 9i/ 2 M. Viynate ; 12M. Melzo. 
At (16 M.) Cassano d' Adda , a considerable place with handsome 
houses and 3500 inhab., we cross the blue Adda. 

20 M. Treviglio (Regina d-'Inghilterra), a town of 10,000 inhab., 
is the junction of lines to Cremona and Bergamo (pp. 177, 180) and 
is also connected by steam-tramways with Milan and Monza (p. 137), 
Bergamo (p. 180), Caravaggio (p. 177), and Lodi (p. 316). The 
church of S, Martino has an altar-piece by Buttinone and Zenale. 

221/2 M. Vidalengo; 251/2 M. Morengo. The train crosses the 
Serio (p. 184). 28 M. Romano di Lombardia ; 32 M. Calcio. The 

186 Route 33. SOLFERINO. 

Oglio (p. 193) is crossed. 36i/ 2 M. Chiari, an old and industrious 
town of 6000 inhab. ; 40 y% M. Rovato (Rail. Restaurant), junction 
of the Bergamo-Brescia line described at p/185 and starting-point 
of the steam-tramway to Iseo(R. 35). 44 l / 2 M. Ospitaletto Bresciano. 

52 M. Brescia, see p. 187. 

From Brescia to Paema , 57 M. , railway in 2 3 /4-3 3 /4 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 
30, 7 fr. 20, 4 fr. 65 c). — The chief intermediate stations are Viadana 
(L4 M.; p. 225), Piadena (31 1 /* M.; p. 180), junction of the Cremona and 
Mantua line, and (42 M.) Casalmaggiore (p. 180), connected with Cremona 
by steam-tramway. — 57 M. Parma, see p. 321. 

From Brescia to Cremona and Pavia, see p. 176; to Bergamo and Lecco 
see p. 185. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. 56 M. Rez- 
zato. The Chiese is crossed. 61 ^2 M. Ponte S. Marco. Beyond 
(65 M.) Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.) Desenzano 
(p. 198). Admirable survey in clear weather to the left of the blue 
Lago di Garda and the peninsula of Sirmione (p. 198). 

72 M. San Martino delle Battaglle. A monument on the right 
commemorates the battle of Solferino, where the French and Pied- 
montese under Emp. Napoleon III. and King Victor Emmanuel de- 
feated the Austrians under Emp. Francis Joseph, 24th June, 1859. 

The village of Solferino lies on the S.W. margin of the hills bordering 
the Lago di Garda on the S. , about 7'/2 M. to the S. of Desenzano and 
about 5 M. to the S.W. of S. M;irtino. It formed the centre of the 
Austrian position, and was taken about 1 p.m. by the French guards. The 
ground northeastwards to the banks of the Lago di Garda was held by 
General Benedek, who repulsed the attacks of the Piedmontese until 
nightfall, and only abandoned his position on receiving the order to retreat. 
The left wing of the Austrian army, attacked by the French under 
General Niel, also maintained its position until late in the afternoon. 
— Hurried travellers content themselves with a visit to the Tower of 
S. Martino, s l\ M. to the S. of the railway-station of that name (see 
above). This structure, erected to commemorate the battle of Solferino 
and converted into a military museum in 1893, stands upon a platform 
65 ft. in width and rises to a height of 243 ft. We first enter a circular 
chamber, in the centre of which is a statue by Ant. Dal Zotto, represent- 
ing Victor Emmanuel II. as the commander of the Italian troops at 
Solferino. On the walls are scenes from the life of the King, and on 
the vaulting are eight allegorical figures representing the chief cities of 
Italy, all painted in wax-colours by Vitt. Bressanin. The side -chapels 
contain busts of the eight Italian generals who fell in the wars of inde- 
pendence. From the round chamber an easy staircase, ascending through 
two passages, with bronze tablets containing the names of the 650,000 fight- 
ers for the unity of Italy, leads to seven rooms, one above another, 
each containing a battle-painting and reminiscences of one of the seven 
campaigns of the wars. From the uppermost room we emerge on the 
platform of the tower, which not only commands the battlefield (chief 
points indicated by arrows) but also affords an extensive *View of the 
Lago di Garda and the chain of the Alps. Near the tower is a Charnel 
House, surrounded by cypresses. 

77 M. Peschiera. The station (Restaurant, de'j. orD. 2-3 fr.) lies 
V2 M. to the E. of the town {Tre Corone, dirty, R. li/ 2 fr.); the 
pier is near the gate, to the right (omn., see p. 201). Peschiera, 
a strong fortress with 1700 inhab., lies at the S.E. end of the 
Lago di Garda, at the efflux of the Mincio, which the train crosses. 



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BRESCIA. 34. Route. 187 

On 30th May, 1848, the place was taken by the Piedmontese after a 
gallant defence by the Austrian General Rath, which lasted six weeks. 
79^2 M. Castelnuovo di Verona; 8S l /2 M. Sommacampagna ; 
91 M. Verona Porta Nuova. The Adige is crossed; line view of tbe 
town to the left. 93 M. Verona Porta Vescovo, see p. 207. 

34. Brescia. 

The Railway Station (PI. A, 4; ^Restaurant) lies at the S.W. end of the 
town, near the Porta Stazione. Town Office in the ViaLarga (PI. B, C, 3). 

Hotels. *H6tel Brescia, Via Larga; Albergo dItalia (PL c; C, 3), 
R., L., & A. 2V2-3V2, B. I1/2, dej. 2Vz, D. 3Vz, pens. 9, omn. 1/2 fr. i Gallo, 
Piazza del Dnomo, Vicolo del Gallo, well spoken of; Fenice (PI. a; C, 
2, 3), Piazza del Duomo, not too clean, R. 2, L. J /2, A. V2, omn. 3 /t fr. ; 
Gambero (PI. b; C, 3), Corso del Teatro, R. 2, omn. 1 fefv.\ Cappello 
(PI. d; C, 3). 

Cafes adjacent to the theatre, in the Piazza del Duomo, etc. 

Photographs : Capitanio, near the Porta Venezia. 

Cabs (Cittadine): 85c. per drive, iy2fr. per hour. 

Tramway from the railway-station and Porta Milano to Porta Venezia. 

Principal Attractions (1 day). Municipio (p. 188); Cathedral (p. 188); 
Collection of Antiquities (p. 189); San Clemente (p. 190); Tosio and Mar- 
tinengo Galleries (pp. 190, 191) ; SS. Nazzaro e Celso (p. 192) ; S. Francesco 
(p. 192) ; S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 191) ; walk near the Castello (p. 193). 

Brescia (460 ft.), capital of a province and see of a bishop, 
with 61,000 inhab. (incl. suburbs), is beautifully situated at the 
foot of the Alps, and its numerous fountains of limpid water lend 
it an additional charm. Iron wares, and particularly weapons (hence 
'Brescia armata'), form the staple commodities, many of the fire- 
arms used by the Italian army being made here. The woollen, linen, 
and silk factories are also worthy of mention. 

Brescia, the ancient Celtic Brixia, afterwards a Roman colony, vied 
with Milan at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest 
cities of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston de Foix (p. 372) after an obstinate defence. Five years later 
it was restored to Venice, to which it belonged till 1797, but it has 
never recovered its ancient importance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was 
bombarded and taken by the Austrians under Haynau. — Arnold of Brescia, 
a pupil of Abelard, was one of the most prominent leaders of the reforming 
movement in Italy in the middle ages; he attacked the secular power 
and wealth of the clergy, and after being excommunicated by Hadrian IV. 
was executed in 1155. 

Brescia is noteworthy in the history of art as the birthplace of 
Alessandro Bonvicino, surnamed il Moretto (1498-1555), who appears to have 
studied exclusively at his native place, and whose teacher is said to have 
been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. There seems to be no ground for 
the assumption that he was influenced by Titian arid the Roman school. 
Like the Veronese masters, he is distinguished from ^he Venetian school, 
with which he has erroneously been classed, by the comparative soberness 
of his colouring ('subdued silvery tone 1 ), although he vies with the Vene- 
tians in richness and brilliancy, while he sometimes reveals a full measure 
of the ideality of the golden period of art. Bonvicino began his career 
as a painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place , and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as S. Clemente, p. 190) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco'" and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his pictures. S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 191), SS. Nazzaro e Celso 

188 Route 34. BRESCIA. Duomo Nuovo. 

(p. 192), Madonna dei Miracoli (p. 192), and the Galleria Martinengo (p. 191) 
all contain admirable specimens of his powers. Among Moretto's pupils 
was Giov. Batt. Moroni (1510-78), one of the best portrait-painters of the 
Eenaissance. Another eminent master of Brescia, a contemporary of 
Bonvicino, was Oirol. Romanino (1485-1566); his best works are to be 
seen in S. Francesco (p. 192), S. Giov. Evangelista (p. 191), and at Padua. 
— Brescia also contains several interesting antiquities (p. 189). 

The centre of the town is the picturesque Piazza Veccrta, in 
which rises the *Municipio (PI. 30; B, C, 2), usually called La 
Loggia, begun by Fromentone of Yicenza in 1489 on the ruins of 
a temple of Vulcan , with a 'putto' frieze by Jacopo Sansovino and 
window-mouldings by Palladio. The interior was half destroyed by 
a fire in 1575. The exterior of this magnificent structure is almost 
overladen with ornamentation. On the groundfioor is a deep colon- 
nade ; in front are pillars and pilasters. The upper floor recedes 
considerably. — The handsome adjacent building on the right, the 
Archivio e Camera Notarile (PI. 1), is probably also by Fromentone. 
(The traveller should walk round the whole building.) 

On the opposite side of the Piazza , above an arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio , or clock-tower , with a large dial (twice 1 to 
12). The bell is struck by two iron figures as at Venice (p. 257). 
— To the left rises a Monument, erected by Victor Emmanuel II. in 
1864 to the Brescians who fell during the gallant defence of their 
town against the Austrians in 1849 (PI. 26). — The third side of 
the piazza is occupied by the Monte di Pieta (formerly the Prigioni), 
a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Vecchia is the *Duomo Nuovo (PI. 8 ; 

C, 3), or episcopal cathedral, begun in 1604 by Lattanzio Oambara 
(but the dome not completed till 1825) , one of the best churches 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is in the form of a Greek cross, 
with a lengthened choir. 

Interior. By the first pillar on the right is the large 'Monument of 
Bishop Nava (d. 1831), with groups in marble and a relief by Monti of 
Ravenna ; by the first pillar on the left, the monument of Bishop Ferrari. 
The second altar on the right is adorned with modern statues in marble 
of Faith, by Selaroni, and Hope, by Emanueli, and a modern painting, 
Christ healing the sick , by Oregoletti. Then (3rd altar on the right), a 
sarcophagus with small '-Reliefs (date about 1500), containing the '■Corpora 

D. D. Apollonii el Philastri", transferred hither in 1674 from the crypt of 
the old cathedral. — High-altar-piece,, an Assumption by Zoboli, designed 
by Conca. In the dome, the four Evangelists, alto-reliefs in marble. 

From a door between the 2nd and 3rd altars 25 steps descend 
to the Duomo Vecchio (PL 9 ; C, 3), generally called La Rotonda, 
situated on the low ground to the S. of the Duomo Nuovo (shown 
by the sacristan of the Duomo Nuovo, who lives at the back of 
the choir). 

This massive dome-structure is circular, as its name imports, with an 
ambulatory, and rests on eight short pillars in the interior. The sub- 
structure is very ancient (9th cent.), while the drum and cupola (Ro- 
manesque) date from the 12th century. The transept and choir with 
lateral chapels at the back were added at a very early period. Altar 
piece, an 'Assumption by Moretto (1526) ; on the right side, a Presentation 
in the Temple, and on the left, SS. M--- .-.-..? T?*: ■■-■■•■•■■ '■■■ T ->?nanino; on 

Museum of Antiquities. BRESCIA. 34. Route. 189 

the left, Palma Vecchio (?), Holy Family (retouched). — Below the dome 
is the crypt, or Basilica di S. Filastro, supported hy 42 columns. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quiriniana (PI. 5, C3; fee y 2 fr.), of 40,000 vols., 
bequeathed to the town in 1750 by Cardinal Quirini. Several 
curiosities are preserved in a separate cabinet. (Admission daily, 
11-3, in winter 10-3, except Wed., Sun., and high festivals; vaca- 
tion from 1st Oct. to 2nd Nov. J 

Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent., with gold letters on purple 
vellum; Koran in 12 vols., with miniatures and gilding; an old Book of 
the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels hy Eusehius (10th cent.), 
with miniatures; MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; a Petrarch 
of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca figurato') and written annota- 
tions; a Dante with numerous wood-cuts, printed at Brescia in 1487, etc. 

The Broletto (PL 29 ; C, 2), adjoining the cathedral on the N., 
is a massive building of the 12th cent., but afterwards disfigured. 
Anciently the town-hall, it now contains the courts of justice, and 
part of it is used as a prison. Handsome court, partly in the Re- 
naissance style. The campanile on the S. side, la Torre del Popolo, 
belongs to the original edifice. — A well-preserved fragment of 
Gothic architecture in the street ascending hence, with circular 
windows and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

The street skirting the N. side of the Broletto leads towards the 
E. , passing (left) a small piazza, in which is the entrance to the 
*Museum of Antiquities (Museo Civico Eta Romana; PI. 28 , D 2 ; 
week-days 10-4, Nov. to Feb. 10-3, fee 1 fr., which admits also to 
the Mediaeval Museum ; free on the first and third Sun. in each 
month and on each Sun. and Thurs. in August, 1-4; visitors knock). 
The museum occupies an ancient Corinthian temple, excavated in 
1822, which, according to inscriptions, was erected by Vespasian in 
A.D. 72. The dilapidated, but exceedingly picturesque temple 
stands on a lofty substructure, with a projecting colonnade of ten 
columns and four pillars to which the steps ascend, and has three 
cellae of moderate depth. 

The pavement of the Principal Hall has been restored from the 
original remains. By the hack-wall, as in the other chambers, is placed 
an ancient altar. Among the Roman inscriptions and sculptures is an 
archaic head ; also two tombs of the flint period. — The Side Room on 
the right contains ancient glass, vases, coins, bronzes, etc. — In the Room 
on the left are fragments of a colossal temple-figure, architectural frag- 
ments, gilded busts, a relief of a naval battle, breastplate of a war-horse, 
and above all a statue of ** Victoiiy, excavated in 1826 , a bronze figure 
about 6V2 ft. in height, with a silver-plated diadem round her head, a 
(restored) shield, on which she is about to write, in her left hand, and 
a (restored) helmet under her left foot, one of the most precious existing 
specimens of ancient plastic art. 

The Via San Zeno leads hence to the E. to the Via dei Padri 
Riformati, at the end of which, on the right, is the old church of 
Santa Giulia, containing the Mediaeval Museum (Museo Civico Eta 
Cristiana; PI. 27, D 2; adm. same price and times as the Museum 
of Antiquities, see above). 

190 Route 3d. BRESCIA. Pal. Tosio. 

In the Vestibule, a bust of Paolo Sarpi (p. 282). In the New Part of 
the church, on the wall to the left, fine weapons, architectural remains 
with interesting ornaments of the Lombard period, early mediaeval sculp- 
tures , Majolicas; in front, the 'Cross of St. Helen', of 8th cent, work- 
manship , decorated with gems of various periods and a miniature glass 
painting , three portraits of the 5th cent •, in the centre , ivory reliefs, 
including consular diptychs of Boethius and Lampadius (5th cent.) and 
the Diptychon Quirinianum, medallions, Renaissance bronzes; on the 
wall, Venetian glass, small figures in marble from a tribuna in the Bro- 
letto, marble door (16th cent.) from a church at Chiari. The cabinet on 
the right contains Limoges and Venetian enamel, and the 'Lipsanoteca 1 
or sides of a reliquary of the 4th cent., carved in ivory and arranged in 
the form of a cross. — In the Old Part of the church, the monument of 
the Venetian general Orsini (1510) , and the Mausoleum of Marcantonio 
Martinengo (16th cent.) , with reliefs in bronze , from the church of S. 
Cristo (the facade of which, with its interesting brick ornamentation, rises 
on a height to the right in front of the museum). The lectern opposite is 
adorned with intarsia by Uaffae.Uo da Brescia (1518). — On the back-wall, 
a fresco of the 16th cent., below which we look through a window into 
the old church of S. Salvatore, with capitals of the 6th cent, and a crypt. 

From the Mediaeval Museum a street descends to a small piazza, 
where remains of an ancient edifice are built into the wall of 
No. 285. A little to the left is — 

San Clement© (PI. 15 ; D, 3), a small church containing a modern 
monument of Moretto (p. 187 ; to the left) and five of his works, 
much injured by retouching. The church is badly lighted and is 
closed 9-12; sacristan, in the lane to the W. 

On the right, 2nd altar, *SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes^ Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such, marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (C. & C). On the left, 1st altar, St. Ursula; 2nd altar, 
Madonna with SS. Catharine of Alexandria, Catharine of Siena, Paul, and 
Jerome; 3rd altar, Abraham and Melchisedech. 'High-altar-piece, Madonna 
with St. Clement and other saints. 

A little to the S.E. is Santa Maria Calchera (PI. 21 ; D, 3). First 
altar to the left: Simon the Pharisee and Christ by Moretto. Second 
altar to the right : St. Apollonius by Romanino. High-altar : Visit- 
ation, by Calisto da Lodi (1525). — Adjacent is the Porta Venezia, 
with a bronze statue of Arnold of Brescia (PL 25 ; E, 3). Tram- 
way, see p. 187. 

Besides the above museums the town also possesses valuable 
collections of ancient and modern pictures , drawings , engravings, 
sculptures, etc. These are preserved in the Palazzo Tosio (PI. 24; 
D, 3), Via Tosio, and in the Palazzo Martinengo (p. 191). Adm. as 
to the Museum of Antiquities (p. 189); fee 1 fr. 

The Palazzo Tosio and its collections were bequeathed to the town by 
Count Tosio. — Room IV : 3, 21. Massimo d'Azeglio, Landscapes. — Room VI : 
*1, *2. Thorwaldsen, Night and Day. — Room IX : 1. Baruzzi, Silvia, a statue 
in marble, from Tasso. — Room X: *12. Thorwaldsen, Ganymede. — 
Octagon : 1. Bartolini, Boy treading grapes ; 2. Gandolfi (after Thorwaldsen), 
Genius of Music. — Cabinet of Eleonora: 1. Eleonora d'Este, a bust by 
Canova. — Rooms XIII and XIV contain earlier works. Room XIII: 5. 
Fr, Albani, Venus and Graces; 12. Raibolini, surnamed Francia, Madonna 
and Child; 13. Cesare da Sesto (? more probably Timoteo Viti), Young 
Christ; 14. Tintoretto, Portrait; 17. Luca d'Olanda (?), Nun and woman 
praying; 18. Portrait, of the school of P. Veronese; 29, 30. Giov. Batt. 

Pal. Martinengo. BRESCIA. 34. Route. 191 

Moroni, Portraits ; *34. Lor. Lotto, Adoration of the Child ; 35. School of 
Raphael, Madonna; 36. Moretto, Annunciation (early work); "37. Raphael, 
Christ teaching, with crown of thorns and wounds (painted in Florence 
still under Umhrian influence; 1505); 38. Fra Bartolommeo , Holy Family 
(spoiled by retouching) ; 39. Moretto, Tullia of Aragon as daughter of He- 
rodias. — Room XIV (entrance-room) : 33. Caravaggio, Flute-player. Booms 
XV and XVI, on the groundfloor, contain modern works. Room XVI: 
1. Laocoon, in marble, by Ferrari; 4. Monti, Bust of Galileo; 5, 6. Copies 
of Canova's colossal busts of himself and of Napoleon I. by Gandolfi. 

Farther on, to the right, beyond the Corso Magenta, we reach a 
large square (PL D, 4), on the S. side of which rises the *Palazzo 
Martinengo, containing, on the first floor, a considerable collection 
of pictures. The most valuable are those by Moretto and other 
Brescian masters. 

This palace with its treasures of art was bequeathed by Count Mart- 
inengo. — Room B : 8. Gambara (p. 188), Portrait of himself; 9. Moretto, Holy 
Family (fresco) ; 10,11. Romanino, Christ at Emmaus and Magdalen at Jesus 1 
feet ; end-wall, to the left, 16. Oiov. Donato Montorfano (?), St. George killing 
the dragon; Moretto, 13. Adoration of the Infant Christ, *17. The disciples 
at Emmaus ; Romanino, 14. SS. Paul, John, and other saints, 15. Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, with saints, 18. Portrait; 19. Moretto (1), Portrait. Op- 
posite, 23, 24, 25. Romanino, Bearing of the Cross, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Descent from the Cross. Moretto, 26. Suffering Christ, *27. Madonna 
in clouds, with angels, St. Francis, and donors below (1542), **28. Madonna 
enthroned with saints, from the church of S. Eufemia, 29. Descent of the 
Holy Ghost, no number, *St. Nicholas presenting school-children to the 
Madonna (1539). — Room C: 1. Ferramola (?), Bearing of the Cross; 4. Gam- 
bara, Apollo; 5. Moretto, Madonna with the Child and St. John (restored 
and spoiled) ; 7. Venetian School, Madonna and Child ; 8. Calisto da Lodi, 
Adoration of the Child (fresco ; 1524) ; 9. Giverchio, St. Nicholas ; 10. Sa- 
voldo, Adoration of the Child; 13. Francia, Madonna; 16. Unknown Artist 
(not Giorgione), Portrait. — Room D: at the exit, 15. Van Dyck (?), Ma- 
donna with the Child and St. John ; 16. Clouet, surnamed Janet, Portrait 
of Henri III. of France. — Room E. Drawings by Tiepolo, opposite the 

Adjoining the Pal. Martinengo is Sant' Afra(Pl. 12; D,4), erected 
on the site of a temple of Saturn, and entirely rebuilt in 1580. 

High-altar-piece: Tintoretto, Ascension, in which the blue of the sky 
is the predominant colour. Over the N. door: "Titian (or Giul. Campif), 
Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. altars : 2. P. 
Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra (in the foreground, among the beheaded, 
is the head of the painter); 1. Palma Giovane, Brescian martyrs. 

The church of Sant' Alessandro (PI. 13 ; C,D,4), a few yards to 
the W., contains (1st altar to the right) an Annunciation (covered), 
ascribed to Fra Angelico, but really by a N. Italian master influenced 
by Gen. da Fabriano. 2nd altar to the right: Civerchio, Pieta. 

Near the N.E. angle of the Piazza Vecchia (p. 188) begins the 
Via della Palata, which, with its prolongation, the Corso Garibaldi, 
leads to the Porto Milano (p. 192). At the end of the first-named 
street, to the left, is the Torre della Palata (PI. 35; B, 2), a mediae- 
val tower with modern pinnacles. — Near a fountain to the right, 
in the Via S. Giovanni, is S. Giovanni Evangelista (PI. 19; B, 2), 
with admirable pictures. 

We begin on the right. 3rd Altar : Moretto , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, a youthfH "'"- n -. -.?■".. " " : -)tion. In the choir, behind 

192 Route 34. BRESCIA. 

the high-altar: "Moretto, John the Baptist, Zacharias, SS. Augustine and 
Agnes; in the centre the Madonna; above, God the Father (unfortunately 
retouched). — In the next chapel : Civerchio, Entombment ; in the lunette 
above, Coronation of the Virgin, by Romanino. ^Frescoes on the right by 
Moretto (youthful works of 1521 , showing the influence of Romanino) : 
Collecting the manna, Elijah, and Last Supper, on the pilasters, St. Mark 
and St. Luke, and prophets above. Those on the left are by Romanino: 
Raising of Lazarus, Mary Magdalen before Christ, and the Sacrament, 
on the pilasters, St. John and St. Matthew (the latter damaged). The 
prophets above are by Moretto. Over the next altar: Romanino, Nuptials 
of Mary (retouched). In the Battistero (in front, to the left): "'Francesco 
Francia, The Trinity adored by saints. 

We next visit Santa Maria del Carmine (PI. 22, C, 1), to the 
N. E., with a Renaissance portal and fine "brick ornamentation on the 
facade. The lunette contains a fresco by Ferramola. In the third 
chapel on the right, Fathers of the Church, a ceiling-painting by 
Vine. Foppa. To the left of the church are two fine courts. 

To the W., near the Porta Milano, is the church of Santa Maria 
delle G-razie (PI. 23 ; A, 2), with several paintings by Moretto. 

1st altar to the right, Martyrdom of St. Barbara, by Francesco da Prato 
(pupil of Titian) ; 4th altar on the right, St. Anthony of Padua and St. An- 
tonius the Hermit by Moretto ; chapel to the right of the choir, Madonna 
in clouds, below, SS. Sebastian, Ambrose, and Rocbus by Moretto; over 
the high-altar, a Nativity of Christ, by Moretto ; 1st altar to the left, Ma- 
donna in clouds, with four saints below, by Foppa. — The church is ad- 
joined on the left by a small early-Renaissance court. 

Beside the Porta Milano is a bronze Equestrian Statue of Garibaldi, 
designed by Maccagni (1889). — The Via San Carlino (the fourth 
side-street in the Corso Garibaldi, p. 191) and its continuation, the 
Corso Carlo Alberto, lead to the S. to the church of SS. Nazzaro e 
Celso (PI. 11 ; A, 3), in the Corso Carlo Alberto, built in 1780 and 
containing several good pictures. 

*High-altar-piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
the principal subject; on the right, St. Sebastian, on the left, St. George 
with the portrait of Averoldo, the donor (1522); above these, the Annun- 
ciation ('long an object of study to the artists of the Brescian School 1 : 
C. & C). — Second altar on the left, *Coronation of the Virgin, with SS. 
Michael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto ('this altar-piece 
is the very best of its kind, cold perhaps in silver-grey surface, but full 
of bright harmony and colour 1 : G. & C). — Third altar on the right, 
Christ in glory (1541); fourth altar on the left, Nativity, with SS. Nazzaro 
and Celso, also by Moretto, sadly damaged. — In the sacristy, above the 
side-door, "Predella by Moretto, Adoration of the Child, Madonna and 
angel in medallions. Above the side-doors of the main portal of the 
church is a large painting of the Martyrdom of Nazarius and Celsus, 
ascribed to Foppa. On the organ-wing, an Annunciation by Foppa. 

A few yards to the E., in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (which 
leads to the rail, station), is the small church of the Madonna dei 
Miracoli (PI. 10 ; B, 3), an early-Renaissance building of the end 
of the 15th cent., with four domes and a rich facade. — A little to 
the N. is S. Francesco (PI. 18; B, 3), with Gothic facade ; 1st chapel 
on the left, Fr. da Prato, Sposalizio (1547; covered); 3rd chapel 
on the right, *Moretto, SS. Margaret, Francis, and Jerome (signed 
1530); over the high->Ltar. JEoewwiys.p, Madonna and saints, a 

LAGO D'ISEO. 35. Route. 193 

masterpiece and a brilliant piece of colouring (about 1510; in an 

older frame, 1502). 

About 1/2 M. from the Porta Milano (PL A, 2) lies the pretty Campo 
Santo, to which an avenue of cypresses leads from the highroad. Fine 
view from the tower. — A picturesque walk may be taken in the gar- 
dens beneath the Castillo (PL C, D, 2); best towards evening. At the 
ascent to the castle is a Monument to Tito Speri, one of the patriots of 1849. 

Steam Tramways run from Brescia via Orzinuovi to (2072 M.) Soncino 
(p. 184); to (26 M.) Guidizzolo, on the battlefield of Solferino (p. 186; 
2y 4 hrs.) and (44 M.) Mantua (p. 184; 4 hrs.); and to the Alpine Valleys 
described in the next route. 

35. The Brescian Alps. 

1. Lago d'Iseo and Val Camonica. 

Railways from Brescia. 1. To Iseo, 15 M., in I-IV4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 75, 
1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 25 c). 2. To Paratico on the Lago d'Iseo, 241/2 M., in H/j ihr. 
(fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c). — Steam Tramway from Eovato (p. 186) 
to Iseo (the shortest route from Milan). — Steamer on Lago dTseo between 
Sarnico and Lovere thrice daily in 23/ 4 -3 hrs. (fares 2 fr. or 1 fr. 40 c.) and 
between Iseo and Lovere 4 times (Sat. 5 times) daily in 1V4-1 3 A hr. Predore 
is the only intermediate station touched at by all the boats. — Post 
Omnibus from Pisogne to Edolo, 34 M., daily in 7hrs. (one-horse carr. 20fr.). 

From Brescia (p. 187) to Iseo. — 2 M. Borgo S. Giovanni; 
33/ 4 M. Mandolossa; 5i/ 2 M. Castegnato ; 8 M. Pademo Francia- 
corta; 97 2 M. Passirano; 107 2 M. Monterotondo Bresciano; 13 M. 
Provaglio d'Iseo; 15 M. Iseo (see below). 

From Brescia to Paratico. — From Brescia to (18 M.) 
Palazzolo, see p. 185. Our line here diverges to the N.E. 22l/ 2 M. 
Capriolo; then (24*/ 4 M.) Paratico, on the left bank of the Oglio, 
which here issues from Lago d'Iseo. On the opposite bank lies 
Sarnico (Cappello), a prettily situated place, connected with Paratico 
by a bridge. Near it is the Villa Montecchio, with a superb view. 

The *Lago d'Iseo (Lacus Sebinus ; 605 ft. above the sea; 15 M. 
long, II/4-3 M. broad , and about 820 ft. deep in the centre) 
somewhat resembles an S in form. Its banks are green with luxur- 
iant vegetation, while to the N. is visible the snow-clad Adamello 
Group, with the Pian di Neve, the Salarno, and the Adame glaciers. 
In the middle of the lake lies an island 2 M. long, containing the 
villages of Siviano and Peschiera Maraglio, and culminating in the 
Mont' Isola (1965 ft.). — On the E. bank, from Iseo to Pisogne 
(p. 194), runs the highroad from Brescia, boldly engineered. It is 
carried through a number of galleries and supported by masonry, 
and commands magnificent views of the lake and its environs. 

The Steamer from Sarnico usually steers first to Predore, the 
ancient Praetorium, which yields excellent wine; then to the S.E. 
back to Iseo {Leone, R., L., & A. from 2, B. 1, D. 4, pens. 6-8 fr., 
well spoken of), a busy little town of 2000 inhab., with walls and 
an old castle. Its industries are oil-pressing, dyeing, and silk- 
spinning. A statue of Garibaldi was erected here in 1883. Railway 
to Brescia and steam-tramway to Rovato, see p. 186. — The next 

Baedeker. Itoiv I. 11th Edit. 13 

194 Route 35. LOVERE. Brescian 

station is Tavernola, on the W. bank. Then comes the above-men- 
tioned fishing-village of Peschiera Maraglio, to the S. of which lies 
the islet of S. Paolo. The following stations on the E. bank are 
Sulzano (inn) and Sale-Marasino, a long village on the E. bank, 
beyond which we pass an islet with the ruined- monastery of S. Lo- 
retto on the left, and reach Marone, at the W. base of Monte Gug- 
lielmo (6401 ft.). Opposite, on the W. bank, lies Riva di Solto. 
The last station on the E. bank is the pleasant-looking Pisogne (*Alb. 
Glisoni, R. 2 fr. , unpretending), the best starting-point for an ascent 
of Mte. Guglielmo. The Chiesa della Neve is adorned with frescoes 
by Romanino. Finally we pass the mouth of the Oglio and reach — 

Lovere (*Alb. Lover 'e, R. 2 1 /2> L\ 4 fr. ; S. Antonio; Ancora), 
a busy little place with 3000 inhab., prettily situated at the N.W. 
end of the lake. The Stabilimento Metallurgico Gregorini, a large 
iron-work and cannon-foundry on the road to Riva di Solto, em- 
ploys 1600 workmen; and Lovere also possesses a silk-spinning 
factory. The handsome church of S. Maria in Yalvendra, huilt 
in 1473, restored in 1547, 1751, and 1888, contains frescoes by Flo- 
riano Ferramola (Apostles, Church Fathers, Saints ; circular pictures 
in the spandrels of the nave) and Andrea da Manerbio (Cappella 
dello Sposalizio), an early Milanese altar-piece (in the same chapel), 
an Annunciation by Ferramola (on the outside of the organ-shut- 
ters, dated 1518), SS. Jo vita and Faustinus by Romanino (inside 
of the shutters), and an Ascension by Fr. Morone (high- altar). The 
parish-church of S. Giorgio, erected in 1655, was enlarged in 1878. 
The long Palazzo Tadini contains a collection of old pictures. 

18. Bom. Tintoretto, Portrait of a man, 1627; 78. Titian, Portrait, damaged ; 
110, 127. Brusasorci, SS. Guglielmo and Francesco •, 125. P. Veronese, Ma- 
donna; 255. Jac. Bellini, Madonna, damaged; 282. Guercino (?), St. Se- 
bastian ; 307. P. Bordone, Madonna and saints ; 386. Giorgione (?), Dead Christ. 
Here alao are sculptures by Benzoni and Ganova (tombstone) and a geolog- 
ical collection. 

A pleasant excursion (2 hrs.) may be made via the Conventodei 
Cappuccini to the Santuario di San Giovanni, affording a fine view 
of lake and mountain. 

Tbe *Monte Guglielmo or GSlem (6390 ft.) is ascended via, Pisogne (see 
above) in 6-7 hrs. ; just below the summit is a Rifugio (rfmts.). The superb 
view embraces the Bergamasque Alps, the Adamello group, and the moun- 
tains of the Val Trompia. The descent may be made via. Pezzoro to (2-3 hrs.) 
Lavone, or direct to (5-6 hrs.) Gardone Val Trompia (p. 195). 

Good roads lead from Lovere through the Val Cavallina to (27 M.) Ber~ 
gamo (p. 180), and through the ravine (orrido) of Borlezza to (7 J /2 M.) Clu- 
sone (p. 184). 

The Road prom Lovere to Edolo leads through the Val Ca- 
monica, which yields rich crops of maize, grapes, and mulberries. 
It is enclosed by lofty, wooded mountains, and enlivened with many 
iron-works. The silk-culture is also an important industry here. 
The dark rocks (verrucano) contrast curiously with the light triassic 
formations. The valley is watered by the Oglio (p. 186), which the 
road crosses several timea 

Alps. COLLIO. 35. Route. 195 

Near the (7»/ 2 M.) Casino Boario (*Bath Hotel; Alb. degli 
Alpinisti, moderate) our road joins the road from Brescia and Pisogne 
(diligence, see p. 193). Near Cividate is a very picturesque deserted 
monastery on the hill. Farther on we pass through a ravine and 
cross the Oglio to — 

I41/2M. (from Lovere)Breno(1080 ft. ; Italia; *Osteria al Fumo, 
unpretending), capital of the lower Yal Camonica, situated on the 
left bank, with a ruined castle and several churches. To the E. rises 
Monte Frerone (8770 ft.). 

The valley again contracts. To the right, a little way back from 
the road, lie the villages of Niardo, Braone, and Ceto, the last at 
the foot of the Pizzo Badile (7990 ft.). Beyond (20'/ 2 M.) Capo di 
Ponte (1375ft.; Alb. Ceseretti; Alb. S. Antonio, plain; Osteria 
Apollonio) the scenery changes ; maize and mulberries become rare. 
The road crosses the Oglio twice and then the Poglia. — 24 ^ M. 
Cedegolo (1335ft.; Alb. all' Adamello; Osteria Sanguini, well 
spoken of; Caffe della Posta, with rooms) ; 28 l /. 2 M. Malonno (1770 ft.). 

34 M. Edolo (2290 ft. ; Leone d'Oro; Qallo, well spoke of), a 
small and picturesquely situated town, commanded on the E. by 
Monte Aviolo (9450 ft.). 

At Edolo the road divides. That to the N. crosses the Tonale Pass 
(6180 ft.) to Male and leads thence on to *S. Michele, a station on the Botzen 
and Verona railway (p. 17), or over the Mendel Pass direct to Botzen. The 
road to the W. crosses the Passo cPAprica (3880 ft.) to Tirano in the Val 
Tellina (p. 151; 25 M. ; one-horse carr. in 6 hrs., 25 fr.). See Baedekers 
Eastern Alps. 

2. Val Trompia. 

Steam Tramway from Brescia (starting at the rail, station) to (12 l /i> M.) 
Gardone Val Trompia six times daily, in l ! /4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 20, 9J c). — 
Omnibus (in summer) from Gardone to (13 M.) Collio (carr. from the Hot. 
Mella 8-10, with two horses 16 fr.). 

The Steam Tramway leads past the Porta Milano to the Porta 
Trento (PI. C, 1), the N. gate of Brescia, and then runs to the N., 
through an attractive and well-tilled district, to the Val Trompia, 
which is watered by the Mella, a tributary of the Oglio (p. 195). 
The wayside stations are unimportant. 

From (12^2 M.) Gardone Val Trompia the attractive Road leads 
past several iron-works, which furnish the metal for the Brescian 
weapon factories. 

13 M. Collio (ca. 3300 ft.; *6rand Hotel Mella, with a hydro- 
pathic, R., L., & A. 3-5, pens. 9-11 fr., open May-Oct.), the capital 
of the Upper Val Trompia, lies at the junction of the Mella with 
the Bavorgo, which descends from the Valle di Saramando. The 
place is frequented in summer for its cool climate and affords good 
headquarters for excursions in the Brescian Alps. Among these 
may be specially mentioned the ascents of Monte Guglielmo (via 
Lavone, p. 194), the Colombina (7200 ft.; also commanding an ex- 
tensive mountain-panorama), aud the Dosso Alto (6770 ft.). 


196 Route 35. VESTONE. 

An attractive pass (guide not indispensable) leads from Collio 
via 8. Colombano and the Passo delta Maniva to (5-6 hrs.) Bago- 
lino, in the Val Caffaro (see below). 

3. Val Sabbia and Lago d'Idro. 

Railway from Rezzato (p. 186) to the Lago d'ldro in construction, and 
open as far as Tormini. — Steam Tramway from Brescia (Brescia-Tormini- 
Salo line, p. 199), starting at the rail, station, to (18 M.) Tormini (carr. 
(•hanged) and (30V2 M.) Vestone (4 trains daily, in 374 hrs.). — Highroad 
from Vestone to (IOV2 M.) Ponte di Caffaro. 

The Steam Tramway leaves Brescia by the Porta Venezia (PI. 
E, 3), the E. city-gate, and skirts the bare S. slopes of the Brescian 
Alps, passing many attractive villas. The chief stations are Rez- 
zato (p. 186), Nuvolera, Paitone, and Gavardo, on the Chiese. The 
mountain-chapel of Paitone, !/ 4 hr. above the village, contains a 
celebrated Madonna by Moretto. 

18 M. Tormini (several small inns) lies at the foot of the Selva 
Plana (3166 ft.), which may be ascended hence in l*/ 2 hr. via Pran- 
daglio and the church of the Madonna della Neve (2900 ft. ; view). 

From Tormini to Salo, 5 j /2 M., steam-tramway in 3 /4 hr., a charming 
ride. The line runs to the S.E. into the Val Tenese, the fruitful and hilly 
wine-growing district between the Chiese and Cape Manerha (p. 198). It 
then turns sharply to the N. and descends to (5V2 M.) SaldJ_]). 198), afford- 
ing splendid * Views of the smiling Bay of Salo, the steep bank of the 
Riviera (p. 199) overhung by the Mte. Pizzocolo, and the long Mte. Baldo, 
on the E. bank of the Lago di Garda. 

Above Tormini the Val Chiese, which 'is enclosed by lofty 
mountains, takes the name of Val Sabbia. — 27 t/ 2 M. Volarno. — 
From (29 M.) Barghe a road leads past Preseglie and through the 
Val Garza to (15 M.) Brescia. 

3O72 M. Vestone (Gambero,- Agnello; Italia), the capital of the 
valley and present terminus of the tramway. 

The Eoad quits the Val Sabbia at (3 M.) Lavenone and then 
skirts the W. bank of the Lago d'Idro (1207 ft.), which is 6 M. long 
and 3/ 4 _iy 4 M. broad. To the right, at the S.E. angle of the lake, 
is the village of Idro. — 3 M. Anfo, with the picturesque keep of 
Rocca d'Anfo. 2 l / i M. San Antonio. 

21/4 M. Ponte di Caffaro (inn; Italian and Austrian custom 
house), 1 M. to the N. of the Lago d'Idro, on the wild torrent of 
Caffaro, which here forms the frontier. 

Above Ponte di Caffaro the Val Caffaro becomes an impassable gorge. 
From San Antonio (see above) a road leads in wide curves to (4*/2 M-) 
Bagolino (2335 ft.; "Alb. Ciappana), a large mountain-village (3500 inhab), 
in a fine situation. — From Bagolino over the Passo della Maniva to the 
Val Trompia, see above. 

From Ponte di Caffaro to the Lago di Ledro and to Riva, on the Lago 
di Garda, see p. 203. 

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36. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboats. W. Bank (the more picturesque), between Desenzano and 
Riva, twice daily in 4i/ 4 -43/ 4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c). On Tues. a 
third boat plies from Desenzano to Maderno. Stations : Sirmione, Manerba, 
S. Felice di Scovolo (these two not on all trips), Said, Gardone- Riviera, 
Fasano, Maderno, Gargnano, Tignale, Tremosine, Limone, Riva. The morning 
steamer from Desenzano also touches at Castelletto, the afternoon-boat from 
Riva at Malcesine (both on the E. bank). — E. Bank, between Riva and 
Peschiera, daily in 4'/2 hrs., afternoon-boat from Riva in 7 J /2 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50c). Stations: Torbole (not on all trips), Malcesine, Assenza, 
Magugnano, Castelletto (these three not on all trips), Torri, Garda, Bardo- 
lino, Lazise, Peschiera. The steamers also touch at Gargnano and generally 
at Maderno (see above), on the W. bank. Excursion-trips to both banks 
are made from Riva on Sundays. — As the times are frequently changed, 
the latest time-tables should be consulted or enquiries made on the spot. 
The new steamers (restaurant on board) are good and clean. Sea-Sickness 
is not unknown in rough weather, and a storm from the N. sometimes 
makes a landing at the intermediate stations impracticable. Tickeis are 
obtained on board the steamers, and payments are made in Italian money 
(stamp 10 c). — Luggage undergoes a custom-house examination at Riva. 

Railway from Desenzano and Peschiera to Verona and Brescia (Milan), 
see R. 33$ from Riva to Arco and (15>/2 M.) Mori, p. 19. — The following 
Circular Totjr Tickets may be procured (comp. p. xvii): Desenzano-'Pes- 
chiera-Riva-Gardone-Salo-.Desera£cmo ('H'; valid for 5 days -, fares 9 fr. 20, 
8 fr. 65, 5 fr. 10c); /Jwa-Desenzano-Milan-Verona-Mori-itoa (T; 15 days; 
fares 37 fr. 90, 28 fr. 70 c); iJt«a-Desenz;ano-Venice-Verona-Mori-iJwa ('K' ; 
15 days; fares 39 fr. , 29 fr. 50 c). 

Steam Tramway from Brescia via, (18 M.) Tormini to (23 J /2 M.) Said 
(p. 198), six trains daily in 2 3 /4 hrs. (1st class fare 2 fr.) ; comp. p. 196. 
Numerous wayside stations are stopped at, and punctuality is by no means 
assured. At Salo the tramway usually connects with the diligence for 
Gar done-Riviera (p. 199) and Gargnano (one-horse Gardone 2-272 fr.). 

The *Lago di Garda (210 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Ro- 
mans, the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 34 M. in length, and 
3-11 M. broad; area 189 sq. M., greatest depth 1135 ft. It belongs 
to Italy, except the N. extremity with Riva, which is Austrian. 
The lake is seldom perfectly calm, and in fine weather is often con- 
siderably agitated about midday by a local wind from the S. (Ora; 
cold in winter). In a storm from the N. the lake is sometimes al- 
most as rough as the sea, as recorded by Virgil (Georg. ii. 160). The 
water is generally of an azure blue. 

The banks, although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake 
of Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced 
by the imposing expanse of the water. The shores of the S. half 
are fiat and well cultivated, but they become bolder between Capo 
S. Vigilio and a point to the N. of Salb, where the lake contracts. 
The vegetation is luxuriant, especially on the more sheltered W. 
bank. Even the sensitive lemon (limone) arrives at maturity here, 
but in winter the trees require to be carefully enclosed by wooden 
shelters (serre). This is done with the aid of numerous brick pillars 
20 ft. in height, erected at regular intervals of 8 ft., and united by 
cross-beams at the top. The fruit is more bitter and aromatic than 
that of Sicily, suffers less from carriage, and keeps longer. Price 

198 Route 36. SALO. Logo di Oarda. 

according to the season 3-10 fr. per hundred. — The carpione, of 
salmon-trout, which attains 25 lbs., the trota, or trout, the anguilla, 
or eel, and the luccio, or pike, are excellent fish. 

Desenzano (Hot. Royal Mayer, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. li/ 4 -li/ 2> 
dej. 3-3y 2 , D. 4, pens. 6-10, omn. l / 2 fr - 5 Due Colombe, R., L., & A. 
2-3 fr., B. 80 c, pens. 6-8, omn. 1 fr., with a small garden on the 
lake, well spoken of; Alb. Trento, R. l-iy 2 , dej. 11/2-2, D. 2-3 fr., 
unpretending), a busy town with 5000 inhab., at the S.W. angle 
of the lake, is a station on the railway from Milan to Verona 
(p. 186). Hotel-omnibus from the pier to the railway station 
50 c. ; one-horse cab, 1-2 pers. 1 fr., 3 pers. l*/ 2 fr. ; each large 
piece of luggage 25 c. The drivers usually try to overcharge. One- 
horse carriage to Salo and Gardone - Riviera (p. 199), 8-9 fr. 
(bargain advisable). Fine view from the Breakwater, constructed 
in 1893. 

West Bank from Desenzano to Riva. Some of the steamers call 
first at the harbour of Sirmione (Hot. Sirmione, pens. incl. wine 
5!/ 2 fr. ; Promessi Sposi), a fishing- village near the N. end of the 
narrow promontory of the same name, projecting 2!/ 2 M. into the 
lake, about 3*/ 2 M. to the E. of Desenzano, whence it may also 
be reached by boat (with one rower 5, with two 8 fr.) or by carriage 
(5 fr.). The lake here attains its greatest breadth. The village ad- 
joins the handsome ruin of a castle of the Scaligers (p. 208). We 
cross the olive-clad height, past the little church of S. Pietro, to 
(1 M.) the extremity of the peninsula, where we obtain a charming 
*View. On the hill are remains of Roman baths, and on the pro- 
montory are considerable relics of a building extending into the lake, 
said to have been the country-house of Catullus, who wrote his poems 
here ('peninsularum, Sirmio insularumque ocelle'). Tennyson cele- 
brates 'olive-silvery' Sirmio and its connection with Catullus in one 
of the most musical of his short poems. 

From Sirmione the steamboat steers past the abrupt Cape Ma- 
nerba (715 ft.), without touching at the villages of Manerba and 
San Felice di Scovolo. It then threads the rocky channel between 
the Val Tenese (p. 196) and the beautiful crescent-shaped Isold 
Lecchi (p. 200), steers to the W., and enters the bay of — 

Salo (*H6tel Salb , in an open situation, with a garden on the 
lake, R. from 2% L. 1, B. li/ 4 , D. 3i/ 2 -4, S. 2i/ 2 -3, pens. 8 fr. ; 
Europa, at the tramway-station, R. 2fr., moderate; Villa Concordia, 
furnished rooms, well spoken of), a town with 3200 inhab. and 
manufactories of Acqua di Cedro (liqueur), surrounded with terraces 
of fragrant lemon-groves. The Parish Church contains several pic- 
tures of the Brescian and Veronese Schools : on the pillar to the 
right of the high-altar, *Adoration of the Child, byTorbido; 4th altar 
on the right, Christ in Hades, by Zenon of Verona (1537). In 5. Ber- 
nardino, 2nd altar on the left, *Altar-piece by Romanino (1529), 
S. Bonaventura with a donor and angels. 

Lago di Oarda. GARDONE-RIVIERA. 36. Route. 199, 

A fine view (best by evening-light) is obtained from the '''Monte San 
Bartolomeo (1865 ft.), which is ascended in l 1 /? hr. through a farmyard 
outside the N. gate of Salo, to the left (descent to Gardone l x /4 hr.)- — 
Steam Tramway to Tor-mini and Brescia in the one direction, and to Yes- 
tone (Lago d'Idro) in the other, see p. 196. — A Highroad (12 M.; one-horse 
carr. 7 fr.) leads via, Raffa to Desenzano (p. 198). 

We here reach the Riviera, a warm coast-strip, noted for its 
luxuriant vegetation, with numerous villages and country-houses. 
In the evening it sparkles with electric lights all the way from Salo 
to Toscolano. — A little farther on is — 

Gardone-Riviera. — Hotels (generally closed from May 15th to 
Sept. 15th, and often overcrowded in Feb. and March). "Grand Hotel 
Gardone-Riviera, visited mostly by invalids, with 150 rooms, gardens, 
covered promenade, electric lighting, etc., E.., L., & A. 3-4 x /2, de'i. 1^2, D. 
'3Vz, S. 21/2, pens. 7Vz-12 fr. ; *H6t.-Pens. Fasano, 3/ 4 M. to the N.E., on 
the road to Fasano (p. 200), with garden on the lake, restaurant, and view 
terrace, pens, from 8V2 fr. ; *H6t.-Pens. Bellavista, or Gigola (open all 
the year round), in Fasano, with electric light, unpretending, pens. 6V2 fr. 

— Pensions. ''Villa Primavera, in Gardone di Sopra, V2 M. above the quay, 
an establishment for invalids (Dr. Koniger), with electric light and a beau- 
tiful garden, pens. 972-12 fr. ; "Pens. Aurora, on the road to Salo (no view 
of the lake), 6-10 fr. ; Pens. Haberlin, on the lake, with electric light, from 
6 fr. — Apartments moderate, to be obtained also in Gardone di Sopra, 
Fasano, and Maderno. — Milk Cure Establishment. 

Post Office, 150 yds. from the pier, open daily, 8-12, 4-6, and 8-9. 

— Telegraph Office at the pier, 9-12 and 2-7 (Sun. and holidays, 9-11 
and 4-5). 

Physicians: Dr. Koniger ; Dr. Krez; Dr. Schwarz ; Dr. Molinari. — 
Apothecary: Pernici. 

Money Changers & Goods Agents: Lobinger, Severgnini. 

Cabs. To Salo 2, with two horses 4 fr., to Desenzano 8 & 15, to Ma- 
derno (p. 200) 2 3 / 4 & 5, to Toscolano Gorge (p. 200) 3 J /2 & 6, to Gargnano 
(p. 200) 51/2 & 10 fr. 

Boats. To Salo and back with one rower 2 J /2, with two rowers 4 fr.; 
to Isola Lecchi 3 & 5, to Maderno 3 & 5, to Cape Manerba (two rowers) 7 fr. 

Climate (comp. p. xxv). Gardone, the warmest winter-resort to the N. 
of the Apennines, is excellently sheltered from the prevalent winter winds 
(N. and N.W.) by the chain of hills rising from the Mte. San Bartolomeo 
to the Mte. Pizzocolo (p. 200) and interrupted only by the Barbarano Ravine. 
A like service, is rendered by the Mte. Baldo against the E. and N.E. 
winds. The S. and S.E. winds have free access, but the Ora (p. 197) is 
not felt here and 80 per cent of the days of the year are free from wind. 
The greatest rainfall takes place in Oct. and Nov., while the tbree winter 
months have usually little rain, abundance of sunshine (120 hrs. in Dec, 
167 in Jan., 135 in Feb.), and a low range of temperature (mean daily 
range in Dec. 9° Fahr., in Jan. 10°, in Feb. 1L°). Snow seldom lies long 
on the ground. The relative humidity (75 per cent) varies little and is 
about the same as that of Montreux. 

Gardone-Riviera, situated close to the lake and the "base of the 
mountains, was an almost unknown village down to 1884, but has 
become within the last few years a favourite winter-resort for con- 
sumptive and nervous invalids, while in the spring and autumn it 
is frequented by those in search of rest and refreshment. The hills 
afford a multitude of varied walks, all free from dust and well 
provided with benches. The vegetation, including olive-groves, 

200 Route 36. MADERNO. Lago di Garda. 

cypresses, and lofty laurels, is of a thoroughly southern character; 
camellias, magnolias, and palms grow in the gardens unprotected. 

Excursions. To the Barbarano Ravine, */? hr. ; return toy Morgnaga and 
the '•Little Rigi\ — To Gardone di Sopra, with a fine view beyond the 
church and the beautiful gardens of the Villa Cargnacco ; from the latter 
we may proceed to the left to (1 hr.) Fasano. — To S. Michele (1325 ft.), a 
high-lying church, affording a fine view of the lake and of the Val di Sur, 
H/4 hr. ; we may return along the slope of Monte Lavino t via, Sopiane and 
Gardone di Sopra (1^2 hr.). — The charming excursion (2 hrs.) to the ro- 
mantic and profound *Toscolano Ravine, with its paper-mills, may be 
made by carriage. We may return via, Gaino, the church of which (990 ft.) 
commands a fine view. — By boat (,11/2 hr.) to the promontory of Manerba 
(view of the whole lake). — By boat to the beautiful Jsola Lecchi or Isola di 
Garda (see p. 198), with the chateau of Prince Borghese, in 3/ 4 hr. — By 
steam-tramway (p. 199) to Lake Idro. 

Ascents. "Monte S. Bartolomeo (1865ft.), ascended in 2 hrs., seep. 199. 

— Other good points of view are Mte. Roccolo (1600 ft.; lV2hr.); Monte Lavino 
(2975 ft.; 21/2-3 hrs.), and -Monte Pizzocolo (5195 ft.; 5-6 hrs., with guide). 

— A fine excursion may be made from Tormini (p. 196) via, the Madonna 
delta Neve (2900 ft.) to the top of the Selva Piana (p. 196; 3166 ft.; 2 hrs.). 

We next pass Fasano (hotels, see p. 199), 20 min. to the N.E. 
of Gardone-Riviera, and the "beautifully situated villa of the late 
minister Zanardelli. — Maderno (*Alb. San Marco ; Pens. Lignet, 
5^2 fr. ; Pens. Amann), lies at the base of Mte. Pizzocolo (see above), 
on a promontory extending far into the lake. By the harbour is the 
church of 8. Andrea, a basilica of the 8th cent., altered in the in- 
terior, with fine facade and Roman inscription and relief on the 
external wall. — Next come Toscolano, Cecina, and Bogliaco; then 
Gargnano (_Cervo, R. l 1 ^-^, pens, from 7 fr.), an important-look- 
ing village amidst lemon and olive plantations, one of the finest 
points on the lake. Diligence in connection with the tramway from 
Salo to Brescia, see pp. 199, 187. 

The Riviera ends here and the mountains become loftier. The 
hamlets of Muslone,Piovere, Tignale, and Oldese are almost contigu- 
ous. Tremosine, in a lofty situation, is scarcely visible from the 
lake. In a bay farther on are the white houses of Limone, another 
lemon and olive producing village. We cross the Austrian frontier a 
little beyond the rocky pillar of Mte. Corno, and soon after pass the 
gorge of the Val di Ledro (to the left, the Ponale Fall) ; high above 
the lake is the New Road (p. 202), running along the vertical face of 
the cliff. 

Eiva, see p. 201. 

E. Bank from Riva to Peschiera. The first station is Torbole 
(*H6t. Garda-See, with view-terrace, pens. 2^2 &• 5 DOat t0 Ri va 1> 
to the Ponale Falls l 1 /^ n -)> prettily situated not far from the mouth 
of the Sarca, 2 1 / 2 M. to the E. of Riva, on the road to Mori (p. 19). 
The vessel skirts the base of the precipitous Monte Baldo (p. 202) 
and reaches — 

Malcesme (Alb. Testa), a good harbour, with a picturesque old 
castle now occupied by custom-house officers. Goethe was arrested 

Lago di Qarda. RIVA. 36. Route. 201 

here when sketching hy the Venetian officials (see his 'Italienische 
Reise'). The parish-church contains a Descent from the Cross by 
Girolamo dai Libri, a richly coloured masterpiece. 

Beyond the castle rises the rocky Isoletto delV Olivo ; then Cas- 
sone, and a little farther on the islet of Trimelone. The next stations 
are Assenza, Magugnano, Castelletto, Pai, and Torri. The banks 
become flatter. The promontory of S. Vigilio, with the Villa Br enzoni, 
2i/ 4 M. to the W. of Garda, sheltered from the N. by Monte Baldo 
(p. 202), extends far into the lake, and is the finest point of view 
on the E. bank. The hills are covered with vines, fig-trees, olives, 
and other fruit-trees. The picturesque old town of Garda (Tre 
Corone, indifferent, bargaining advisable), with 1000 inhab., in a 
beautiful bay at the influx of the Tesino, which descends from Monte 
Baldo, gives the lake its name. The chateau, belonging to Count 
Albertini of Verona, stands in a beautiful park, which is often open 
to the public. About 2 1/4 M. to the S.E. is the Rocca (964 ft. ; 
view), with a ruined castle. Upon the wooded heights opposite are 
the hermitages of Sanf Eremo (1014 ft.). — From Garda to the 
Monte Baldo and Verona, see pp. 202, 220. 

The next places are Bardolino and Lazise, with a picturesque 
old castle. 

Peschiera, see p. 186. The station is on the E. side of the town, 
Y2 M. from the pier (omnibus 50 c, one-horse carr. 1 fr.). 

Riva. — The Railway Station (restaurant) lies about 1/2 M. to the E. 
of the steamboat-pier. 

Hotels. Sole d'Oro, with terrace on the lake, R. 1 fl. 20-1 fl. 40, L. 
& A. 40, B. 50 kr., D. H/2, S. 1 fl., omn. 30' kr., generally well spoken of-, 
*H6t.-Pens. dd Lac, with large garden and baths, 3 /< M. to the E., on the 
Torbole road, R., L., & A. I-I1/2, B. 1/2, D. H/2, S. 1, pens. 2 fl. 80-3 fl. 50, 
omn. 30 kr. ; Hot. Riva, R. & L. 1 fl. -3 fl. 80, B. 45, pens. 2 fl. 80-4 fl. 
50 kr. ; Hot. Baviera; S. Maroo Giardino, outside Porta S. Michele, Italian, 
pens. 2 fl. 80 kr. ; Lepre, Musch, both well spoken of; Alb. del Popolo, 
Italian; these three moderate. — Board and medical attendance for inva- 
lids at Dr. von HartungenPs Pension, 120-150 fl. monthly. — Private Apart- 
ments at moderate rates. 

Beer at Muscat, in the Hdt. S. Marco Giardino (see above), and in the 
Birreria Krautner, outside the Porta S. Marco. — Caf&Andreis, at the harbour. 

Baths at the Lido della Spalletta, to the E., beyond the barracks. 

Railway to Arco and Mori, see p. 19. — Carriage to Arco and back IV2 fl.; 
to Mori 4, with two horses 71/2 fl. — Boats, without rower, 40 kr. per hour. 

Goods Agents, Fratelli Oondrand. — Money Changer, Vine. Andreis. 

English Church Service in a chapel at the Hotel du Lac. 

Riva (230 ft.), a busy harbour with 6600 inhab., is charmingly 
situated at the N.W. end of the lake, here resembling a fjord, at the 
base of the precipitous Rocchetta. On the hillside, high above the 
town, rises the round tower of a ruined castle supposed to have been 
built by the Scaligers, and on the lake is the old castle of La Rocca, 
now a barrack. By the entrance to the town from Arco is the Church 
of the Minorites, in the overladen baroque style, erected in the 6ec- 

202 Route 36. MONTE BALDO. 

ond half of the 16th century. The Parish Church contains modern 
pictures and frescoes. Riva is a sheltered and healthy place, afford- 
ing pleasant summer- quarters; the heat is tempered hy the lake, 
and in the afternoon the town lies in the shadow of the hills. 

Excursions. The Fall of the Ponale, in itself of no great interest, is 
reached by a charming walk (there and back in IV2 br.) along the *New 
Road, which leads high above the lake, through a succession of tunnels 
and cuttings, to the Val di Ledro. It is in shade in the afternoon and 
affords beautiful views. At the point (2 M.) where it turns to the right 
into the valley, a path to the left, beyond the brook (fee of 10 kr. de- 
manded at a hut at its beginning), descends to the waterfall (10 kr. to 
the custodian ; restaurant). The return to Riva may be pleasantly made 
by boat, which should be ordered to meet us at the Ponale Fall (about 
2 fl., bargaining necessary). 

The *Monte Brione (1237 ft.), 1 hr. to the E„. of Riva, affords a fine survey 
of the entire lake (best from the rifle-range). The easiest ascent is from 
the Villa Lutti in the hamlet of Qrotta (inn, well spoken of), IV2 M. to the 
K.E. of Riva, whence we ascend to the left; for the upper path a pass is 
required, as the hill is fortified. The descent may be made to the Fort 
San Niccolb, at the S. foot of the hill, halfway between Riva and Torbole 
(p. 200). 

A pleasant excursion (road) may be taken towards the N.W. to (2 M.) 
Varone (403 ft.), with a fine waterfall in a grand rocky *Gorge (adm. 20 kr.; 
electric light; cloak desirable on account of the spray). Thence we may 
proceed either by road to (3 M.) Arco, or on foot, via Cologna, to ( 3 /4hr.) 
Tenno (1415 ft.), with an old castle and. charming view, and through richly 
cultivated uplands by Varignano to (IV2 hr.) Arco (p. 203). 

The ascent of Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. long, between the Lake of 
Garda and the valley of the Adige, is interesting and varied, but some- 
what fatiguing (not advisable in the hot season). This range consists of two 
groups, separated by the depression of the Bocca di Navene (4690 ft.) : N. 
the Altissimo, and S. the Monte Maggiore, with the Pra delta Baziva (7227ft.), 
the Cima di Val Dritta (7275 ft.), and the Punta del Telegrafo (7218 ft.). The 
Altissimo (6790 ft.) is best ascended from Mori (p. 19), on the E. side. 
The route ascends to (2 hrs.) Brenlonico (2250 ft.; Alb. Alpino); thence, 
with guide, via, (l J /2 hr.) S. Giacomo (3825 ft.; inn) to the (3 hrs.) top (re- 
fuge-hut; "View). Another steep route (guide), starting at Nago (p. 19) or 
Torbole (p. 200), ascends via, the Malga Casina (5-6 hrs.). — The pano- 
rama is still grander from the Punta del Telegrafo on the *Monte Maggiore 
(7218 ft.). A steep road, shady in the afternoon, leads from Peri (p. 20) 
to (2 hrs.) the celebrated pilgrimage -church of Madonna del la Corona 
(2540ft.), not far from the village of Spiazzi (2828ft.; two inns; views), 
and thence to (1 hr.) Ferrara di Monte Baldo (2807 ft. ; *Inn). Spiazzi may 
also be reached from Garda (p. 201; IO1/2 M.), by the road via, Costermano, 
Pesina, Caprino (all railway-stations, comp. p. 220; diligence from Caprino 
to Ferrara in connection with the trains ; carr. there and back 5-7, with 
two horses 10 fr.), and Pazzon. From Ferrara, making an early start with 
guide (3 fr.), we ascend by a new path to the Punta del Sascaga (Rifugio 
of the Ital. Alpine Club) and the (4 hrs.) top. 

Val di Ledro (carr. to Pieve and back 4, with two horses 8fl.; dil- 
igence every afternoon to Pieve in 3 J /2, to Storo in 5 hrs.). At the angle, 
high above the Fall of the Ponale (see above), the road turns to the W. into 
the green valley, and leads by Biacesa and Molina to the pretty Lago di 
Ledro (2135 ft.), on the N. bank of which lie Mezzolago and (9 M. from Riva) 
Pieve di Ledro (Albergo Alpino). — At Bezzecca, 3 /<i M. beyond Pieve, opens 
the Val Co?icei, with the villages of (20 min.) Enguiso and (10 min.) Lenzumo 
(938 ft.), whence the Corno oVImpichea (7010 ft.; "View) may be ascended 
in 4V2 hrs., with guide. — From Bezzecca the road leads by Tiarno, and 
through the sequestered Val Ampola, to (9 M.) Storo (1340 ft. ; Cavallo 
Bianco, indifferent), in the valley of the Chiete, here called the Val Buona. 

ARCO. 36. Route. 203 

It then crosses the stream and proceeds to Darzo, Lodrone (1263 ft.), with 
two ruined castles, and (3V2 M.) Ponte di Caffaro (Austrian and Italian 
frontier). From Caffaro to the Lago d'ldro and via Tormini to Said (Lago 
di Garda) or to Brescia, see p. 196. 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Riva, up the beautiful valley of the 
Sarca (railway, see p. 19; carriage, see p. 201), lies — 

Arco. — Hotels (the larger open only from Oct. to May). "Hotel 
& Curhaus Nelbock, with garden (hand daily, 11-1 ; also 3-4 in spring and 
fall), baths, whey-cure, a covered promenade, pens. 3V2-5 fl. ; *Schweizer- 
hof (Cur-Casino), opposite, pens. 4-5 fl.; *H6t.-Pens. Olivo, R. 1 fl. 20- 
1 fl. 50, L. 15, dej. 50, pens. 3 fl. 20-4 fl. 50 kr. ; *H6t.-Pens. Stkassee, 
with cafe; these four are in the Curplatz, with its well-kept grounds. 
*Bellevue, near the rail, station, pens. 3-4 fl. ; *H6t.-Pens. Arco, V2 M. 
to the W. of the Curplatz; *Arciduca Alberto, at Chiarano (p. 204), 
these two warm and sheltered, pens, from 2-3 fl. ; Corona, in the town, 
with a small garden, pens. 272-3 fl. ; Gasthof zur Sarca-Brucke, in an 
open situation. — Pensions. Pens. Bellaria, near the Hot. Arco, sheltered; 
Quisisana (good); Aurora , Rainalter, Olivenheim (high up, on the edge of 
the olive-wood, with view-terrace), Monrepos ; charges 3-5 fl., exclusive of 
candles and fires. — Private Apartments in the Villas Anna, Corradi, 
Emilie , Tappeiner, Vindobona, Pratt, Wohlauf, Gelger, and others; R. ac- 
cording to aspect, 20-50 fl. per month. — Scheiomeier''s Restaurant, Curplatz 
(beer); Giov. Povoli (wine); Strasser (see above), cafe and confectioner. — 
Curanstalt, behind the Schweizerhof, well fitted up, with inhaling rooms, 
hydropathic appliances, etc. 

Donkey per hr. 50 kr., each hr. addit. 30 kr., */« day 1 fl. 60 kr., whole 
day 2 fl. ; driver about 20 kr. per hr., 1 fl. per day. — Carriage to Biva and 
back IV2, with two horses 3 fl. ; to Trent (without returning) l l /n or 12 fl. 

English Church Service in the new Evangelical church. 

Arco (300 ft.), an ancient town of 3800 inhab., situated in a 
beautiful valley, almost entirely shut in on the N., E., and W. by 
lofty mountains, is frequented as a winter-resort by consumptive 
and nervous patients. The climate resembles that of Gardone 
(p. 199), but Arco has fewer showers and is somewhat cooler in 
winter. The vegetation approaches that of the Italian lakes : vines, 
olives, cedars, mulberries, magnolias, cypresses, oleanders, and at 
places orange and lemon trees. An aqueduct, l 1 ^ M. in length, sup- 
plies Arco with good drinking-water from Mte. Stivo. The chateau 
of Archduke Albert (d. 1896) has a fine winter-garden (custodian 
50 kr.). Adjoining the handsome Renaissance church is the old 
town-palace of the counts of Arco, with allegorical frescoes. To the 
N., on a precipitous rock (730 ft.), rises the Castle of Arco, destroyed 
in the Spanish War of Succession, with beautiful garden (views; 
key at the Curhaus or the Schweizerhof; fee 30-50 kr.). 

Excursions. To the N. to the Cusa Bianca, Veduta Maria, and the 
live-oaks (in all 3 /4-lhr. ; sign- posts). — The romantic ''Via di Prabi, 
diverging to the left on this side of the Sarca bridge, ascends the right 
bank of the stream, skirts the E. slope of the castle-hill, and traverses 
the imposing remains of a huge landslip to (1 hr.) Ceniga (inn), whence 
we may return over the hills by the 'Sophiengang 1 , a stony path passing 
the small Lake Laghel, which is dry in summer (l 3 /4 hr.). 

Pleasant walk to the W. by the road ascending to the right of 
the archducal chateau through groves of fine old olive-trees to the 
hamlets of ( 3 /4 M.) Chiarano (*Hot. Arciduca Alberto, see above), with an 
orangery belonging to M. Angerer (view), Vigne, and ( 3 /t M.) Varignano. 

204 Route 36. TENNO. 

Thence we either proceed direct to (IV2 M.) Varone across the plain (to 
the left), or ascend to the right by a rough path, affording beautiful views, 
to the (I74 hr.) village and chateau of Tenno, whence we descend by 
Cologna to (40 min.) Varone, and return across the plain to (3 M.) Arco. — 
Another walk crosses the Sarca to Oltresarca (p. 19), with the villages of 
(1 M.) Massone, ( 3 /4 M.) Bolognano, and O/2 M.) Vignole, affording beautiful 
views. — Ascent iof Mte. Brione via (2 M.) Orotta, and route via (37z M.) 
Riva to the Ponale Fall and Val di Ledro, see pp. 202, 203. 

V. Venetia. 

37. Verona 207 

a. Quarters on the Kight Bank of the Adige .... 209 

b. Left Bank of the Adige (Veronetta) 216 

From Verona to Caldiero and Cologna. From Caldiero 

to Tregnago. From Verona to Caprino, 220. 

38. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 220 

From Mantua to Monselice, 225. — From Suzzara to 
Parma, 226. 

39. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 226 

From Vicenza to the Baths of Recoaro, Schio, Arsiero, 
and Torre-Belvicino, 230, 231. 

40. Padua 231 

From Padua to Venice via Fusina, 240. 

41. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 240 

Excursion to the Villa Giacomelli or Maser and Asolo, 
240, 241. — From Bassano to Possagno, 242. 

42. Venice 242 

a. Piazza of St. Mark and Eavirons. Eiva degli Schiavoni 253 

b. The Academy 266 

c. Canal Grande 273 

d. From the Piazza of St. Mark to the Rialto Bridge 

and the Northern Quarters 280 

e. From thePiazza of St. Mark toSS. Giovanni e Paolo, and 

thence to theRiva degli Schiavoni. Eastern Quarters 283 

f. Quarters to the W. of the Canal Grande 290 

g. From the Piazza of St. Mark on foot to the Academy 

and S. Maria della Salute. S. Giorgio Maggiore. 

Giudecca 297 

Excursions: The Lido. Murano. Burano and Torcello. 

Chioggia 300 

43. From Venice to Trieste 303 

a. Via Treviso and Udine 303 

From Treviso to Belluno, 304. — From Conegliano to 
Vittorio, 306. — From Udine to Cividale, 303. 

b. Via Portogruaro and Monfalcone. Excursion to 
Aquileia and Grado 309 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneti, 
is divided into the eight provinces of Verona, Vicenza, Padova , Rovigo, 
Venezia, Treviso, Belluno, and Udine. Its area, 9059 sq. M. , is nearly 
equal to that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,842,173 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The western and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed as thickly peopled as the eastern and 
less prosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio ; 
but the Friuli, or ancient county of Forum Julii, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the debris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The i Furlanians\ the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Romagna, which 
were once conquered by the Celts. It boasts of having been frequently 
used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his comedies, and 
is the softest of all the Italian dialects, the flattening and elision of the 



consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, suar for sudare, 
fogo for fuoco, sior for signore. Another characteristic is the conversion of 
g into z, as zente for gente, zorno for giorno, mazore for maggiore. 

The history of the country has always been influenced by the proximity 
of the sea and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the lower part of 
its course the Po differs widely in character from all the other rivers in 
Europe. Its fall is very gradual, being for a considerable distance 2^/ 3 
inches only, and latterly little more than 1/4 inch per English mile. To- 
wards the end of its course , moreover, it receives numerous tributaries. 
The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to inundations, 
a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge dykes ; and 
these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the river is 
constantly rising. The Po, together with the Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, 
and other coast-rivers, terminates in a vast delta which extends along the 
whole coast of Venetia, The quantity of alluvial deposit is so great, that the 
beds of these streams are continually undergoing change and subdivision. 
Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies 1572 M. from the coast, and 
while the Po formerly flowed towards the S., it has formed its present 
embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it by outlets, 
would render the whole coast uninhabitable , were it not for the slight 
ebb and flow of the tide (mean difference IV2 ft.), which is perceptible 
in the Adriatic, and prevents malarious exhalations. This extensive allu- 
vial territory, which reminds one of Holland, called into activity the in- 
genuity and enterprise of its inhabitants at an early period, and a temper- 
ate and conservative character has thus been imparted to their history. 

The Veneti, a branch of the Illyrian stock, kept entirely aloof 
from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The seaports of Hatria and Spina, 
at the mouths of the Po, carried on a considerable trade at an early 
period, and several canals on a large scale were constructed as early 
as B. C. 380. In the 3rd cent, the Veneti, together with the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered into an 
alliance with Rome. While the Romanisation of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly effected here 
without opposition. The Roman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B. C, and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to its industries, cattle-breeding, and 
agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Rome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune (i. e. upwards of about 45002)- 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and then razed to the ground 
by the Lombards, and a similar fate befel Altinum, an important com- 
mercial town in the Lagoons , and Aquileia , which in ancient times was 
of a similar importance to the modern Trieste. The Romans sought re- 
fuge from their Lombard conquerors in the islands of the Lagoons. Re- 
moved from Teutonic influences, and ander the protection of the Byzant- 
ine Empire, the most famous of mediaeval states took its rise here from 
apparently insignificant beginnings. Its earliest history is involved in 
obscurity. The first Dux or Doge is said to have been Paulucius Ana/eslus 
(d. 716). In 809 the islands repulsed an attack of King Pepin, the son 
of Charlemagne, and virtually threw off the yoke of the Eastern emper- 
ors. At this period the inhabitants were crowded together in the is- 
lands of Rivoalto, Malamocco, and Torcello, which were the most secure. 
Rivoalto was selected as the seat of government, and here accordingly the 
city of Venice was founded. Angelus Participotius (819) is said to have 
been the first doge whose residence occupied the site of the present Pal- 
ace of the Doges. Situated between the Byzantine and Franconian em- 
pires, Venice became a connecting link between the trade of each, and 
the great depot of the traffic between the East and the West. In 828 a 
Venetian fleet brought the body of St. Mark to Venice, and thenceforth 
the Venetians revered him as their tutelary saint, using his emblem, the 
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VERONA. 37. Route. 207 

the republic, while their supreme official functionaries were styled 'Procu- 
rators of St. Mark 1 . In the interests of her commerce Venice was at length 
induced to make foreign conquests. These were at first confined to the 
Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose of procuring timber and 
suppressing piracy. The rivalry that sprang up with Genoa during the 
Crusades led the Venetians to effect a footing in the Levant, and to 
establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 
state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring towns 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who, supported by mercen- 
ary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modern sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan, 
the Scala in Verona, the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and 
the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes , and 
the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 
on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety, soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states. She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339, Vicenza in 1404, Padua 
and Verona in 1405, Udine in 1420, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 1428, 
Grema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these towns 
the lion of St. Mark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and Ven- 
etian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus conquer- 
ed extended to about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq. M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied by French troops under 
Baraguay d'Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it was 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressburg in 1805 the Austrians 
were compelled to cede it to the Kingdom of Italy. On the fall of Napo- 
leon it was again awarded to Austria, to which it belonged down to 1866, 
when in consequence of the events of that year it was finally incorporated 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 

37. Verona, 

Arrival. Verona has three stations: (1) Stazione Porta Vescovo (PI. I, 6; 
rail, restaurant, D. incl. wine 3*/2 fr.), the principal station, about IV2 M. 
to the E. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (luggage is booked to and from 
this station only). — : (2) Stazione Porta Nuova (PL B, 6), 3 /4 M. to the S.W. of 
the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, where the hotel-omnibuses await the trains 
from Tyrol, Milan, and Bologna. — (3) Stazione Porta S. Giorgio (PL E, 1), 
for the line to Domegliara (p. 20) and Caprino (p. 220). 

Hotels (see p. xix ; rather variously judged). *Gband Hotel de 
Londees (PL b; F, 3), Corso S. Anastasia, in the centre of the town, of 
the first class, with corresponding prices, R. 5, L. 1, A. 1, B. V-j-i, dej. 3, 
D. 5, omn. 1 fr. — Colomba d'Oro (PL e; D, 3), Via Colomba, near Piazza 
Vitt. Emanuele, R., L., & A. 372-41/2, B. H/2, de'j. 3, D. 4, omn. 1 fr., generally 
well spoken of. — Second-class (with trattorie): S. Loeenzo (PL d; D, 3), 
agreeably situated on the Adige, Riva S. Lorenzo, R., L., & A. 2 l /z-3 l /2, B. 
l l /4 fr., well spoken of; Europa e Aqoila Neea (PL f; E , 3), Via delle 
Quatro Spade, R., L., & A. 2Vz-3, B. I1/2, dej. 2V2, D. 4, omn. 3/ 4 f r ., we ll 
spoken of; Regina d'Ungheeia (PL c ; E, 3), near the Piazza Erbe, with a 
small garden, R., L., & A. 2-272, omn. 3/ 4 f r . , generally well spoken of; 
*Alb. all' Accademia (PL g; E, 3), Via Nuova. R. 2, omn. 3/ 4 fr., unpre- 
tending; Albeego -Ristobante alla Gabbia (PL h; E, 3), Curso Porta 
Borsari, R. I1/2 fr. ; Toecolo, near the Amphitheatre. 

208 Route 37. VERONA. History. 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also: Vittorio Emanuele, Piazza Vitt. 
Ernanuele, dej. 3, D. 4 fr., wine included, first-class; ■ Lbwenbrdu (Munich 
heer), Via Nuova Lastricata 14; Concordia, Via Nuova; Gambrinus , Via 
S. Sebastiano 14, with a small garden. — Cafes. Vittorio Ernanuele, see 
above ; Europa, Piazza Vitt. Eman. (restaurant also) ; Caffe Dante, Piazza 
de 1 Signori. 

Booksellers. Libreria Dante, Via Nuova Lastricata 20; Libreria alia 
Minerva, Via S. Cosimo (PI. E, 4). — Photographs : R. Lotze, Via Disciplina 9 
(PI. G, 4), in Veronetta. 

Baths : Via S. Luca (PI. C, 4). 

Money Changer : Orti, Via Nuova 27. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Piazza delL Indipendenza (PL F, 3). 

Theatres. Teatro Filarmonico (PL C, 4); Teatro Nuovo or Filodram- 
matico (PL E, F, 3), Piazza Navona; Teatro Ristori (PL B, C, 4). — Music 
on Tues., Thurs., & Sun. evening in the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cahs ('Broughams 1 ). Per drive 75 c, per hour D/a fr. , each addi- 
tional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 30 c. per hr. more. From station 
to town 1 fr. — For each pers. above two, one-third more. 

Tramways traverse the town from the Stazione Porta Vescovo to the 
Stazione Porta Nuova (10 c): see Plan. 

English Church Service at the Hotel de Londrea (p. 207). 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day and a half. 1st Day. 
Morning: Piazza delle Erbe and Piazza de'' Signori (pp. 209, 210); Torres 
of the Scaligers (p. 210); Corso Cavovr (p. 212); Arena and Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 213) ; drive to the Porta del Palio (p. 214) and £. Zeno (p. 215). 
Afternoon: S. Anastasia (p. 211); Cathedral (p. 211); S. Giorgio in Braida 
(p. 219); S. Maria in Organo (p. 218); Giardino Giusti (p. 218). Evening: 
Via Nuora (p. 215). — 2nd Day. S Fermo Maggiore (p. 216) ; Palazzo Pom- 
pei (p. 216). — Excursion to S. Michele, see p. 220. 

Verona (155 ft.), the capital of a province, -with 60,800 inhab. 
and a garrison of 6000 men, lies on both banks of the rapid Adige, 
which is now enclosed by high, embankments and crossed by six 
bridges. Next to Venice it is the most important and interesting 
town of ancient Venetia. In 1527 et seq. Verona was surrounded with 
new walls and bastions by Sammicheli, who seems to have taken 
Fra Giocondo's work at Treviso as his model. After it came into 
the possession of the Austrians in 1814 it was again strongly 
fortified , and along with Peschiera, Mantua, and Legnago formed 
the famous 'Quadrilateral', the chief support of Austrian rule in 
Italy. Restored to Italy in 1866, it is still a fortress of the first class, 
and seat of the commandant of the III. Army Corps. 

Founded by the Bhtetians and Euganeans, and afterwards occupied by 
the Celtic Cenomani, Verona was made a Roman colony in B.C. 89, and 
became one of the most prosperous towns of Upper Italy. Its castle of S. 
Pietro was a residence of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great, the 'Dietrich 
of Bern' (i.e. Verona) of German lore (d. 526). In 568 the town was taken 
by the Lombard king Alboin , who fell a victim to the vengeance of his 
wife Rosamunde, daughter of the conquered ruler of Verona, whom he 
had forced to drink wine out of her father's skull. The Frankish monarchs 
Pepin, and, after the Carlovingian epoch, Berengarius I., ruled here. Verona 
afterwards headed the league of Venetian cities against Frederick Barba- 
rossa. During the fierce contests between Guelphs and Ghibellines the 
terrible Ezzelino da Romano endeavoured to establish a lordship at Ve- 
rona. After his death in 1259 Mastino delta Scala was elected Podesta ; and 
the great princes of his house inaugurated a glorious period for the city. 
Mastino was assassinated in 1277, but his brother and successor Albert 
secured the supremacy of his line. Romeo and Juliet are said to have 
loved and died in the reign of Albert's son Bartolommeo (1301-04). The 

Piazza delle Erie. VERONA. 37. Route. 209 

greatest member of this illustrious family was Can Francesco, or '■Can 
Grande' (1312-29) , who captured Vicenza and subdued Padua after a long 
struggle. His brilliant court numbered Dante among its guests. Mastino II. 
at first conquered Brescia, Parma, and Lucca, but his rule was afterwards 
restricted to Verona and Vicenza by a league formed by Florence, Venice, 
and Milan. Can Grande II., his successor, was murdered by his brother 
Can Signorio in 1359; and in 1387 the latter's son Antonio, who had also 
endeavoured to secure his possession by fratricide, was expelled by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. Through the widow of Visconti the town 
passed in 1405 to the Venetians, to whom, with short interruptions, it 
remained subject down to the end of the Republic. 

In the history of Architecture Verona is important, both on account of 
its mediaeval buildings, and as the birthplace of Fra Giocondo (1435-1514), one 
of the most famous architects of the early Renaissance, whose works are to 
be found at Venice, Paris, Treviso (fortifications), and Rome, and as the home 
of Michele Sammicheli (1484-1559), the greatest military architect of Upper 
Italy, who imparted to the palaces of Verona some of the features of forti- 
fied castles. In judging of the Verona palaces, we must bear in mind that it 
was customary here, as at Genoa and other towns, to adorn the facades 
with paintings. The painted facades of houses near S. Fermo, by the Porta 
Borsari, in Piazza Erbe, and others partly recall the Paduan style of the 15th 
century. .— The earlier Veronese Painters of the second half of the 14th cent, 
were superior in colouring to the Florentine school of Giotto and held 
themselves clear of its influence. The chief of the^e masters was Altichieri, 
to whom is ascribed the fresco in S. Anastasia (p. 211), the only monument 
of the period in Verona (other frescoes in Padua, see p. 235). A new period 
of importance began in the 15th century. Among the chief masters were 
Vittore Pisano (d. ca. 1455), the celebrated medallist; Liberate da Verona; 
Domenico and his son Franc. Morone; Francesco Caroto (1470-1546); Giro- 
lamo dai Libri (1474-1556); and Paolo Moranda, surnamed Cavazzola (1486- 
1522). The artistic family of the Bonifazios, though originating in Verona, 
flourished mainly in Venice. On the other hand Paolo Caliari. surnamed 
Veronese (1528 88), also resident in Venice, owed his artistic development 
mainly to the influence of his native place. — In the history of Sculpture 
Verona also holds a place of some importance, as is evidenced by the 
Romanesque reliefs on the facade of S. Zeno (p. 215), the font of S. Gio- 
vanni in Fonte (p. 212), and the Gothic monument of the Scaligers (p. 210). 

a. Quarters on the Eight Bank of the Adige. 

The *Piazza delle Erbe (Pl.E, 3), the ancient forum, now the 
fruit and vegetable market, is one of the most picturesque squares in 
Italy. The Marble Column at the N. end bears the lion of St. Mark, 
a modern copy of the ancient cognisance of the Republic of Venice. 
Opposite is the Pal. Trezzja (formerly Maffei), built in the baroque 
style in 1668, with a curious spiral staircase in the interior. The 
Casa Mazzanti, at the corner to the right, originally the residence of 
Albertino della Scala (d. 1301), is adorned with frescoes by Cavalli, 
an imitator of Giulio Romano. The Fountain, dating from the time 
of Berengarius, is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', partly antique. 
On the houses opposite are frescoes by Liberale (Coronation of the 
Virgin, Adam and Eve) and Girolamo dai Libri (Madonna and 
saints). In the centre of the Piazza is the Tribuna, with its canopy 
borne by four columns, anciently the seat of judgment. The Casa 
dei Mercanti (1301), at the corner of Via Pelliciai, recently restored, 
now contains the commercial court. Opposite rises the Tower of the 
Municipio, 273 ft. in height, affording a flue view (ascent from th§ 
Baedeker. Italy I. 11th Edit. \A. 

210 Route 37. VERONA. Pal. del Consiglio. 

court of the Palazzo della Ragione, see below; adm. 50 c.). A short 
street to the left of the latter leads to the handsomely paved — 

*Piazza dei Stgnokj (PI. E, F, 3). Immediately to the right of 
the tower is the Palazzo della Ragione (seat of the jury court), 
founded in 1183 ; the court (Mercato vecchio) contains a grand flight 
of steps of the 14th century. Adjoining the pinnacled tower is the 
Tribunale, and on the other side of the piazza is the Prefettura, 
formerly residences of the Scaligers. The original architecture is 
seen to best advantage in the courts , which have been restored. 
The portal of the Prefettura is by Sammicheli. — In the centre of 
the piazza rises a Statue of Dante (by Zannoni, 1865) , who found 
his first asylum here with Bartolomrneo della Scala after his banish- 
ment from Florence in 1303. — At the N.E. corner of the piazza 
stands the — 

*PaIazzo del Consiglio, or Old Town Hall, usually called La 
Loggia, erected before 1500 from designs by Fra Giocondo, whose 
portrait in a monk's habit is on the left corner-pillar, originally with 
statues surmounting the facade (restored in 1873). This is one of 
the finest buildings in N. Italy in the early-Renaissance style, which 
was characterised by richness and beauty of detail rather than by 
strict harmony of composition. By the door are two bronze statues by 
Girol. Campana, representing the Annunciation. Over the door is the 
inscription, placed here by the Venetians : 'Pro summa fide summus 
amor 1592'. Above are statues of celebrated ancient Veronese: 
Corn. Nepos, Catullus, Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and iEmil. 
Macer, the poet and friend of Virgil. On the wall are busts of 
famous modern Veronese. On the upper floor are several tastefully 
restored rooms (custodian in the court). 

The entrances to the Piazza dei Signori are spanned by arch- 
ways. Above the arch next the Loggia is a portrait of Girol. Fra- 
castoro (d. 1553) by Danese Cattaneo (1559) ; in the N.W. corner 
is a Statue of Scipione Maffei, the historian (d. 1755). Behind, in 
the Via Mazzanti, are a picturesque Fountain of 1478 and the Volto 
Barbaro, under which Mastino della Scala is said to have been 
assassinated in 1277. Near it, on the ~Ws side of the square, is the 
old Palazzo de' Giureconsulti, founded in 1263, but rebuilt in the 
16th century. 

The passage adjoining the Tribunal leads to the Lombardic church 
of S. Maria Antica, with Romanesque campanile, and the imposing 
*Tombs of the Scaligers (Arche degli Scaligeri ; PI. F, 3), the stern 
Gothic forms of which immortalise the masculine genius of the dyn- 
asty. The ladder, their crest, often recurs on the elaborate railings. 

Over the church-door are the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande della Scala (d. 1329) 5 adjoining it, the wall-monument of Giovanni 
della Scala (d. 1350") and the sarcophagus of Mastino I. (d. 1277). Next to 
the Piazza Signori is the monument of Mastino II. (d. 1351), another sarco- 
phagus with canopy and equestrian statue, designed by Perino da Milano. 
The similar monument at the opposite corner of the street, executed by 
Bonino da Gampiglione for Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his life-time, is em- 

S. Anastasia. VERONA. 37. Route. 21 I 

bellished with statues of Christian heroes and virtues. The sarcophagi 
between these, hearing the same crest, have no names. (The custodiah 
lives in a house to the right of the church; fee 20c. for one, and 10 c. 
more for each additional person.) 

A little to the S.E., amid the grounds of the Piazza dell' Indipen- 
denza (PI. F, 3), rises an Equestrian Statue of Garibaldi, in bronze, 
by Bordoni (1887). 

We now proceed to the N. to the Corso Sant' Anastasia, at 
the E. end of which rises *Sant' Anastasia (PL F, 2), a fine Gothic 
Dominican church begun about 1261, with unfinished brick facade, 
a late-Gothic portal in marble, with reliefs of the life of Peter Mar- 
tyr, and a fresco of the 14th cent, in the lunette. 

The Interior, borne by 12 columns, is remarkable for boldness and 
symmetry of proportion, and for the late-Gothic decoration of the vaulting 
(1437). On the first column to the left is an ancient capital, used as a 
Holy Water Basin, supported by a hump-backed dwarf (Gobbo) by 
Gabriels Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese. By the first altar to the right 
is the monument of Fregoso, the Venetian general, by Danese Cattaneo 
(1565). Above the 3rd altar are an Entombment and other frescoes by 
Liberale. The frame-work of the 4th altar is an imitation of the ancient 
Arco de 1 Gavi in the Castel Vecchio, removed in 1805; altar-piece, St. 
Martin by Garoto. The next small chapel contains excellent early-Renais- 
sance ornamentation; a painted group of the Entombment, of the 14th cent.; 
a wooden crucifix of the 15th cent.; and a fine iron lamp. — In the right 
transept, St. Paul by Cavazzola, and Madonna with saints by Girolamo dai 
Libri, in an elegant frame. — In the second chapel of the choir, on the 
right, are ancient Veronese *Frescoes of the 14th cent, (probably by Alti- 
chieri; erroneously ascribed to Giotto), Knights of the Cavalli family 
kneeling before the Virgin. The adjoining Capp. Pellegrini (on the left) 
contains terracotta reliefs of the 15th cent. , probably by a Florentine 
master; on the outside, above the arch, a fresco of St. George, by Vitlore 
Pisano, in which the chief figure has been defaced by damp. In the choir, 
to the left, is the painted monument of General Sarego (1432), with an 
equestrian statue of the deceased in the middle and squires withdrawing 
a curtain at the side. Behind the high- altar are some fine stalls with 
intarsia work. — In the adjoining Cappella Lavagnoli (right) are frescoes, 
by Benaglio, of the Miraculous Draught of Fishes , the Crucifixion, and 
Christ preaching by the Lake of Galilee (Lago di Garda in the background). 
— The left transept contains frescoes of the 14th cent., and a picture by 
Liberale, Mary Magdalen in clouds. — Above the 4th altar in the left aisle, 
Descent of the Holy Ghost by Giolfino (1418); above is the same subject al 
fresco by Michele da Verona. At each side are four statues of saints. Over 
the 2nd altar, Christ with SS. Erasmus and George by Giolfino. Over 
the 1st altar, painted sculptures by Michele da Verona (about 1500). 

In front of the church is a marble Statue of Paolo Veronese, by 
Delia Torre and R. Cristiani, erected in 1888. 

To the left of the church, over a gateway, is the marble sarco- 
phagus of Count Guglielmo da Castelbarco, the Scaligers' friend, 
at whose expense the churches of S. Anastasia and S. Fermo were in 
great part built ; and in the gateway are three others. — The small 
church of S. Pietro Martire, entered through the adjoining Colle- 
gio Convito, contains an allegorical fresco by Falconetto with por- 
traits of Teutonic knights (about 1515). We now proceed to the 
right to the — 

Cathedral(Z>wo??7o; PI. F, 1,2), a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., 
with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent, and pointed 


212 Route 37. VERONA. Cathedral. 

windows in the facade inserted later. On the outside of the apse 
are pilasters with an architrave, in the antique style. Behind the 
columns and griffins of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, 
the paladins of Charlemagne, in rough half-relief, executed accord- 
ing to the inscription by Nicolaus (1135). By the side-wall rises 
an unfinished campanile, designed by Sammicheli, resting upon 

an ancient basis. 

The Interior, consisting of nave and aisles, with eight red marble 
pillars, contains an elegant rood-loft of marble, designed by Sammicheli, 
above which is a bronze crucifix by Giambatlista da Verona. The walls 
adjoining and above the three first altars on the right and left are adorned 
with fine frescoes by Falconeito (about 1503). The Adoration of the Magi, 
over the 2nd altar to the right, is by Liberate da Verona, with wings by 
Giolfino. At the end of the right aisle is the Tomb of St. Agatha, a 
Gothic monument of 1353 enclosed in beautiful Renaissance frame-work 
(1508). In the choir are scenes from the life of the Virgin, executed by 
Torbido from drawings by Giulio Romano. — Over the 1st altar on the left, 
^Assumption by Titian, about 1543 (frame by Sansovino): 'striking for its 
masterly combination of light and shade and harmonious colours with 
realistic form and action'' (G. & C). 

To the left of the choir a corridor leads to S. Oiovanni in Fonte, 
the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent. ; the Romanesque reliefs 
on the font (about 1200) show a distinct advance on those on the 
facade of St. Zeno (p. 215). To the left of the facade (2nd door on the 
left) are Romanesque Cloisters, the arches resting on double columns 
of red marble. They contain an antique column and some interest- 
ing ancient mosaics recently excavated (fee 50 c). — To the N.E. 
of the cathedral is the Vescovado, or bishop's residence, with a 
chapel containing three paintings by Liberate da Verona. The 
Palazzo dei Canonici to the N.W. (No. 19) contains the Biblioteca 
Capitolare with its precious MSS. (palimpsests), among which Nie- 
buhr discovered the Institutes of Gaius. Librarian , Monsignor 
Giuliari. (Adm. in the forenoon.) — The adjacent Ponte Garibaldi 
(PI. E, 1), a suspension-bridge, leads to the church of S. Giorgio in 
Braida, in Veronetta (see p. 219). 

We now follow the Lungadige Panvinio (PI. E, D, 2, 3), a 
broad and open quay ascending along the right bank of the Adige, 
and soon turn to the left, to visit the church of Sant' Eufemia (PL 
E, 2, 3), a Gothic structure of the 13th cent., with Madonnas by 
Moretto (1st altar on the left; injured) and Dom. Brusasorci (3rd 
altar on the right). Frescoes by Caroto, in the Cappella Spolverini, 
to the right of the choir (injured). 

A few paces to the S. of S. Eufemia is the Conso Porta Bobsari, 
which begins at the Piazza delle Erbe and leads to the Porta de' 
Borsari (PI. D, 3), a triumphal arch or town-gate, erected under 
Emp. Gallienus, A. D. 265, in the poor later Roman style. 

To the W. this Oorso is prolonged by the Conso Cavoue. (PI. D, 
C, 3), one of the chief streets of Verona, in which several handsome 
palaces are situated. Immediately to the right (No. 1) is the Gothic 
Palazzo Ponzoni (formerly Pal. de' Medici). Farther on, to the left, 

Amphitheatre. VERONA. 37. Route. 213 

in a small piazza, is the church of SS. Apostoli, with very ancient 
tower and Romanesque apse. In front of it stands a marble statue 
"by Zannoni of Aleardo Aleardi, the poet and patriot, horn in Verona 
in 1812 (d. 1878). — Also on the left (No. 19) is the handsome *Pal. 
Bevilacqua, by Sammicheli, with large windows intended for a 
museum. It is now entirely neglected and is used for storing coals. 
Opposite is the small church of S. Lorenzo (11th cent.), a Roman- 
esque edifice, with round towers on the facade. The interior, restored 
in 1896-98 , has galleTies supported alternately by pillars and 
columns. There are remains of many old frescoes, and in the apse 
is an altar-piece by Bom. Brusasorci (1566). — Then, on the right, 
No. 38, Pal. Portalupi, and No. 44, Pal. Canossa, also by Sammicheli, 
with a fine portico and court, but with an attica added in 1770. 

The neighbouring Piazzetta di Castel Vecchio (PI. C, 3) affords 
a picturesque view of the imposing pinnacled Bridge of the 14th 
cent., which connects the Castel Vecchio (PI. C, 3), the castle of 
Can Grande II-. (14th cent.), now a barrack, with the left bank of the 
Adige (open to passengers during the day). 

From the Castello to S. Zeno, see p. 215. The Via S. Bernardino 
leads to the W. to S. Bernardino (p. 214), while the Corso is pro- 
longed to the S.W. to the Porta del Palio (p. 214). 

To the S. of the Corso, and connected with it by several streets, 
lies the Piazza Vittoeio Emanuele (PI. D, 4 ; formerly Piazza Brh, 
from l pratum\ meadow), with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by Borghi, erected in 1883. 

On the E. side of this piazza rises the famous *Amphitheatre 
(Arena; PI. D, 4), erected under Diocletian about A. D. 290, and 
known in German lore as the abode of Dietrich (Theodoric) of 
Bern, 106 ft. in height, 168 yds. long, and 134 yds. wide. Of the 
outer wall with its four stories a fragment only now exists. 

Around the Interior (entr. from the W. side hy arcade No. V; adm. 1 fr.; 
closed at sunset; guide superfluous) rise 43 tiers of steps of grey limestone 
or reddish-yellow conglomerate (often restored since the end of the 16th cent., 
and partly modern), on which 20,000 spectators could sit. An inscription 
on the 2nd story commemorates the visit of Napoleon I. in 1805, and the 
restoration carried out hy his order. Fine view from the highest steps. 
Two doors at the ends of the longer diameter afforded access to the arena 
itself (82 hy 48 yds.). 

On the E. side of the Arena, in the small Piazza Mura Gallieno, 
is a fragment of the Late-Roman City Wall, brought to light in 1872. 

To the S.W. of the Arena stands the Municipio (Pl.D, 4 ; former- 
ly guard-house), begun in 1836, which bears several memorial tablets 
relating to political events and to the inundation of 1882 (p. 216). 

The wide Via Pallone, hegiiming behind the Municipio, leads to the 
S.E., skirting the Mediaeval City Wall of tbe Visconti period (now used 
as barracks), to the iron Ponte Aleardi (PI. E, 6) and the Cimitero (p. 218). 

Near the Via Pallone, within a garden (visitors ring at the red 
door in front, 15-20 c.) in the Vicolo S. Francesco al Corso, a side 
street of Via Cappuccini (PI. D, 6), is a suppressed Franciscan Monastery, 
where a chapel contains a mediaeval sarcophagus called the Tomba di Oiu- 
lietta, or '■Tomb of JulieC. The whole scene is prosaic and unattractive. 

214 Route 37. VERONA. S. Bernardino. 

Shakespeare's play of 'Romeo and Julief is founded on events which actu- 
ally occurred at Verona. 'Escalus, Prince of Verona 1 was Bartolommeo della 
Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's parents, see p. 215. 

The W. side of the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele is occupied by the 
Gran Guardia Vecchia (PI. D, 4 ; now the corn-market ; upper floor 
used for concerts and exhibitions), or old guard-house, begun in 
1609 by Dom. Curtoni, a nephew of Sammicheli. Adjacent are the 
Portoni, an old gateway with a tower, probably another fragment of 
the city-wall of Giov. Galeazzo Visconti. — On the N. side of the 
piazza is the spacious Pal. Malfatti, formerly Guastaverza (by Sam- 
micheli), with the Cafe Yittorio Emanuele, mentioned at p. 208. 

In the street to the right of the gateway is the Teatro Filarmonico 
(PL C, 4). In the arcades erected in 1745 is the valuable Museo 
Lapidario, formed by Scipione Maffei, containing Roman, Greek, 
and Oriental inscriptions, and ancient sculptures. Two of the best 
reliefs are built into the back-walls of the small houses adjoining 
the entrance (on the left, iEsculapius and Hygieia, an Attic votive 
relief, 4th cent. B.C.). Visitors ring at the iron gate opposite the 
Gran Guardia. 

Passing through the gateway, we reach the Cokso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, B, 4, 5), in which, at the corner of the Strada di S. 
Antonio, is a Statue of Michele Sammicheli, 'grande nella architet- 
tura civile e religiosa, massimo nella militare', by Trojani. At the 
end of the Corso rises the handsome Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), by 
Sammicheli. Outside this gate are the Stazione Porta Nuova (p. 207), 
the Canale Jndustriale , or Adige Canal , completed in 1888 , and 
several factories. 

From the Porta Nuova an avenue leads to the N.W. to the 
*Porta del Palio (formerly Porta Stuppa; PL A, 4), by Sammicheli, 
once admired by Goethe. Outside the gate is the moat of the fortress, 
the bridge over which affords a fine view. — "We now follow the 
Stradone di Porta Palio and the second cross-street on the left to — 

S. Bernardino (PL A, 3 ; if closed, ring in the corner to the left), 
of the 15th cent., formerly a monastery-church. Above the door in 
the cloisters to the left of the church is a fresco, *St. Bernardinus, 
by Cavazzola. 

Intekioe. 1st chapel on the right: as altar-piece, a copy of a master- 
work of Cavazzola in the Gallery (No. 335, p. 217). Frescoes of legendary 
subjects by Giolfino. — 2nd altar on the right, Madonna and saints by 
Bonsignori (1485). — 4th chapel on the right: Domen. Morone, ceiling 
frescoes and life of St. Anthony (restored). — 5th chapel : on the altar-wall, 
copies from Cavazzola (in the Museum) ; above, Christ on the Cross and 
SS. John and Mary, by Fr. Morone (1498) ; on the left, Christ parting from 
his mother by Caroio, and three paintings from the Passion by Giolfino. — At 
the end to the right is the entrance to the "Cappella Pellegrini, by Sam- 
micheli (1557, restored 1793), with beautiful Renaissance decoration. Altar- 
pieces by India (1679). — In the choir, to the left, Madonna with saints, 
by Benaglio. — Organ of 1481. On the organ-doors are SS. Bernardino and 
Francis, and (over the portal) SS. Bonaventura and L/udovico, by Fr. Mo- 
rone. — The Cloisteks and one of the chapels contain frescoes by Giolfino 
(early works). — In the Refectokt of the monastery, frescoes by Dom. Mo- 
rone(1), accessible only from the street. 

8. Zeno Maggiore. VERONA. 37. Route. 21 5 

To the N. of this point lies *S. Zeno Maggiore (PI. A, 2 ; reached 
by the Vicolo Lungo S. Bernardino or also by following the new em- 
bankment on the Adige, with its fine views, to the N.W. of the 
Castel Vecchio, p. 213), one of the finest Romanesque churches in 
N. Italy, of most noble proportions, lately restored. The nave in its 
present form was begun in 1139; the choir dates from the 13th 

The Portal, the columns of which rest on lions of red marble, is 
embellished with reliefs of Scriptural subjects by Mcolaus and Wiligelmus 
(1139). Below, to the right, Theodoric, as a wild huntsman , is speeding 
headlong to the devil. At the top of the door-posts are the twelve months. 
The doors are covered with rude bronze reliefs from the Bible and the 
life of St. Zeno. 

Interior. In the corner to the right, an ancient octagonal font; behind 
it, a fresco of S. Zeno (14th cent.). The holy-water basin, by the 1st column 
on the right, rests on an inverted antique capital. Opposite is an ancient 
porphyry vase, 28 ft. in circumference; beyond it, a fine Gothic crucifix. 
— On the Choir Screen are marble statues of Christ and the Apostles (13th 
cent.). — To the left of the choir, frescoes of the 14th cent., under which are 
traces of others of the 12th; to the right, frescoes of the 11th and 13th 
centuries. To the right of the steps to the choir is an altar, flanked on 
each side with four columns of brown marble, resting on lions and 
bulls. To the right, above, is a painted marble figure of St. Zeno , a 
fisherman and afterwards Bishop of Verona (4th cent.). Gothic choir-stalls. 
Behind the high-altar is an admirable ^Picture (covered) by Mantegna 
(1459), h\ing too high : Madonna enthroned, with angels and saints ; on 
the left, SS. Peter, Paul, John, and Augustine ; on the right, SS. John the 
Baptist, Gregory, Lawrence, and Benedict, in solemn attitude and full of 
individuality, with remarkably rich accessories. (The predella pictures are 
copies.) — The spacious Crtpt contains the tasteful bronze tomb of St. Zeno, 
from the designs by the brothers Spazzi (1889), with seated figures of 
Religion, Love, Faith, and Hope. 

To the left of the church is the entrance to the adjoining *Cloisters, 
with elegant double columns, where a small museum of Christian anti- 
quities has been arranged. — The well-informed sacristan also conducts 
the visitor to a lofty tower adjoining the cloisters, the last relic of a con- 
vent repeatedly inhabited by the mediseval German emperors on their jour- 
neys to Rome. On the upper floor are some old Romanesque wall-paint- 
ings. — Fee Vz-l fr. 

To the W. of S. Zeno is the Porta S. Zeno (PI. A, 1), erected in 
1540 by Sammicheli. 

"We now return from the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 213) to the 
N.E. to the Piazza delle Erbe by the Via Ntjova Lastbjcata and 
its prolongation, the Via Nuova (PI. E, 3), together forming the 
chief thoroughfare of the city (corso in the evening). 

In the Via della Scala, one of the S. side-streets of the Via Nuova, 
is the church of Santa Maria della Scala (PI. E, 3), with an early-Renais- 
sance portal and frescoes of the school of Vitture Pisano (in the bell 
chamber, to the right of the high-altar). — This street is prolonged by 
the Via S. Cosimo , at No. 8 in which (Marchese Fumanelli) is a good 
replica of Seb. del Piombo's so-called 'Dorothea 1 at Berlin. 

In the Via Cappello, through which the tramway runs S. from 
the Piazza Erbe (PL E, 3), the gateway of an old house (Nos. 19-25) 
on the left bears a marble tablet which is said to indicate the house 
of Juliet's parents (Capuletti; pp. 213,214). The street then takes 

216 Route 37. VERONA. S. Fermo Maggiore. 

the name of Via S. Sebastiano (PI. E, 3, 4), in which, adjoining 
S. Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), is the Biblioteca Comunale (open in winter 
9-3 and 6-9, in summer 9-4), founded in 1860, and containing 
numerous records. — In the Via Leoni, the prolongation of the 
same street, on the left, No. 1, is the Arco de' Leoni (PI. F, 4), 
part of a Roman double gateway, coeval with the Porta dV Borsari 
(p. 112), but of superior execution, bearing an inscription partially 
preserved. Behind it are remains of a still older arch. 

Near this is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore (PI. E, F, 
4), built at the beginning of the 14th cent, for the Benedictines 
and afterwards transferred to the Franciscans. The interesting facade 
is enriched with brick and marble. On the left side of the facade 
is the sarcophagus of Fracastoro, physician of Can Grande, with 
ancient Veronese frescoes. 

The Interior, usually entered by the left side-door, has no aisles. 
Part of it is modernised. Fine old roof in larch-wood. Above the main 
entrance is a fresco of the early Veronese school, the Crucifixion, in poly- 
chrome frame. To the left is the monument of Brenzoni, with sculptures 
by the Florentine Rosso, an assistant ofDonatello (1420); above are much 
damaged frescoes by Vittore Pisano, Annunciation. — 1st altar on the left, 
three saints by Torbido. — Over the side-entrance, fresco of the Crucifixion ; 
in the chapel to the left, Altar-piece by Caroto (1525), Madonna, St. Anna, 
and the Child in clouds, with four saints below. — In an adjoining space, 
behind a curtain and railing, is the monument of the physician Gir. della 
Torre, by Riccio (the bronze reliefs, now in the Louvre, are here replaced 
by copies). — Chapel on the left of high-altar, St. Anthony with four other 
saints, by Liberate. — 3rd altar on the right in the nave, Trinity, Madonna 
in clouds, Tobias and the angel, and a saint, by Franc. Torbido. 

b. Left Bank of the Adige (Veronetta). 

The Via Leoni ends at the iron Ponte delle Navi (PI. E, 4), 
which was erected in 1893 on the site of two stone bridges destroyed 
by inundations of the Adige in 1757 and 1882. It affords a good 
survey of the choir and transept of S. Fermo, and also up the river 
to the Castello S. Pietro (p. '219). — A little way above the bridge 
stands the spacious church of S. Tommaso (PI. F, G, 3, 4), without 
aisles, and with open roof, containing a fine altar-piece by Girol.dai 
Libri, formerly attributed to Caroto : SS. Sebastian, Rochus, and 
Job (last altar on the right). 

Just below the bridge, to the left, is the noble *Palazzo Pompei 
(PI. F, 5), erected by Sammicheli about 1530, presented by the 
family to the town in 1857, and now containing the Museo Civico 
(adm. in summer 9-4, in winter 9-3, on holidays from 10 a.m. ; 1 fr., 
gratis on the 1st Sun. of each month). 

The Ground Floor contains natural history collections (fine fossils from 
Monte Bolca) and antiquities: Roman and Etruscan bronzes, marble sculp- 
tures and vases, coins, Roman silver-plate, prehistoric antiquities from the 
lake-dwellings of theLagodiGarda, mediaeval sculptures (some painted), and 
casts of modern works. 

The ; Pinacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
chiefly of the Veronese school. Catalogues for the use of visitors. The 
rooms are overcrowded, and most of Ihem are poorly lighted. 

Pal. Pompei. VERONA. 37. Route. 217 

I. Room : (right) 70. Tiepolo, Monastic saints; 68. Bonifazio II., Noah and 
his sons; 52. Titian, Madonna and Child with John the Baptist (injured); 
49. Franc. Torbido (ascribed to Moretto), Tobias and the angel. On the op- 
posite wall: 34. School of Perugino, Madonna, Christ, and John the Baptist, 
with two angels; 31. School of Paolo Veronese, Baptism of Christ (injured). 

II. Room (right): 156. In the style of Jacob Corneliszen (not Lucas van 
Leyden), Adoralion of the Magi; 148. Bonsignori, Madonna ; 155. Giac. Fran- 
cia, Madonna; 153. Parmigianino, Holy Family ; 152. Girol. Benaglio, Ma- 
donna; 122. Gima da Conegliano, Madonna; 118. Cesare da Seslo, Pieta; 115. 
M. Basaiti, St. Sebastian; 114. Caroto, Holy Family (under Giulio Romano's 
influence); 119. Caroto, Madonna; 99. Gima da Conegliano, Madonna (date, 
1510, forged) ; 104. Style of Altdorfer (not Amberger), Portrait of the Vicar 
Kolb ; 97. Sir A. More (Ant. Mor), Portrait; 96. School of Raphael (? ascrib- 
ed by Morelli to Calisto Piazza), Madonna, St. Elizabeth , and John the 
Baptist ; "87. Mantegna, Madonna and two saints ; 102. P. Veronese (? as- 
cribed by Morelli to Zelotli), Allegory of music; 95. School of Peru gin o, 
Adoration of the Magi; 86. School of Giov. Bellini (signature forged), Present- 
ation in the Temple; 94. Unknown Artist (wrongly attributed to Fra 
Bartolommeo), Portrait; 85. Cavazzola, Madonna with the young Baptist; 
77. Giov. Bellini (not Florentine School), Madonna, an early work (injured) ; 
92. Caroto, Madonna, an early work ; 76. Bart. Montagna, Two canonized 

HI. Room: 200. Rondinelli (not Giov. Bellini), Madonna; 199. Palma Vec- 
chio (not Moretto), Madonna (injured). — Next wall: above, 180. Romanino, 
St. Jerome; 182. Francesco Morone , Madonna and Child; 187, 188, 190, 
191. Legendary scenes, ascribed to Falconetlo. 

IV. Room (on the other side of Room I) : 240. Giolfino, Madonna; 243. 
Paolo Veronese, Madonna enthroned, with saints and angels (injured); 244. 
Ant. Badile (teacher of P. Veronese), Madonna and saints; 252. Girol. 
dai Libri, Madonna enthroned, with SS. Rochus and Sebastian ; 251. Caroto, 
St. Catharine; 253. Girol. dai Libri, Baptism of Christ; 260. Caroto, Ador- 
ation of the Child (a youthful work) ; 259. Morone, St. Catharine and the 
donor; *267. Paolo Veronese, Portrait of Guarienti (1556); over the door, 
271. Bonsignori, Madonna enthroned (1484). 

V. Room. On the entrance-wall are frames containing a choice and 
rich collection of miniatures from choir- books. Note those by Liberate 
and especially those by "Girol. dai Libri. Pictures: *290. Gir. dai Libri, 
Madonna and SS. Joseph, Jerome, and John the Baptist worshipping the 
Child, with richly detailed landscape. Cavazzola, 294. St. Bonaventura, 
"298. Christ and St. Thomas, with Descent of the Holy Spirit and Ascen- 
sion in the background. 300. Caroto, Christ washing the disciples 1 
feet, Madonna and David in the clouds. Cavazzola, *303. Scourging of 
Christ, 308. Christ crowned with thorns. — Exit-wall: 330. Fr. Morone, 
Trinity, with John and Mary; 333. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna and Child 
in clouds, worshipped by SS. Andrew and Peter; 335. Cavazzola (large 
altar-piece), Madonna with angels, saints, and donor (1522), the master's 
last work, recalling the school of Ferrara in its colouring; 339. Girol. dai 
Libri, Madonna with Joseph, Tobias and the angel (fine landscape; 1530). 
Above the door, *343. Caroto, Tobias with the three archangels. 

VI. Room : *351. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child (showing the influence 
of the Paduan school); 352. Lucas van Leyden (copy), Crucifixion; 359. 
Stefano da Zevio, Madonna and St. Catharine in a rose-garden; 365. Jacopo 
Bellini, Crucifixion (retouched); 369. Girol. Benaglio, Madonna and saints. 
Opposite: 377. Liberate, Descent from the Cross; *390, '392, 394. Cavazzola, 
Gethsemane, Descent from the Cross, and Bearing of the Cross (1517); to 
the left of the Cross in the middle picture is the artist's portrait and in 
the background are the Adige and the Castello S. Pietro. 

VII. Room, entered from Boom IV, unimportant. — VIII. Room: 
Engravings. — IX. Room, unimportant. — In an adjoining room on the 
right (usually closed), medallions by Vitt. Pisano. Back -wall: fresco 
by Cavazzola, Baptism of Christ, and. medallions of the Evangelists. — 
X. Room, unimportant. — XI. Room: Crucifixion, attributed to A Iticlderi. 
— XII. Room: Frescoes (sawn out). Entrance-wall: 560. Morone, Madonna 

218 Route 37. VEKONA. S. Maria in Organo. 

and Child, with saints (1515). Opposite the windows : 539-544. Paolo Veronese, 
Deeds of Alexander the Great, etc., early works, from the Palazzo Con- 
tarini (ca. 1550). Exit- wall: 545. Martino da Verona, Madonna enthroned 
and SS. Zeno, James, and Apollonia; below, 546-550. Giolfino, Allegorical 
subjects, half-length figures. — The last two rooms are unimportant. 

To the S. of the Porta Vittoria is the Cimitero (PI. F, 6), laid 
out on a grand scale, with its cypress avenue and handsome gateway 
adorned with groups in marble hy Spazzi. In the interior are Doric 
colonnades, a lofty dome-church, and a number of large monuments 
in marble. It is open till sunset. 

Opposite the cemetery is Ihe iron Ponte Aleardi, leading to the Via 
Pallone and the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 213). — The avenue on the 
left bank of the Adige leads to the Railway Bridge, which affords a fine 
survey of the town and environs, and from which we may return to Ihe 
Porta Nuova (p. 214). 

In the Via Yenti Settembre, to the E. of the Ponte delle Navi, 
rises S. Paolo di Campo Marzo (PI. F, 5), which contains Madonnas 
with saints by Oirolamo dai Libri (3rd altar to the right), P. 
Veronese (right transept), and Bonsignori (to the left). Over the 
high-altar, Madonna between SS. Peter and Paul by Franc. Caroto. 

Farther to the E. is the Vicolo Fiumicello, leading to the left 
along a brook to SS. Nazzaro e Celso (PL H, 4), a Renaissance 
building of the 15th cent., with traces of Gothic. 

In the right transept, two "Paintings on panel, John the Baptist, and 
SS. Benedict, Nazarius, and Celsus , by Bart. Montagna. A Pieta and 
St. Bl'aise with St. Juliana, in the sacristy, are by the same artist. In 
the choir are frescoes by Farinato. In the Cappella di S. Biagio (left 
transept) is an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, by Bonsignori (1519), in 
a fine old frame (accessories by Girol. dai Libri, 1527); to the left, triptych 
by Girol. Moceto ; in the altar-niche, frescoes by Bart. Montagna (history 
of St. Blaise; much damaged); in the dome, faded frescoes by Falconetto 

Hence we proceed to the N., through the Via Muro Padri, to the 
Via Giardino Giusti, No. 10 in which, to the right, is the entrance 
to the Pal. Giusti and the *Giardino Giusti (PI. G, H, 3 ; ring at a 
gate on the right in the court; fee 50 c). This beautiful garden 
contains a few Roman antiquities and numerous cypresses, some of 
them 400-500 years old and 120 ft. in height. The loftily situated 
view-terrace (ascent through the turret at the back of the garden) 
commands a beautiful view of Verona, the distant Apennines, 
Monte Pizzocolo on the Lago di Garda (p. 200) and the Brescian 
Alps (evening-light favourable). 

A little to the N.E., in the wide Interrato dell' Acqua Morte, the 
filled-in canal that till 1895 separated the island of the Adige from 
Veronetta, lies M: Santa Maria in Organo (PL G, 3), a very ancient 
church, rebuilt by Sammicheli in 1481 , with unfinished facade of 1592. 

Intkrioh (if main portal is closed, try side-door in the Via S. Maria 
in Organo). In the nave are "Frescoes by Franc. Morone, representing 
(right) Adam and Eve, the Flood, Abraham's Sacrifice, Joseph sold by his 
Brethren, (left) Passage of the Red Sea, Moses receiving the Tables of the 
Law, David and Goliath, Elijah in the Fiery Chariot. Third altar on 
the left, Madonna and Child, with S3. Martin, Augustine, and two angels, 
by Morone (1503); 4th altar on the left, Madonna with saints, by Savoldo 

S. Giorgio in Braida. VERONA. 37. Route. 21 9 

(1533). Chapel to the left of the choir, fresco of the Resurrection hy Dom. 
Brusasorci. The seats in front of the high-altar are embellished with 
landscapes by Cavazzola and Brusasorci. Behind it is a carved ebony and 
walnut Candelabrum by Fra Giovanni da Verona, who belonged to the mon- 
astery of this church. *Choir Stalls with intarsia (views of the town above, 
ornamentation at the sides and below), of 1499, by the same master. Chapel 
on the right of the choir: Ascension, a fresco by ■ Giolfino. In the right transept 
are an altar-piece, St. Francesca Romana, by Guercino, and, on the left wall 
in front, frescoes by Cavazzola (St. Michael, and St. Raphael with Tobias). 
— The Sacristy contains, on the right, intarsias by Fra Giovanni, injured 
by water; the ceiling and friezes, with half-length 'Portraits of monks 
and popes, are by Francesco Morone ; "Madonna del Girol. daiLibri. 

From the end of the Via S. Maria in.Organo the Via S. Giovanni 
in Valle ascends to the right to the ancient little church of 8. Gio- 
vanni in Valle (PI. G, H, 2), a flat-roofed basilica, borne by columns 
with very early capitals. Over the entrance is a fresco by Stefano 
da Zevio, and in the crypt are two early-Christian sarcophagi. — 
The Vicolo Borgo Tascherio leads from this point back to the main 

Beyond the Via Redentore, to the right, on a rising ground, is 
the little church of SS. Siro e Libera, dating from the time of Beren- 
garius. — In the vicinity are remains of an antique Theatre (PI. G, 2), 
excavated in the midst of private houses (boy will fetch custodian). 

Opposite the Ponte delta Pietra, built by Fra Giocondo, of which 
the two arches next the left bank are Roman, begins the ascent to 
the Castel San Pietro (PI. G, 2 ; permission at No. 57, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele), a modern barrack on the site of the castle of Theodoric 
the Great (p. 208) and the Visconti, ruins of which are still trace- 
able. Splendid view, which, however, is almost equally good from 
a little before the entrance. 

A few paces to the N. of the bridge is the venerable church of 
Santo Stefano (PI. G, 1), rebuilt by Theodoric. Facade probably of 
the 11th century. The interior has a flat roof and a raised choir, 
with the episcopal throne at the back ; in front, to the left, statue 
of St. Peter (14th cent.). Pictures by Caroto and D. Brusasorci. — 
From this point the Via Alessio leads to the "W. to the church of 
San Giorgio in Braida (PI. F, 1; if the front-gate is closed, entrance 
by side-door on the N.), reconstructed in the 16th cent, with the aid 
of Sammicheli. The interior contains an admirable collection of 
well-preserved paintings by Veronese and Brescian masters. 

W. wall, over the door: Tintoretto, Baptism of Christ; 1st altar on the 
left, Caroto, St. Ursula (1545) ; 3rd altar on the left , Caroto, SS. Rochns 
and Sebastian, with predelle (centre figure of St. Joseph modern); above. 
The Apostles healing a possessed man, by D. Brusasorci; in the lunette, 
Transfiguration, by Caroto; 4th altar on the left, Giroldmo dai Libri, 'Ma- 
donna enthroned, between SS. Zeno and Lorenzo Giustiniani, with three 
*Angels with musical instruments at the foot (1529); 5th altar on the left, 
Moreito, "Madonna with holy women (1540), one of this master's best works, 
with delicate colouring in a silvery tone. At the sides of the organ and 
opposite, Romanino of Brescia, Martyrdom of St. George (1540), originally 
the panel of an organ. By the choir-pillars, Caroto, Annunciation. To the 
right in the choir, Farinato, Miracle of the Five Thousand (1603); to the left, 
F. Brusasorci, the Shower of manna. High-altar-piece (generally covered), 

220 Route 37. VALPOLICELLA. 

*P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George, a masterpiece of the highest rank, 
in which the horrors of the scene are mitigated by nobility of outline and 
richness of colour. 4th altar on the right: F. Brusasorci, Madonna with 
archangels. The beautiful holy-water basin is enriched with bronze figures 
of John the Baptist and St. George by Joseph de Levis and A. de Rubeis. 

From this point "by the Porta S. Giorgio (1525) and the adjoin- 
ing grounds to the Ponie Garibaldi (PI. E, 1; toll 2 c), see p. 212. 

From Veeona to Cologna, steam-tramway in 274-3 hrs., starting out- 
side the Porta Vescovo. — 2 M. San Michele, the birthplace of the archi- 
tect Michele Sammicheli (p. 209), with the round church of Madonna di 
Campagna, planned by him (splendid Alpine view from the dome). Near 
the church rises the pinnacled castle of Montario, formerly the property of 
the Scaligers. The tramway then passes S. Martino (p. 226), Caldiero 
(p. 226), S. Bonifacio (p. 227), and Lonigo (p. 227), and reaches the little town 
of Cologna Veneta, with 2200 inhab., who are busily engaged in the culture 
of silk, hemp, and vines. 

[From Caldiero a steam-tramway runs to the 1ST. to (1 hr.) Tregnago, 
whence we may visit the Tredici Comuni, once a German 'enclave 1 on Italian 
soil, on the S. slope of the Monti Lessini , between the valley of the Adige 
and the Val d'Astico (p. 231). The chief village is Giazza. Numerous 
fossils ; a rocky defile (Ponle di Veja) ; basaltic cliffs near Vestena.] 

From Verona to Caprino, 2172 M., railway in about 2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 
75, 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 70 c). The train starts from the Stazione Porta S. Giorgio 
(PI. E, 1) and a=cends the Adige near its left bank to (1 M.) Quinzano and (3 M.) 
Parona alV Adige (p. 20), and then beyond (472 M.) Arbizzano and (5 M.) 
Negrar enters the Valpolicella, a pleasant upland region, between the S. 
spurs of the Monti Lessini (p. 225) and the Adige, noted for its wine. — 
5!/2 M. Pedemonte; 7 M. 8. Floriano; 8 M. S. Pietro Jncariano ; 9 1 /^ M. Gar- 
gagnago; IOV2 M. S. Ambrogio. — We now descend the valley of the Adige 
to (12 M.) Domegliara (p. 20), where our line crosses the Brenner railway 
(stations about '/< M. apart), and cross the river just before reaching (13 J /2 M.) 
Sega. Hence the line runs in a N.W. direction across the fertile upland 
district that separates the Lago di Garda from the valley of the Adige. — 
16 M. Affi; 17V2M. Albare; 19 M. Costermano, the station for Garda, 2y 2 M. 
to the W. (p. 201). We skirt the S. slope of the Monte Baldo, still in a 
N.W. direction, and beyond (20 M.) Pesina reach (21'/2 M.) Caprino. — From 
Caprino to Ferrara di Monte Baldo and ascent of the Monte Maggiore, 
see p. 202. 

38. From Verona to Mantua and Modena. 

63 M. Railway in 2-3 V2 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 55, 8fr. 10, 5fr. 20 c. ; express 
12 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 c.) ; to Mantua (2572 M.) in 3/ 4 -17 4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 
15 c, 2 fr. ; express 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60 c). — This will continue to be the ex- 
press route to Florence and Rome until the new direct line between Dosso- 
buono (see below) and Bologna is completed. 

Verona, see p. 207. The line traverses a rich plain, dotted with 
trees. Near Mantua are fields of rice. — 7 M. Dossobuono. 

Dossobuono is the junction of a new direct line to Bologna, still un- 
finished, and of the Verona and Rovigo Railway (6272 M., in 372 hrs.). 
Stations unimportant. — 3372 M. Legnago , a town of 3500 inhab., for- 
tified by the Austrians after 1815 to defend the passage of the Adige, is 
also a station on the Mantua and Monselice line (p. 225). It was the birth- 
place of Giov. Bait. Cavalcaselle (1S27-97), the art critic. — 6272 M. Rovigo, 
see p. 334. 

11 M. Villafranca di Verona (Alb. del Sole), with a ruined castle 
of the Scaligers, where the preliminaries of a peace between France 

\ ■— — — 


MANTUA. 38. Route. 221 

and Austria were concluded on 11th July, 1859, after the battle of 
Solferino. About 5 M. to the N.W. lies Custozza, where the Italians 
were defeated by the Austrians in 1848 and 1866. A monument 
to the fallen was erected here in 1879. — l^ 1 /^ M. Mozzecane; 
18 M. Roverbella; 23 M. S. Antonio Mantovano. 

The train now passes the Citadel of Mantua, where Andreas 
Hofer, the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by the French on 20th Feb., 
1810. The citadel and the town are connected by the Argine Mu- 
lino (a bridge constructed in 1257), which divides the lakes formed 
here by the Mincio into the Lago Superiore (W.) and the Lago di 
Mezzo (E.). 

25y 2 M. Mantua. Station to the W. of the town (PI. A, 3, 4). 

Mantua. — Hotels. Aquila (TOro, Via Sogliari (PI. B, 3), R., L., & A. 
3 ! /2, omn. z j\ fr., well spoken of; *Senonek , near the post-office, also 
restaurant, with electric light, II. 2, omn. V2 fr- — Travellers should avoid 
spending a night at Mantua in summer, as the mosquitoes are troublesome. — 
A stay of 4-5 hrs. is enough to give an idea of this interesting town. The 
traveller should engage a cab at the station for 1 hr., drive to the (12 min.) 
Palazzo del Te, which may be seen in 72 h f -i anQ then to S. Andrea or 
the Cathedral. 

Cafe: Gaffk. Veneziano, near the church of Sanf Andrea-, Gommercio, 
Piazza Purgo. 

Photographs at Premfs, Portico S. Carlo 4, opposite the Aquila d"Oro. 

Post Office, Via della Posta, near the Via Sogliari (Pi. B, 3). 

Cab per drive 75c, first hr. 1 fr. 50c, each following 72 hr. 50c. 

Mantua (70 ft.), Ital. Mantova, a very ancient town founded by the 
Etruscans, with 28,000 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a provincial capital 
and a strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago 
Superiore, on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago 
Inferiore, and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land, which in case 
of a siege can be laid under water. 

Mantua is mentioned in ancient times as the home of Virgil, who was 
born at the ancient Andes (supposed to have occupied the site of the present 
village of Pietole, 3 M. to the S.E., where a monument was erected to 
him in 1884), but it was not a place of importance till the middle ages. 
In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town embraced the cause 
of the Guelphs. In 1328 the citizens elected Luigi, Lord of Oonzaga , as 
'Capitano del Popolo'', and to his dynasty the town owed its prosperity. 
The Gonzagas fought successfully agaiust Milan and Venice, and extended 
their territory, while they were liberal patrons of art and science. Gio- 
vanni Francesco II. (1407-44), the first marquis, invited the learned Vit- 
iorino da Feltre to Mantua, and through him made his court a renowned 
centre of culture and education. The beautiful and accomplished Isabella 
d'Este (1474-1539), sister of Alphonso, Duke of Ferrara, and mother of 
Eleonora of Urbino, was the wife of Giovanni Francesco III. (1484-1519). 
She carried on a lively correspondence with the most eminent men of her 
time, and with judicious taste collected valuable books , pictures, and 
antiquities. In 1530 Federigo II. (d. 1540) was raised to the rank of duke 
by Charles V., and in 1536 he was invested with the marquisate of Monte- 
ferrato; a monument of his reign is the Palazzo del Te (p. 225). In 1627, 
when Charles de Nevers, a member of a French collateral line, ascended 
the throne, the Mantuan war of succession broke out, and Emperor Fer- 
dinand III. declared the fief forfeited. On 18th July, 1630, Mantua was 
stormed and sacked by the Austrians. Although the emperor, hard pressed 
by the Swedes, was obliged to conclude peace in 1631, the town never 

222 Route 38. MANTUA. 8. Andrea. 

recovered from this blow. Carlo IV., the last duke, taking the French 
side in the Spanish war of succession, was declared an outlaw in 1703; 
Monteferrato was awarded to Piedmont, and Mantua to Austria, of whose 
supremacy in Italy it became the chief support. After a long and obstinate 
defence by General Wurmser the fortress capitulated to the French on 2nd 
February, 1797. By the Peace of Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua 
although deprived of the rest of Lombardy, but they were compelled to 
cede it to Italy in 1866. 

In the history of Architecture Mantua is of importance on account 
of the buildings of Leon Battista Alberti (p. 420), one of the greatest archi- 
tects of the Renaissance (churches of S. Andrea and S. Sebastiano). 
— Mantua also witnessed the labours of two great Renaissance Paint- 
ers. Andrea Mantegna (p. 232) entered the service of Lodovico Gon- 
zaga in 1463. In vigour of conception and in the fidelity of his char- 
acters he rivals his best contemporaries, while he surpasses them in ac- 
curacy of perspective and in his refined taste for beauty of landscape. He 
died at Mantua in 1506, and was succeeded as court-painter in the follow- 
ing year by Lorenzo Costa (comp. pp. 337, 344). When Raphael's pupils 
were dispersed after his death, Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the greatest of 
them, settled at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputation as an ar- 
chitect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town of Giulio Ro- 
mano 1 . After the example of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he com- 
posed mythological decorative paintings , which , though far inferior to 
their prototype, attract by the richness of the motives and sensuous mag- 
nificence of composition, and are important owing to the influence they 
exercised on later art. Primaliccio and Niccolb deW Abbate, pupils of 
Giulio Romano who were educated here, were afterwards summoned to 
Fontainebleau, and thus formed a link between the French and the Italian 
Renaissance. Giulio Romano's works must also have influenced the style 
of Rubens, who spent several years at Mantua. 

The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the 
Via Sogliaki (PI. B, 3), continued westwards by the Corso di Porta 
Pradella, now Vitt. Emanuele (leading to the rail, station), and to 
the Piazza delle (PI. C, 3), to the E. of the former street. 
In this piazza, where a Statue of Dante was erected in 1871, are 
situated the principal churches. 

*Sant' Andrea (PI. C, 3^), a church of imposing proportions, was 
begun in 1472 from designs by the Florentine Leon Battista Alberti, 
but afterwards much altered, while the present dome was not added 
till 1782. The white marble facade, with its spacious portico, is 
classic in style ; adjoining it is a square tower of red brick, with an 
elegant octagonal superstructure and a Gothic spire. 

The Interior, 110 yds. in length, is covered with massive barrel 
vaulting, the sunk panels partly painted. The 1st chapel on the left contains 
frescoes by Franc. Mantegna (1516); the tomb of the painter Andrea Man- 
tegna (d. 1506), with his bust in bronze by Bart, di Virgilio Meglioli (not 
Sperandio); also three paintings of the School of Mantegna, Holy Family, 
Baptism of Christ, and Pieta (restored in 1890). — 2nd Chap, on the left : 
Altar-piece, Madonna enthroned and saints, by Lorenzo Costa (1525; much 
damaged). — 1st Chap, on the right : Arrivabene, St. Anthony admonishing 
the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1846). At the sides, Hell, Purgatory, and 
Paradise, from Dante, by B. Pagni (1570). — 3. Cappella 8. Longino, on 
the left: Sarcophagus with the inscription: 'Longini ejus, qui latus 
Christi percussit, ossa\ On the right is the sarcophagus of Gregorius of 
Nazianzus. The frescoes, designed by Giulio Romano, represent the Cru- 
cifixion; below is Longinus; on the opposite side, the finding of the 
sacred blood , of which the saint is said to have brought some drops 
hither. — The Right Transept contains the monument of Bishop An- 

Corte Reale. MANTUA. 38. Route. 223 

dreasi (d. 1549), executed in 1551 by dementi, a pupil of Michael Angelo. 
The swan is the heraldic emblem of Mantua. — Left Transept. Chapel 
on the left: (right) Monument of Pietro Strozzi (1529), with caryatides, 
designed by Giulio Romano (best seen from the middle of the nave). The 
other monument, with recumbent figure of Count Andreasi, was also de- 
signed by G. Romano. — Choir: Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a fresco by 
Anselmi, an imitator of Correggio, in the apse. In the corner to the left 
by the high-altar is the kneeling figure of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder 
of the church. The Crypt, beneath the high-altar, where the drops of the 
sacred blood were preserved, contains a marble crucifix and a statue of 
the Madonna and Child carved in wood. 

A little farther on is the Piazza Sordello (PL C, 2), in the 
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the 
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile, 
and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas. 

The Cathedral of S. Pietro (PI. C, D, 2), with double aisles, 
domed transept, and two rows of domed chapels, has a baroque facade 
(1756) and an unfinished Romanesque tower. The interior, skil- 
fully remodelled from designs by Qiulio Romano, has a fine fret- 
ted ceiling. On the left of the entrance is an ancient Christian 
sarcophagus, and on the right of the passage leading to the Cappella 
dell' Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1587. In the Chapel of 
the Sacrament (at the end of the left aisle) is a painting (on the 
right) by Paolo Farinato of Verona, St. Martin of Tours. 

The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas, now called the *Corte Reale (PI. D,2), and partly 
used as barracks. Begun in 1302 by Ouido Buonacolsi, it was after- 
wards altered and embellished with frescoes by Oiulio Romano by 
order of Federigo II. 

The custodian is to be found under the second large arched gateway 
to the left (fee 1 fr.). On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing 
portraits of the Gonzagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze deli/ Impera- 
trice, once hung with Raphael's tapestry (now at Vienna; copies of the 
hangings in the Vatican). The Dining Room is adorned with allegorical 
figures of the rivers and lakes around Mantua; the windows look into a 
garden on the same level. The Sala dello Zodiaco has allegorical and 
mythological representations of the signs of the zodiac by Giulio Romano. 
Napoleon I. once slept in the next room. Then three Stanze dell 1 Im- 
peratore, containing copies of the tapestry formerly here, painted by 
Canepi. The Picture Gallery contains nothing worthy of note •, to the 
left, by the door, a good bust of a Gonzaga by Bernini. The Ball Room 
(Sala degli Specchi) is embellished with frescoes by the pupils of Giulio 
Romano. — In another part of the palace is the charming Camerino 
C Paradiso ') of Isabella d'Este (p. 221); in an adjoining room, her motto, 
'nee spe nee metu\ We observe here particularly the intarsia, the beauti- 
ful reliefs on the marble-door, and the delicate ceiling-decoration. We 
next pass through richly decorated rooms, some in sad disrepair: the 
Sala dei Giuramento del Primo Capitano ; two rooms with wooden 
ceilings; a small apartment with stucco-work by Primaticcio ; the Sala di 
Troja, with frescoes by Giulio Romano (much restored); the Sala dei 
Marmi, so called from the busts it once contained; lastly a Loggia, with 
a view of the lake. The Dwarfs' Apartments , adapted to the size of 
their inmates, are also worthy of a visit. 

On the N.E. side of the palace is the Reale Teatro di Corte 
(PI. D, 2). The vaulted passage between the two leads to the Piazza 

224 Route 38. MANTUA. Museum. 

della Fiera, in which rises the Castello di Corte (PL D, 2), the 

old castle of the Gonzagas. 

Part of the castle is now used as Archives (open during office-hours 
only; gratuity 1/2 fr.). Most of the frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (1474) 
which once adorned the rooms are obliterated, but those on two walls 
of the Camera degli Sposi (first floor), which are among his finest creations, 
were badly restored in 1877. Three scenes on the entrance-wall represent 
*Ludovico Gonzaga meeting his son Cardinal Francesco near Rome. Above 
the door is a tablet with an inscription, borne by beautiful *Putti with 
butterflies 1 wings. On the other wall is the Family of the Gonzagas with 
their court: on the left, Lodovico Gonzaga with his wife Barbara. On 
the ceiling are portraits of Roman emperors in grisaille; on the pendentives 
are small mythological scenes-, and in the centre is an illusive painting 
of an apparent opening, at which Cupids and girls are listening. 

To the S. of the Corte Reale, and belonging to the same impos- 
ing pile of buildings, is the church of Santa Barbara (PL D, 2), 
a handsome Renaissance building by Giov. Batt. Bertano (1565), 
a pupil of GHulio Romano. Over the high-altar, the Beheading of 
St. Barbara, by Bom. Brusasorci. By the same master are the angel 
musicians on the wall to the left and angels with torches on the 
right. The organ - wings and two pictures over side - altars were 
painted by Lor. Costa the Younger. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a vast space, planted with trees 
and bounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N. (drill-ground), called 
the Piazza Virgiliana (PL C, 2), with a handsome arena, the 
Teatro Virgiliano, beyond which, from the parapet towards the Lago 
di Mezzo, a view of the Alps is obtained. Adjoining the Piazza delle 
Erbe (p. 222) on the N.E. is the little Piazza Broletto, from which 
a long vaulted passage leads to the Piazza Alighieri, with a monu- 
ment of Dante (1871). In this square is the — 

Accademia Virgiliana di Scienze e Belle Arti (PL D, 3), with a 
facade restored in 1891, containing frescoes, sculptures, and casts of 
little value. Behind it is the Liceo, with a Library (a room in the 
upper story of which contains, above the doors, an early work by 
Rubens, cut into two parts, representing the Gonzaga family, rever- 
ing the Trinity; 1604) and the Museum [Museo Civico; PL 0, 3). 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques from Rome. By 
the entrance, "336. Bust of Euripides ; 2. Replica of Praxiteles's bust of 
Eubuleus, the Eleusinian infernal deity, erroneously called Virgil ; 3. Julia 
Domna; 5. Torso of Minarva; 12. Marcus Aurelius; 13. Leda; 16. Sarco- 
phagus with Medea in relief; 25. Faustina (given by Mantegna to Isabella 
d'Este); *26. Torso of Eros (Greek); 27. Antoninus Pius; 31. Greek tomb 
relief, funeral supper and sacrifice; 36. Female torso; 38. Domitian; 
37. Hadrian; 43. Satyr and Nymph (Greek); 46. Matidia; 58. Fragment 
of a Greek altar; 56. Sarcophagus relief, destruction of Troy; 60, 62. 
Tiberius; 64. Livia(?); *69. Sarcophagus reliefs (marriage, sacrifices, 
and barbarians before an emperor). In the middle: 198. Torso of Venus, 
on an altar with Bacchic figures ; 176. Sleeping Cupid (modern). — In 
the adjoining room , on the right , the so-called 'seat of Virgil' and in- 
scriptions. We now return to the hall. Window-wall, 148. Greek tomb 
relief. Side-wall, 161. Attic tomb-relief; 158, 164. Bacchic reliefs; 174. 
Relief with attributes of Jupiter; 172. Lid of sarcophagus; 171. Sarco- 
phagus relief, Endymion; 180. Torso of a warrior (Greek) ; 187. Sarcophagus 
relief, vintage; 186. Fight between Romans and Gauls; 188, 190. Roman 

Pal. del Te. MANTUA. 38. Route. 225 

portrait-busts ; 192. Marcus Aurelius as a boy wearing the cap of the Salii •, 
*20l. Torso of Venus ; 219. Flute-playing Satyr ; 269, 276. Greek tomb-reliefs. 
— In the centre, 5 210. Apollo, a marble copy of a Greek bronze of the 
5th cent. B.C.; below, reliefs of Cupids-, 225. Attic sepulchral urn; 237. 
Youthful Hermes (portrait statue). — By the wall : 2S1. Head of Aphro- 
dite; 287. Homer; 309. Greek tomb-relief; 318. Sarcophagus relief, Venus 
and Adonis ; 328. Muse as Caryatide ; 333. Lucius Verus. — The lower 
rooms of the Accademia contain sculptures, including interesting busts in 
terracotta, and a relief with two portraits from a chimney-piece. 

The neighbouring Museo Patrio contains prehistoric and medi- 
aeval objects, with a few antiques. 

Near the Porta Pusterla is S. Sebastiano (PI. B, 4; no ad- 
mission), the earliest Renaissance church built in the shape of a 
Greek cross, erected in 1459 from the designs of Leon.Batt. Alberti. 

Outside the gate is the *Palazzo del Te (PI. A, B, 5; contracted 
from Tajetto), erected by Oiulio Romano , and containing his 
frescoes and grotesques, specially interesting for the skill with 
which they are adapted to the size, shape, and purposes of the 
rooms (fee 1 fr.). 

Antechamber, to the right of the entrance, Sun and Moon. 1st Room 
to the left, the favourite Horses of Duke Frederick Gonzaga. — 2nd Boom, 
*Myth of Psyche and Bacchanalians (the latter restored, the upper paint- 
ings are in better preservation). Opposite the entrance, Polyphemus. — 
3bd Room, in the lower ovals, Fishing, Market-place, Gladiatorial combats, 
etc. On the ceiling, mythological and symbolical subjects, and represent- 
ation of the zodiac. — 4th Room, Fall of Phaeton and many smaller pictures ; 
also imitations of ancient busts. Then a fine open ''Loggia, and several 
rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco (Triumphal procession of Emp. 
Sigismund, and Children) by Primaticcio; next the Sala de" Oiganti, ex- 
tolled by Vasari, with walls fantastically adapted to the painting, which 
was executed chiefly by Rinaldo Mantovano, but has been much restored 
(representing the Fall of the Giants, figures 14 ft. in height). Lastly several 
Cabinets, with charming Raphaelite decoration, and an oblong bath-room 
with shell-ornamentation. 

On the other side of the garden is the Casino delta Grotta , with its 
exquisite little rooms and its grotto encircling a small garden. 

Oiulio Romano's House, and the Pal. delta Oiustizia built by 

him, with its colossal Hermae, are No. 14, Via Carlo Poma (PI. A, B,4). 

From Mantua to Cremona, see p. 180. Tramways to Brescia (p. 187),